Zoonotic Diseases By Imran
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Disease caused by Animals

Disease caused by Animals

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Zoonotic Diseases By Imran Presentation Transcript

  • 1.  
  • 2. Zoonotic Diseases (Disease caused by Animals ) A zoonosis is any infectious disease that is transmitted by a vector from non-human animals , both wild and domestic, to humans or from humans to non-human animals (Reverse Zoonoses)
  • 3. Types of Zoonoses
      • BACTERIAL DISEASES PARASITIC DISEASES
      • Brucellosis Balisascaris procyonis
      • Bubonic Plaque
      • Leptospirosis
      • Psittacosis PROTOZOAN DISEASES
      • Salmonellosis Giardiasis
      • Tetanus Toxoplasmosis
      • Tularemia
      • MYCOTIC DISEASES TICK BORNE DISEASES
      • Aspergillosis Lyme Disease
      • Histoplasmosis Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever
      • VIRAL DISEASES
      • Rabies
  • 4. TULAREMIA
    • Pahvant Valley plague , rabbit fever , deer fly fever , Ohara's fever
    • Francisella tularensis ( g ram-negative , non-motile coccobacillus )
    • primary vectors are ticks and deer flies
    • Rodents , rabbits, and hares - reservoir hosts
    • biting flies , direct contact with contaminated animals or material,
    • by ingestion of poorly cooked flesh of infected animals or contaminated water,
  • 5. Clinical Manifestations
    • Depending on the site of infection
    • Ulceroglandular - local ulceration at a site of infection
    • Oropharyngeal - Sores in the mouth and throat, as well as abdominal pain , nausea and vomiting, ulcers in the intestine, intestinal bleeding, and diarrhea may all occur.
    • pneumonic-
    • Oculoglandular - swollen eyelids, conjunctivitis, swollen lymph nodes, and ulcers on the conjunctivae.
    • Typhoidal - swelling of lymph glands with continuously high fever, terrible headache , and confusion.
    • The illness may result in a severely low blood pressure, with signs of poor blood flow to the major organs (shock).
  • 6.
    • IP 1 – 14 days
    • Susceptible persons - clinical signs include fever, lethargy, anorexia, signs of septicemia, and possibly death
    • Subclinical infections are common and animals often develop specific antibodies to the organism.
    • Fever is moderate or very high and tularemia bacillus can be isolated from blood cultures at this stage .
    • Face and eyes redden and become inflammed
    • Inflammation spreads to the lymph nodes - enlarge and may suppurate (mimicking bubonic plague).
    • Lymph node involvement - accompanied by high fever.
    • Death occurs in less than 1% if therapy is initiated promptly
  • 7.
    • Diagnosis
      • Skin lesions samples – staining
      • Buffered Charcoal and Yeast Extract (BCYE)
      • Serological tests for detection of antibodies
  • 8.
    • Treatment
        • Streptomycin - muscle
        • gentamicin - Injected in muscle or through a needle in the vein
        • Doxycycline for 2–3 weeks
        • Live vaccine is a available but restricted due to high risk
    • Prevention
      • avoiding areas known to harbor ticks and flies
      • Hunters should wear gloves when skinning animals or preparing meat
  • 9.
    • Yersinia pestis – Gr negative rod shape, anaerobe
    • Flea borne
    • enters through the skin and travels through the lymhatics
    PUBONIC PLAQUE
  • 10. Pathology and transmission
    • infection of the lymphatic system, usually resulting from the bite of an infected flea, Xenopsyla cheopis (the rat flea )
    • fleas often found on rodents (rats and mice )
    • bacteria form aggregates in the gut of infected fleas , results in the flea regurgitating ingested blood , which is infected into the bite site of a rodent or human host
    • bacteria rapidly spread to the lymph nodes and multiply
  • 11.
    • Y. pestis resist phagocytosis and multiply in phagocytes and kill them
    • the lymph nodes can hemorrhage and become swollen and necrotic
    • Bubonic plaque changed into septicemic plaque
    • Pneumonic plaque- spread to plaque
    • Organisms can spreads by droplets (sneezing / coughing)
  • 12. Symptoms
    • Bubonic plaque
      • painful, swollen lymph glands (buboes )
      • Commonly found in groin, armpits & neck
      • First stage of series illness
    • pneumonic and septicemic
      • patient with the bubonic plague developed pneumonia or blood poisoning .
      • Pneumonic plaque induces coughing
    • Symptoms like red spots which turn black later
  • 13.
    • heavy breathing,
    • continuous blood vomiting,
    • urination of blood, aching limbs, coughing, and terrible pain.
    • pain caused by the actual decaying, or decomposing, of the skin while the person is still alive
  • 14.
    • Prevention
      • Active Immunization
      • Avoid contactwith infected persons/animals
    • Treatment
      • Aminoglycosides streptomycin
      • Doxycyline
      • Gentamycin
      • Fluroquinolone ciprofloxain
  • 15. Psittacosis
  • 16.
    • parrot disease , parrot fever , and ornithosis
    • Chlamydophila psittaci – gram negative
    • Spreads from parrots, pigeons, hens, ducks
  • 17. Infection in birds
    • Infection in birds - avian chlamydiosis
    • Shed bacteria in feces and secretion viable for months
    • Certain strains quiescent until any stress conditions arised
    • Symptoms
      • Infection is systemic & apparent
      • Infection is severe, acute or chronic with intermittent shedding
      • inflamed eyes, difficulty in breathing, watery droppings and green urates
  • 18.
    • Infection spreads through
      • Droppings, feathers, eggs
      • infect mucosal epithelial cells and macrophages of the respiratory tract
      • Septecimia develops and localises in epithelial cells and M Ø’s of organs, conjunctiva, and gastrointestinal tract
    • Various serovars exist
      • Serovar A- humans, mammals, tortoises
      • Serovar B- pigeons
      • Serovar C & D- slaughter workers & close contact persons
      • Serovar E – not specific
  • 19.
    • Disease can be diagnosed
      • Through symptoms
      • Confirmed by antigen & antibody reaction
      • PCR based tests
      • false negatives are possible , so combination of clinical and lab tests is recommended
      • Infection is fatal & kills the bird in 3 weeks.
    • Treatment.
      • Doxycyline and Tetracycline in water/ injections
  • 20. Infection in Humans
    • IP 5 -14 days
    • In apparent to severe illness – pneumonia
    • Typhoid in Initial stages
    • prostrating high fever, arthralgias, diarrhoea, conjuctivitis, epistaxis and leukopenia
    • Rose spots occur – Horder’s spots
    • Spleenomegaly,
    • Severe head ache – indication of meningitis
  • 21.
    • During 2 week
      • Pneumonia with continuous high fevers, cough and dyspnoea
      • patchy infiltrates or a diffuse whiteout of lung fields
      • Blood show thrombocytopenia and liver enzymes
      • Myocarditis, arthritis, keratoconjuctivitis
  • 22.
    • Infection spreads to
      • Pet holders, pet shop owners, veterinarians , zoo keepers
    • Diagnosis made by
      • Microbial cultures – resiratory secretion
      • Four fold increase in Ab titres
    • Treatment
      • Tetracycline & Chlorampenicol
      • Oral doxycyline, tetracycline hydrocholride, chlorampenicol palmitate