Thinking about energy policy nov2009
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  • The ones you pick can make for very different energy economies.
  • For energy independence: Energy sources by country of origin.
  • True measure of gas concentration’s effect is radiative forcing – right scale.
  • Gas in better situation than oil given new extraction technology.Maybe there’s a lot more oil in places presently off limits like Atlantic & Pacific coasts, but not like Arabia.Constantly changing balance between rates of consumption and discovery.
  • Red – discoveriesOther colors – production of various sources.Don’t run out of oil, it just gets more expensive in both money and energy burden.From ASPO-USA.
  • Bullets of major changes since WWII, end of colonialism, end of Cold War, globalization
  • Industrial is only declining use. However, it was done by moving US manufacturing overseas, which doesn’t relieve USA of responsibility for China’s huge resource consumption and pollution problems.SUVs and bigger houses really took their toll since ~1990.
  • Petroleum is the biggest source while transportation is biggest sink.Big pairings:Petroleum to Transportation.Natural gas to Space & Process Heat for industrial, residential, commercial.Coal to Electric power.Renewable & Nuclear to Electric power.
  • Coal, and to lesser degree nuclear, have fueled electrical growth since WWII.Notice how renewable hydro was the big source of electrical generation before.Natural gas is picking up much of the capacity growth now.
  • The big culprits are oil in transportation and coal in electricity generation.
  • Coal & nuclear have high availability by ramp too slowly to follow load.Gas turbine can be dispatched to follow load.Sun-hour – Energy equivalent number of hours at peak sun, i.e. at panel rating.My 2,100W PV system average output is 448W
  • These numbers don’t include either components for practical system or conversion efficiency.Chemical fuels are best by far, and our lifestyle and expectations have been built by them!God gave us a great, but finite, gift to start the industrial revolution. Now we have a real challenge to maintain it.Hydrogen has the highest mass density, but carrying it in a small volume is extremely difficult.Electrochemical storage is 1/100 density of chemical fuel but continuing to improve and is boosted by much higher conversion efficiency.Ultracapacitor almost another two orders of magnitude worse.Ice is comparable to battery but a whole lot cheaper.Despite low energy density, thermal storage is cheap and easy for stationary storage.
  • Chemical fuel alternatives to petroleum, NG, and coal are going to consume a lot more energy.Corn ethanol and hydrogen by cracking methane are nonstarters.Solar and wind look very good counter to some early erroneous criticism.
  • Gasoline provided as comparison fuel.Can see why it’s so economical to recycle aluminum.Can understand the possibility that lightly-used rail might actually be worse for energy efficiency than buses on existing roads – an argument given against Denver’s Fastracks.These PV payback times are excellent compared to expected lifetimes of 25 – 40 years.
  • How fast can we collect or extract energy?
  • Among fuels, coal is bad while NG is a big improvement.
  • Heating buildings is more appropriate use of natural gas.
  • Questions about a Hydrogen Economy. By: Wald, Matthew L., Scientific American, 00368733, May2004, Vol. 290, Issue 5
  • Nissan says Leaf weighs about same as comparable gasoline compact, but it has batteries for 1/3 the range.
  • Tank to wheel performance as given by manufacturer’s EPA test compared to gasoline.Natural gas uses a little more (+4%) energy carrying heavy tank to save significant CO2 (-22%) due to higher hydrogen content of fuel.Hybrid is big improvement in energy and emissions (-42% for both).Hydrogen fuel cell uses about same energy (-12%) as hybrid but emits no CO2 because fuel contains no carbon.Electric is huge improvement in energy (-81%). Motor efficiency & regenerative braking far overcomes added battery weight.But tank to wheel doesn’t measure the full impact! Must look at the entire system – well to wheel!
  • Must look at how the vehicular fuel is manufactured and deliver and the energy consumed and CO2 emitted in the process.Electricity and hydrogen are energy carriers, not sources while their primary sources make big differences.Because extraction, refining, & delivery of petroleum and gas are so efficient, gasoline, NG, and hybrid vehicles don’t change their relationships.H2 fuel cell, even using electrolysis from the cleanest, most efficient conventional generators is the worst (worse than gasoline) in both respects.Plug hybrid becomes worse than combustion hybrid (38% worse for CO2) when charged with coal but remains better when charged with GCC.Electric from coal is better than gasoline in both respects but worse than hybrid in both respects, especially CO2.
  • Graphically making comparisons I just stated emphasizing need to analyze the complete energy pathway.Now let’s see where these number come from.
  • I’m assuming that gasoline is the energy source throughout the supply chain.
  • Used the highest efficiency of each type of generator.Coal emits 1.75x CO2 per unit energy as natural gas.For practical plants, coal CO2 emission is even worse at 2.6x.
