Kh ch#2 ppt.

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Kh ch#2 ppt.

  1. 1. Chapter 2: Developing Effective Groups & Teams <ul><li>WHAT ARE GROUPS? </li></ul><ul><li>- Interaction – this is the social actions that occur between individuals in a group. </li></ul><ul><li>- Goal interdependence : groups share accomplishing a common goal. </li></ul><ul><li>- Behavioral interdependence : each member influences and is influenced by other members as they work together to achieve that common goal. </li></ul><ul><li>- Context interdependence : members work within a particular environment which they influence, and which also has an influence on them. </li></ul><ul><li>- Structure – the group creates and identifies individual roles, group behavioral norms, values, and so forth. </li></ul><ul><li>Continued: </li></ul>
  2. 2. Chapter 2: Developing Effective Groups & Teams <ul><li>WHAT ARE GROUPS? </li></ul><ul><li>- All groups and teams are uniquely different , that is, the people that make them up, the conditions for which they exist, and the environment they exist in are all different from one another. </li></ul><ul><li>- When we study groups we look for particular characteristics and common properties such as interaction, interdependence, structure, cohesiveness , and goals. </li></ul><ul><li>interaction : this is the social actions that occur between individuals in a group. </li></ul><ul><li>Continued: </li></ul>
  3. 3. Chapter 2: Developing Effective Groups & Teams <ul><li>- interdependence : there are three criteria that mutually affect one another: </li></ul><ul><li>goal interdependence : groups share accomplishing a common goal. </li></ul><ul><li>behavioral interdependence : each member influences and is influenced by other members as they work together to achieve that common goal. </li></ul><ul><li>context interdependence : members work within a particular environment which they influence, and which also has an influence on them. </li></ul><ul><li>- structure: the group creates and identifies individual roles, group behavioral norms, values, and so forth. </li></ul><ul><li>Continued: </li></ul>
  4. 4. Chapter 2: Developing Effective Groups & Teams <ul><li>- cohesiveness – after a group is formed, it develops a type of character all of its own. </li></ul><ul><li>- goals – are the broader, general outcomes you want to see as a result of the group’s efforts. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Chapter 2: Developing Effective Groups & Teams <ul><li>WHY GROUPS OR TEAMS? </li></ul><ul><li>- Work-oriented groups : decision-making and problem-solving . </li></ul><ul><li>Decision-making groups make a choice among two or more </li></ul><ul><li>alternatives to solve a problem. </li></ul><ul><li>Problem-solving groups tackle problem solving - there is a gap between the current situation and a desired solution. </li></ul><ul><li>- Team building: creating an environment that fosters teamwork. </li></ul><ul><li>- Teamwork : cooperative behavior between group discussion members is positively reinforced.   </li></ul><ul><li>- The first question should be “ what’s the problem?” </li></ul><ul><li>- The second question should be “ what’s the best way to solve it?” </li></ul><ul><li>- The group or team provides “value-added work.” </li></ul>
  6. 6. Chapter 2: Developing Effective Groups & Teams <ul><li>THE NATURE OF GROUP DYNAMICS </li></ul><ul><li>- The field of group dynamics combines theory, research, and practice. </li></ul><ul><li>theory identifies the characteristics of effective groups. </li></ul><ul><li>research either confirms or disconfirms the theory. </li></ul><ul><li>practical procedures based on sound theory are implemented in the real world to see if they work. </li></ul><ul><li>- Group dynamics : the scientific study of behavior in groups to advance our knowledge about the nature of groups, group development, and the interrelations between groups and individuals, other groups, and larger entities. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Chapter 2: Developing Effective Groups & Teams <ul><li>MACRO-THEORIES OF GROUP DYNAMICS </li></ul><ul><li>- Kurt Lewin’s “field theory,” also known as force field analysis , comes from the idea that in order to explain behavior one must look at all dynamic interactions (behavior) between individuals and their environment; that all interactions influence outcomes. </li></ul><ul><li>- Robert F. Bales “Interaction Process Analysis” aims to explain the pattern of responses in which groups work toward a goal of a group decision-making problem. </li></ul><ul><li>- George C. Homans “Systems Theory of Informal Work Groups” sought to establish a general statement about human behavior that could be used to form increasingly more general sociological theories. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Chapter 2: Developing Effective Groups & Teams <ul><li>GROUPS AND SYSTEMS </li></ul><ul><li>- General system theory : developed by biologist Ludwig von Bertalanffy in 1936, is a way to think about and study the multidisciplinary approaches to knowledge. </li></ul><ul><li>- Four basic system models : </li></ul><ul><li>open system: is defined as an organized set of interrelated and interacting parts that attempts to maintain its own balance amid the influences from its surrounding environment. </li></ul><ul><li>closed system – a system that has fixed and impervious boundaries that does not allow for much interaction between itself and its environment. </li></ul><ul><li>Continued: </li></ul>
