Cloze Procedure Technique for the Improvement of Reading Comprehension
It is based on the principle of clozure in Gestalt psychology which asserts that in the process of learning, the individual imposes a pattern on his environment, that of relating parts to the whole, and filing in details where they are left out.
Cloze Procedure materials have become widely accepted as classroom tools for the improvement of reading comprehension.
Donald C. Richardson (1980), demonstrated its effectivity as a technique for the improvement of reading comprehension.
Goodman (1967), said that “Reading as a psycholinguistic guessing game”.
Implication of this principle in reading
Considered fundamental by reading specialist.
Efficient reader does not give equal attention to every single word in a state or passage.
They are capable of picking-out what is important, of distinguishing the essentials from the non essentials in a written communication text.
Purposes of teaching comprehension
It is designed to make the reader aware of and sensitive to the substance of a reading passage, in the sense that he must rely on syntactic clues to complete cloze materials.
By using context clues it can easily determine the words needed to complete correctly the sentences in the passage, the reader develops a more focused and semantic awareness.
It is distinct from testing or measuring readability, the cloze passages can be so sequenced such that they become progressively more difficult.
Points to observe when using cloze procedure to develop reading comprehension
Adapt or prepare cloze procedure or selection to specific needs, interest, vocabulary level of students and the objectives of the reading lesson. Carefully sequence passages or selections according to difficulty and length. To enhance student motivation, always state the purpose of the activity in which the cloze materials is being used. Always proceed the cloze passage or selection with brief, and clear directions on how to accomplish the exercise. Richardson (1980) gives the following suggestion in the preparation of the cloze materials for the improvement of comprehension.
Using a paragraph as a resource materials for the cloze exercise: Delete systematically every nth word, but leave either the vowels or the consonants. Delete every nth word , but leave the initial and the final letter of each word. Delete every nth word and provide three or four choices. B. Using a long passage: 1. Delete every nth word systematically but leave some letters.
Improvement comprehension through semantic webbing
Comprehension has often been called the teachers bugbear.
To comprehend means to understand the meaning not only of single words and sentences but also of the interrelationship among sentences.
Skills needed in order to comprehend and react to a selection
Getting the main idea.
Noting supporting details or proof sentences.
Finding cause and effect relationship.
Predicting outcomes .
4 levels of comprehension LITERAL COMPREHENSION = The who, what, where, and when. 2. CRITICAL COMPREHENTION = The how and why. 3. Interpretative 4. evaluative
What is semantic webbing?
FREEDMAN & REYNOLD (1980), define semantic webbing or mapping as a process of organizing and integrating information that underlies many theories of conceptual thinking.
Semantic webbing elicits from the students concepts of meaning which they themselves organize and integrate with the teachers help.
It represent the categories and relationship constructed from, the story content and from the students related knowledge and theories about the world.
Components of the basic model CORE QUESTION = Focus of the web and purpose of the inquiry. 2. WEB STRANDS = Are the answers which students give to the core question. 3. STRAND SUPPORTS = Are facts, inferences and generalizations that students take from the other. 4. STRAND TIES = Are the relationship that strands have for each other.
What are the basic steps in the semantic webbing process?
Set a purpose for reading which encourages the students to use a specific reading thinking strategy. Also decide what part of the story they will read. Prepare a table of selected reading-thinking strategies (RTS) that you want to develop and the reading units (RU) that may be used with each strategies. Formulate a core question based on the reading-thinking strategy and the reading unit. Elicits from the students possible answers to the core question. Build the web strand with the students support. Guide the students in relating the strands. Apply the web: to set purposes for further reading of the same story, for constructing other webs for the same story or for other stories or for bringing to life through art, drama, or role playing that relate web concepts to the knowledge and experience.