  • Results depend a lot on source of electricity!Global warming: Worse than hybrid until electricity generated by more renewables.Independence and resources: Good. Makes any primary energy source useful for transportation. But can use more of that source.-------------------------------John Voelcker, “How Green is My Plug-IN?”, IEEE Spectrum, March, 2009.Plug hybrid charged from present US grid unconditionally beats 25 mpg gasoline car in CO2/mile, but it fails compared to non-plug hybrid (Prius, Insight) or high efficiency diesel.Plug-incompared to regular hybrid is more favorable than my analysis but still in same direction:Coal generation: 4 – 11% more GHGNatural gas combined-cycle generation: 25% less GHG
  • Using cleanest, most efficient conventional source of electricity (GCC) for electrolysis of water.The inefficiency of electrolysis plus energy consumed in compressing & transporting H2 compared to refining & transporting gasoline more than cancels the high efficiency of fuel cell & electric motor compared to ICE.
  • The big issue to solve for high penetration of renewables with their intermittent nature.
  • Summer: PV can handle a lot of the energy and reduce peak.Spring: PV peak encroaches on base generation that can adapt fast enough.
  • PV capacity quickly saturates and cost escalates at low share penetration because of this temporal mismatch.-------------------------------What is the parameter of these curves? Day/Night energy consumption?
  • Introducing concept of intermittency.First year of operation of my home solar PV system read at roughly weekly intervals with generation divided by 61% to match my annual consumption.Season mismatches readily apparent, but so are lots of weekly fluctuations.
  • Modeling wind & PV sources and loads distributed throughout US Western Grid.Geographic diversity can meet most of load with a little waste.Can almost eliminate deficit with 20% dispatchable gas turbine generation.How much better match with demand management, i.e. smart grid?
  • Smooth generation and load curves as they are offset in summer with AC.
  • Critics aren’t sincere when they say most Americans can’t afford to pay more for cleaner energy.Higher unit costs from cap & trade or carbon tax are intended to, and will, cause fewer units of energy to be used.Net energy expenditures will still rise, but not in proportion to unit costs, and most Americans can afford it.Benefits are indirect and hard to measure: lower taxes for defense, lower insurance for storms, lower food price increases.
  • Finally, I’ll discuss two drivers of energy consumption people won’t talk about: population growth & land usePer capita consumption, i.e. overall efficiency, has been level for nearly 40 years.Efficiency is balancing more uses, so let’s hold this constant.But population is growing steadily and rapidly.Population growth requires a huge wedge of renewables just to not increase greenhouse gases.But we want to reduce greenhouse gases, some government goals are 80% by 2050.It would be easier if we could invert the population wedge to add renewables to decrease carbon output.

Thinking about energy policy nov2009 Thinking about energy policy nov2009 Presentation Transcript

  • Thinking About Energy PolicyEngineer Edition
    November 18, 2009
    1
    Peter M. O’Neill
    November 2009
    Thinking About Energy Policy Peter M. O'Neill
  • Introduction
    November 18, 2009
    2
    This is a really complicated issue
    Solution possibilities change as technology changes
    Give you facts & tools to analyze these opportunities as technology and knowledge evolve.
    Put aside political passion for what technologically works
    Intended to be synopsis of half-day seminar
    Thinking About Energy Policy Peter M. O'Neill
  • Outline
    Policy objectives
    Understanding the problem
    Some principals
    Source to load analysis
    Temporal matching of source to load
    Source diversity: temporal & geographic
    Conclusions
    Skipping economics because it’s a huge topic by itself.
    November 18, 2009
    3
    Thinking About Energy Policy Peter M. O'Neill
  • Popular Energy Policy Objectives
    November 18, 2009
    4
    Thinking About Energy Policy Peter M. O'Neill
  • Objective:National energy independence
    November 18, 2009
    5
    Stop or avoid importing oil, (or future gas, uranium, …):
    To not depend on unstable or evil countries
    Reduce trade imbalance
    Thinking About Energy Policy Peter M. O'Neill
  • U.S. Oil Sources by Country
    November 18, 2009
    6
    Thinking About Energy Policy Peter M. O'Neill
    Although we are the third largest crude oil producer, most of the petroleum we use is imported.
    Western Hemisphere nations provide about half of our imported petroleum.
    Net imports have generally increased (58% in 2008) since 1985 while U.S. production fell and consumption grew.
  • Objective: Reduce global warming
    November 18, 2009
    7
    Reduce greenhouse gas emissions:
    To avoid effects at home.
    As moral imperative regarding rest of world being world’s 2nd largest emitter of GHG.