  9. 9. Chapter 2: Developing Effective Groups & Teams <ul><li>GROUPS AND SYSTEMS </li></ul><ul><li>static system – neither system elements nor the system itself changes much over time in relation to the environment. </li></ul><ul><li>dynamic system – the system constantly changes the environment and is changed by the environment. </li></ul><ul><li>- Basic principles of a systems approach to groups: </li></ul><ul><li> nonsummativity : a system is greater than the sum of its parts . </li></ul><ul><li> subsystem : is a self-contained unit, it is a part of a wider and higher order, and can be understood only within the context of the entire system. </li></ul><ul><li>Continued: </li></ul>
  10. 10. Chapter 2: Developing Effective Groups & Teams <ul><li>GROUPS AND SYSTEMS </li></ul><ul><li>information systems : groups rely on information as their primary resource. </li></ul><ul><li>interrelated and mutually influential: systems do not work in a vacuum, they must exist within some type of environment or context. </li></ul><ul><li>planned set of objectives and their relationships: Objectives are targets that input, process, and output are directed. </li></ul><ul><li>goal-directed , governed by feedback , and have the ability to adapt to change : strives to achieve a common goal; Feedback monitors the effectiveness and the efficiency of the various parts of the system; the system positively responds to its environment. </li></ul><ul><li>Continued: </li></ul>
  11. 11. Chapter 2: Developing Effective Groups & Teams <ul><li>GROUPS AND SYSTEMS </li></ul><ul><li>self-regulation and control : groups are goal-oriented and regulate their behavior to achieve those goals. </li></ul><ul><li> equilibrium , also referred to as balance or homeostasis : is self- maintenance; the system monitors itself to ensure that it is always in balance. </li></ul><ul><li>- The function of a system is to process energy, information , or materials into a product or outcome for use within the system, or outside of the system (the environment) or both. </li></ul><ul><li>- All systems have common elements : boundary, input, throughput, output, process, feedback, control, environment, and a goal. </li></ul><ul><li>Continued: </li></ul>
  12. 12. Chapter 2: Developing Effective Groups & Teams <ul><li>GROUPS AND SYSTEMS </li></ul><ul><li>boundary – the line or point where a system or subsystem can be differentiated from its environment or from other subsystems. </li></ul><ul><li>input – is the energy of group members and information used by the system. </li></ul><ul><li>throughput – is the processes used by the system to convert information from the environment into products that are usable by either the system or the environment. </li></ul><ul><li>output – the product which results from the system’s processing of information. </li></ul><ul><li>Continued: </li></ul>
  13. 13. Chapter 2: Developing Effective Groups & Teams <ul><li>GROUPS AND SYSTEMS </li></ul><ul><li>process – the processes used to convert information into a final report that is usable by either the system itself or the environment. </li></ul><ul><li>feedback – information about some aspect of data, members, environment, or the process that can be used to evaluate and monitor the system to guide it to more effective performance. </li></ul><ul><li>control – the activities and processes used to evaluate input, throughput, and output in order to make corrections. </li></ul><ul><li>environment – the external conditions, resources, stimuli, people, and so forth, that influence group function. </li></ul><ul><li>Continued: </li></ul>
  14. 14. Chapter 2: Developing Effective Groups & Teams <ul><li>GROUPS AND SYSTEMS </li></ul><ul><li>goals - are the broader, general outcomes you want to see as a result of the group’s efforts. </li></ul><ul><li>entropy – the tendency for a system to develop order and energy over time. </li></ul><ul><li>equifinality – there is more than one way that objectives can be achieved with varying inputs. </li></ul>
  15. 15. Chapter 2: Developing Effective Groups & Teams <ul><li>INITIAL ELEMENTS IN GROUP SYSTEMS </li></ul><ul><li>- Individual Members : each member is unique. They have their own personality, self-esteem, personal needs, abilities, values, attitudes, ethnicity, and socio-cultural-economic background. </li></ul><ul><li>- Group size : a rule of thumb places the optimum group size between five and seven members. </li></ul><ul><li>- Group Charge : groups come together for a purpose. They are formed for reasons that provide a collective goal which should unify members. </li></ul><ul><li>- Group Record: a group record is the history of the past work by the group. </li></ul>
