Behaviorism The prediction and control of human behavior in which introspection and/or independent thinking play no essential part of it’s teaching method. Operates on a principle of “stimulus-response.” All behavior is caused by an external stimuli. Human learning is considered a purely objective and experimental branch of natural science. No internal cognitive processing.
Ivan Pavlov (1849-1936) Famous for his behavioral experiments with dogs. Used classical conditioning teach dogs to salivate when rang a bell. Classical Conditioning- the natural reflex that occurs in response to a stimulus. http://4.bp.blogspot.com/_55anICIekBQ/Sbp8dPhn_KI/AAAAAAAAAR4/rskELBleH9A/s400/Ivan_Pavlov.jpg
B.F. Skinner (1904-1990) Famous for his experiments with pigeons. Used operant conditioning to teach pigeons how to engage in complex tasks such as dancing & bowling. Operant Conditioning- learning that is controlled and results in shaping behavior through reinforcement of stimulus response patterns. http://www.psychology.uiowa.edu/Faculty/wasserman/Glossary/skinner.jpg
Albert Bandura(1925-) Famous for his ideas on social learning which he renamed Social Cognitive Theory. Focuses on motivational factors and self-regulatory mechanisms that contribute to a person’s behavior. Believed that people acquire behaviors first through observation of others and then imitate what they have observed. http://news.stanford.edu/news/2006/february22/gifs/ppl_bandura.jpg
Classroom Implications for Teachers Teach through a system of positive and negative rewards. Use computer time effectively as a part of a behavior management system. Apply observational modeling extensively in the context of behavior modification.
Classroom Implications for Students Necessary conditions for effective modeling: Attention- students attention must be kept. Retention- students need to remember what they’re paying attention to. (Includes symbolic coding, mental images, cognitive organization, symbolic rehearsal, motor rehearsal) Reproduction- students need to be able to reproduce what they have learned. (Including physical capabilities, and self-observation of reproduction.) Motivation- students need to have a good reason to imitate the behavior modeled.
My opinion I think the behaviorist approach to teaching can be a very effective way for students to learn. However, not all students learn the same and I must adapt my teaching to the way the student learns. I think that using Bandura’s theory of observational modeling will be very effective in the grade I want to teach (pre-school/kindergarten) because kids that young do tend to model the behaviors of others.