Tyra the civil war presentationPresentation Transcript
The Civil War Unit 5 Tyra Turner AP U.S. History
North and South
Blockade of the South Ports
Battle of Bull Run
Battle of Antietam
War in the East and West
Battle of Gettysburg
Lincoln hoped to prevent a war. “We are not enemies, but friends,” Lincoln told Southerners after taking the oath of office. “ We must not be enemies.” But time was running out.
Abraham Lincoln is elected President of the United states. During the election, he had spoken out strongly against the spread of slavery and hoped that one day it would end.
The Divided Union
When Abraham Lincoln, was elected president, South Carolina was worried. Their delegates voted to remove the state of South Carolina from the United States of America. They were followed by the secession of six more states; Mississippi, Florida, Alabama, Georgia, Louisiana, and Texas. The border states of Virginia, Arkansas, Tennessee, and North Carolina soon followed.
These eleven states eventually formed the Confederate States of America.
A New Country Formed
Feb 9, 1861 - The Confederate States of America is formed with Jefferson Davis, a West Point graduate and former U.S. Army officer, as president.
The Civil war broke out between the North and South in 1861
Following the outbreak of war at Fort Sumter, Americans chose sides
The union and the confederacy prepared for war.
Fort Sumter Attacked
The attack on the fort
Davis ordered a surprise attack before the supplies could arrive.
April 12, 1861 - At 4:30 a.m. Confederates under Gen. Pierre Beauregard open fire with 50 cannons upon Fort Sumter in Charleston, South Carolina. The Civil War begins.
Lincoln had to make an important decision. He made the decision he thought would be best.
Lincoln would not surrender the fort, but would send food and other nonmilitary supplies.
Jefferson Davis would decide whether to attack and go to war or allow the symbol of federal authority to remain.
Commander Robert Anderson sent the message to Lincoln that Confederate leaders were demanding surrender or would attack .
President Lincoln received word that supplies were running out at Fort Sumter, located off the coast of South Carolina. If supplies did not come soon, they would have to surrender the fort to the confederacy .
Fort Sumter Today Fort Sumter still stands today in South Carolina, and is a monument to remember where the first shot of the Civil War took place. These are some pictures of me visiting Fort Sumter.
Fort Sumter Today While visiting South Carolina for a Gymnastics meet, I had the opportunity to view the national monument museum of Fort Sumter.
The North had mostly drafted soldiers with overly cautious officers
Differences between northern and southern states: North South __________ economy industrial free __________ economy agricultural slave “ _____ states” “ _____ states”
Advantages and Disadvantages of the North and South
Blockade against Southern Ports
President Lincoln used the Union to blockade the Southern Ports
Control of Seas
Union navy controlled the sea and blockaded southern ports.
The southern economy was hurt because the South was prevented from selling and receiving goods.
Some small, fast ships got through the blockade, but the number of ships entering southern ports was reduced from 6,000 to 800 a year.
Spread of war
Fighting in the Civil War spread to the western United States.
Union strategy in the West centered on control of the Mississippi River.
Confederate and Union troops struggled for dominance in the Far West
Union strategy in the West centered on control of the Mississippi River.
Ulysses S. Grant was commander of Union forces in West
Bold and restless, he wanted to attack.
Western campaign focused on taking control of Mississippi River.
Would cut off eastern part of Confederacy from food sources in West
Union could use bases along the Mississippi to attack communication and transportation networks.
Grant’s Army of Tennessee captured Confederate forts on Tennessee and Cumberland rivers in February 1862.
Both sides claimed victory in bloody two-day Battle of Shiloh in April 1862, but Grant’s forces had driven Confederates back into Mississippi
The Battle of Bull Run
The Union Army suffers a defeat at Bull Run.
Was the first major battle of the Civil War.
Fought in Manassas, Virginia.
Thomas J. Jackson played a major part in this war, and earned himself the nickname of “Stonewall”.
Union troops fall back to Washington and Lincoln realizes that the war will be long.
This battle showed both sides that new tactics would be necessary for victory. The Confederacy won several more battles in 1862, including the second battle of Bull Run.
The Battle of Antietam
Bloodiest single day of the in U.S. Military History
The Battle of Antietam
In 1862 General Lee decided to make an invasion of the North.