  16. 16. Chapter 2: Developing Effective Groups & Teams <ul><li>ROLES IN GROUPS </li></ul><ul><li>Types of Roles </li></ul><ul><li>- Role is a name we give to a complex of many different kinds of behavioral observations. </li></ul><ul><li>- Two basic categories of roles: formal and informal . </li></ul><ul><li>A formal role is a position either assigned by an organization or specifically designated by the group itself. </li></ul><ul><li>An informal role is a result of group transactions that emphasize functions, not positions like formal roles. </li></ul><ul><li>Task roles ( activities) are performative , they move the group toward goal achievement. </li></ul><ul><li>Continued: </li></ul>
  17. 17. Chapter 2: Developing Effective Groups & Teams <ul><li>ROLES IN GROUPS </li></ul><ul><li>Types of Roles </li></ul><ul><li>maintenance roles ( interactions ) are the relationships which the activity of one member of the group has to that of another, they are the communication behaviors that occur between people in performing those tasks. </li></ul><ul><li>self-centered , serve individual needs or goals while, at the same time, disrupting or impeding group goal achievement. </li></ul>
  18. 18. Chapter 2: Developing Effective Groups & Teams <ul><li>ROLES IN GROUPS </li></ul><ul><li>Types of Roles </li></ul><ul><li>Types of Task Roles: </li></ul><ul><li>Initiating-contributing (orienting) : proposes new ideas or suggestions for rethinking the group goal or new directions on problem-solving techniques. </li></ul><ul><li>Information giver : considers themselves a well-spring of information; offering facts and information, and personal experiences relevant to the group’s charge. </li></ul><ul><li>Information seeking : seeks clarifications; authoritative information and facts relevant to the problem, evidence; seeks suggestions and ideas from others. </li></ul><ul><li>Continued: </li></ul>
  19. 19. Chapter 2: Developing Effective Groups & Teams <ul><li>ROLES IN GROUPS </li></ul><ul><li>Types of Roles </li></ul><ul><li>Types of Task Roles: </li></ul><ul><li>Opinion seeker : asks for viewpoints and opinions from others; states beliefs, values, judgments, and conclusions. </li></ul><ul><li>Clarifier-Elaborator: expands on suggestions made by others with examples and anecdotal evidence of their own; explains what others have said. </li></ul><ul><li>Coordinator : indicates relationships between facts and ideas; tries to combine ideas and suggestions; organizes the group’s work; promotes teamwork and cooperation. </li></ul><ul><li>Continued: </li></ul>
  20. 20. Chapter 2: Developing Effective Groups & Teams <ul><li>ROLES IN GROUPS </li></ul><ul><li>Types of Roles </li></ul><ul><li>Types of Task Roles: </li></ul><ul><li>Recorder ( Summarizer) : takes notes, prepares minutes, and reviews what has been previously said; serves as the group recorder of discussions. </li></ul><ul><li>Leader-Director: manages group process; keeps group on track and moving toward its goal; mediates problems within the group. </li></ul><ul><li>Procedural assistant : facilitates group progress by performing incidental duties such as handing out materials, making sure that there are refreshments, etc. </li></ul>
  21. 21. Chapter 2: Developing Effective Groups & Teams <ul><li>ROLES IN GROUPS </li></ul><ul><li>Types of Roles </li></ul><ul><li>Types of Maintenance Roles: </li></ul><ul><li>Establishing norms: offering a behavioral code of conduct for members; challenges inappropriate and unproductive behavior; rebukes members when they violate those norms. </li></ul><ul><li>Ecourager-supporter : is the cheerleader for the group; a morale building; provides praise and acceptance of members; encourages full member participation and tolerance of diverse thought; recognizes the value of others. </li></ul><ul><li>Continued: </li></ul>
  22. 22. Chapter 2: Developing Effective Groups & Teams <ul><li>ROLES IN GROUPS </li></ul><ul><li>Types of Roles </li></ul><ul><li>Harmonizer: keeps the peace; mediated member differences; tries to reconcile disagreement; uses humor to reduce tension in times of conflict; suggests compromise or new alternatives; placates angry members. </li></ul><ul><li>Gatekeeper : controls the flow of information and channels of communication; encourages or limits participation; promotes open discussion. </li></ul><ul><li>Supporter : concurs with the position of another member; advocates their ideas and proposals. </li></ul>
  23. 23. Chapter 2: Developing Effective Groups & Teams <ul><li>ROLES IN GROUPS </li></ul><ul><li>Types of Roles </li></ul><ul><li>Types of Self-centered Roles : </li></ul><ul><li>Aggressor : criticizes and attempts to diminish the contributions of others. </li></ul><ul><li>Withdrawing : the opposite of aggression. </li></ul><ul><li>Blocking : preventing progress toward group goals by constantly raising objections. </li></ul><ul><li>Recognition seeker: dominates the discussion; boasts about self- achievements, expertise or experience. </li></ul>

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