Middle East Nationalism

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Middle East Nationalism

  1. 1. Objective : Cover political and social events that lead to the development of nationalism in the Middle East
  2. 2. Fall of the Ottoman Empire <ul><li>Ottoman empire began to decline in the 1700’s with the lost of Greece and North Africa </li></ul><ul><li>During WWI the Ottomans sided with the Germans </li></ul><ul><li>During this time they killed a million Christian Armenians during the Armenian Genocide </li></ul><ul><li>British and French forces convince Arabs to revolt against the Ottomans </li></ul><ul><li>At the end of WWI the Ottoman Empire collapsed </li></ul><ul><li>Turkey was all that was left under Ottoman control </li></ul>
  3. 3. Fall of the Ottoman Empire <ul><li>British and French forces convince Arabs to revolt against the Ottomans </li></ul><ul><li>At the end of WWI the Ottoman Empire collapsed </li></ul><ul><li>Turkey was all that was left under Ottoman control </li></ul>
  4. 4. Modernization of Turkey <ul><li>By 1923 the Last Ottoman Sultan was driven out of turkey </li></ul><ul><li>Mustafa Kemal became President and transformed Turkey into a modern state </li></ul><ul><li>Kemal eliminated Arabic elements from the Turkish Language and adopted the Roman alphabet </li></ul>
  5. 5. Modernization of Turkey <ul><li>Kemal forced people to adopt last names </li></ul><ul><li>Kemal outlawed all Muslim customs and traditions </li></ul><ul><li>Kemal gave equal rights to women including the right to vote </li></ul><ul><li>Kemal changes to Turkey were lasting and profound </li></ul>
  6. 6. The Beginning of Modern Iran <ul><li>A similar process was underway in Persia </li></ul><ul><li>In 1908 oil was discovered in Persia foreign investors flooded the country </li></ul><ul><li>However most of the money was taken by foreigners </li></ul><ul><li>This led to a Persian nationalist movement </li></ul>
  7. 7. The Beginning of Modern Iran <ul><li>In 1921 Reza Khan takes over the government and becomes Shah (King) </li></ul><ul><li>Khan follows Kemal’s example and modernizes Persia renames country Iran </li></ul><ul><li>During WWII the Shah harbors a large number of Nazi’s in Iran </li></ul>
  8. 8. Arab Nationalism <ul><li>Arabs are a group of people untied by language </li></ul><ul><li>Despite promises of independence after WWI </li></ul><ul><li>Britain and France end up controlling the Arab mandates of Iraq, Jordan, Lebanon, and Syria </li></ul><ul><li>These mandates controlled everything </li></ul><ul><li>This began the cry for Arab Unity </li></ul><ul><li>1932 Saudi Arabia is formed and is very poor </li></ul><ul><li>1930’s oil is discovered in Saudi Arabia and soon became very wealthy </li></ul>
  9. 9. The Problem of Palestine <ul><li>Great Britain controlled the mandate of Palestine after WWI </li></ul><ul><li>Palestine is ancient home of the Jewish people but few Jews lived there </li></ul><ul><li>1917 Britain issues the Balfour Declaration which support the idea of a Jewish homeland </li></ul><ul><li>British also promised to protect the rights of non-Jewish people in Palestine </li></ul>
  10. 10. The Problem of Palestine <ul><li>Palestine at the time was 98% Muslim and they were angry </li></ul><ul><li>Jewish settlers begin to arrive as Nazi persecution increased </li></ul><ul><li>Tensions between Jews and Muslims also increased in Palestine </li></ul><ul><li>Britain tried to restrict Jewish immigration to Palestine in 1939 Britain placed a limit of 75,000 Jews per year by 1944 no more Jews were allowed in Palestine </li></ul>

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