Lee and his army began the invasion in Maryland.
They were forced to fight in Sharpsburg, near Antietam Creek, on September 17.
The battle of Antietam was the bloodiest single day of the Civil War.
5,000 Soldiers were killed and another 18,000 wounded.
By the summer of 1862 Lincoln was convinced that he must take action against the institution of slavery.
He drafted and prepared to issue the Emancipation Proclamation.
This was put into action on January 1, 1863, announcing that slaves in states and part of states then in arms against the Union were to be “Then, thence forward, and forever free.”
Democratic Party opposed
Abolitionists said war was pointless without freedom for African Americans.
Some predicted it would anger voters.
On September 22, 1862, Lincoln issued Emancipation Proclamation, freeing slaves only in areas controlled by Confederacy, effective January 1, 1863.
African Americans gave thanks.
Some noted that system of slavery still existed.
Encouraged many enslaved African Americans to escape when Union troops came near.
Loss of slaves crippled the South’s ability to wage war.
Gettysburg was an important Northern victory. The confederate Army was cut down by almost 25%.
The Battle of Gettysburg
In the summer of 1863, Major General Fitzhugh Lee commander of the Cavalry Corps Army of Northern Virginia decided it was once again time for bold action, and Union morale was low.
With more than 70.000 men, Lee crossed the Potomac and charged across Maryland to Pennsylvania. Hooker’s army marched northward to head off the Confederates.
On July 1, 1863, the forces of Lee and Meade clashed at Gettysburg, Pennsylvania, in what was to prove the most decisive battle of the war.
Hooker resigned and was then replaced with General George G. Meade.
The war raged on for 3 whole days, and Lee was determined to hold his ground. The battle proved to be the turning point of the war, but still the bloody conflict was not finished.
The Battle of Gettysburg, one of the most critical battles of the war. 7,000 American died in the Gettysburg battle; another 44,000 were wounded.
Aftermath of Gettysburg
Gettysburg was the turning point of war—Lee would never again attack in the North.
Some 23,000 Union and 28,000 Confederate casualties
Victory came the day before the Union capture of Vicksburg.
Britain and France refused to aid South after Gettysburg.
Lincoln gave a speech called the Gettysburg Address in dedication of the Gettysburg battlefield cemetery.
He praised bravery of Union soldiers and renewed commitment to winning the war.
Sherman’s March Attacks
Lincoln needed victory for Union army to help him win reelection in 1864.
General William Tecumseh Sherman’s campaign to destroy South’s railroads and industries provided Lincoln his victory.
Sherman’s 100,000 troops marched south from Tennessee in spring of 1864 to capture Atlanta, Georgia, in September, and Savannah in December.
Sherman practiced total war , destroying civilian and economic resources, in the hope of ruining the South’s economy and ending its ability to fight. He hoped this would speed the end of the war.
President Abraham Lincoln
President Abraham Lincoln was born February 12, 1809.
Abraham was known to many people as “Honest Abe” because he believed in telling the truth.
Lincoln helped in the start of abolishing slavery from the Emancipation Proclamation and was greatly known as the 16th president of the United States.
He also helped to preserve the union and played a major role in the Civil War.
Abraham Lincoln and the Civil War
When Lincoln took office, his main goal was to put an end to the Civil War.
Although Lincoln opposed slavery and drafted the Emancipation Proclamation, he made it very clear that the war was being fought to Preserve the Union and not to free slaves.
Lincoln accepted war as the only means to defend Federal law and the Union.
If he had turned the war into a campaign to free slaves, the Union would surely lose the loyalty of the border states.
Throughout Lincoln’s Presidency, his time was filling with trying to put an end to the Civil War.
It began when he took office and ended towards the end of his life.
Lincoln was killed by an actor and a spy name John Wilkes Booth from Maryland on April 15, 1865.
Lincoln was shot while watching a play at the Fords Theatre with his wife.
He was rushed to a doctor and was in a coma for nine hours before he finally died.
Lincoln led our country well and will never be forgotten for what he has done for America.
We should all remind ourselves of his good deeds everyday when we see his face on the five dollar bill and on the penny. He left a mark on American history which will never fade!