    Thinking About Energy Policy Peter M. O'Neill
  • GH Gas Concentration Trends
    November 18, 2009
    8
    Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change 2007
    Thinking About Energy Policy Peter M. O'Neill
  • Objective: Replace dwindling energy resources
    November 18, 2009
    9
    Fossil fuel is finite by nature - “Peak oil”
    Extraction harms environment
    Thinking About Energy Policy Peter M. O'Neill
  • Peak Oil
    November 18, 2009
    10
    Thinking About Energy Policy Peter M. O'Neill
    New oil fields harder to find, more expensive to produce.
    World demand continues to increase.
  • Understanding the Problem
    November 18, 2009
    11
    Thinking About Energy Policy Peter M. O'Neill
  • Why US & World At Critical Juncture
    Explosions in per capita consumption:
    Consumer products
    Transportation/mobility
    Urbanization/housing – more urban than rural
    Expansion of consumption to greater portion of world
    Every nation wants & is entitled to a good life.
    Planetary scale effects
    No unsettled or “undiscovered” land – all humanity in contact.
    Natural resources in any location accessible to people in any other location.
    But can’t maintain that other populations can’t use or aren’t entitled to resources in their lands.
    Human activity affecting composition of atmosphere & water
    Population explosion, 1950 -> 2009:
    USA – 152 -> 307 million
    World – 2.5 -> 6.8 billion
    November 18, 2009
    12
    Thinking About Energy Policy Peter M. O'Neill
  • U.S. Energy Consumption Trend
    November 18, 2009
    13
    Moved Industry Overseas
    Serious Conservation
    Thinking About Energy Policy Peter M. O'Neill
  • U.S. Energy Flows – 2008
    November 18, 2009
    14
    Quadrillion BTU
    US Energy Info. Admin. – Annual Energy Review 2008
    Thinking About Energy Policy Peter M. O'Neill
  • Electricity Sources
    November 18, 2009
    15
    Thinking About Energy Policy Peter M. O'Neill
  • U.S. CO2 Sources - 2008
    November 18, 2009
    16
    Thinking About Energy Policy Peter M. O'Neill
  • SomePrincipals
    November 18, 2009
    17
    Thinking About Energy Policy Peter M. O'Neill
  • Capacity vs. Generation
    November 18, 2009
    18
    Capacity – maximum power plant can deliver.
    Determines capital cost
    Capacity installation gets attention but wrong measure of impact.
    Generation – energy plant can deliver over long time. Determines:
    Revenue
    Consumption & pollution from fossil fuels
    Fuel & pollution reduction from renewable sources
    Thinking About Energy Policy Peter M. O'Neill
  • Availability & Ramp Rate
    November 18, 2009
    Thinking About Energy Policy Peter M. O'Neill
    19
    All MW of capacity do not produce equivalent generation, hence fuel or CO2 savings.
  • Energy Source vs. Carrier
    November 18, 2009
    20
    Source
    Energy provided by nature either as we use it or from storage in geologic time.
    Sun – order of increasing time lag:
    Solar radiation
    Wind
    Biomass: wood, ethanol
    Fossil fuels: petroleum, gas, coal
    Nuclear material
    Carrier
    Medium for transporting energy from primary source to end use or for short term storage.
    Electricity
    Synthetic fuels: hydrogen, syngas
    Thinking About Energy Policy Peter M. O'Neill
  • Mass Energy Densities
    November 18, 2009
    21
    Thinking About Energy Policy Peter M. O'Neill
    Log scale!
    Electrical
    Thermal
    Chemical
  • Energy Burden
    November 18, 2009
    Thinking About Energy Policy Peter M. O'Neill
    22
    Takes energy to extract, refine, transport energy from primary source.
    Energy burden – ratio of energy consumed in the above to energy delivered.
  • Embodied Energy
    November 18, 2009
    Thinking About Energy Policy Peter M. O'Neill
    23
    Takes energy to build generation & transportation facilities.
    Leads to concept of energy payback time for generating facility.
  • Power Area Density
    November 18, 2009
    24
    Thinking About Energy Policy Peter M. O'Neill
    The problem with biofuels:
    Sun annual average flux, latitude 40º – 232 W/m2
    Photosynthesis in switchgrass – 0.27 W/m2 , 0.12% efficiency.
    Photovoltaic at 15.5% - 36 W/m2 , 133x better
    Concentrating solar thermal @ 40% - 93 W/m2
    Coal mine or oil field many times higher
    Fossil fuels store 10’s of millions of years of solar energy collected by inefficient photosynthesis.
    No way fossil fuel can last many centuries at current use rates.
    Would be great to capture & store sun’s energy through photochemical reaction that is much more efficient than natural photosynthesis.
    Bio-engineered algae?
    Photolytic reactor?
  • CO2 Emission Rates
    November 18, 2009
    Thinking About Energy Policy Peter M. O'Neill
    25
    Determined by ratio of carbon to hydrogen in the molecules.
  • The Cycle – Source to Load Analysis
    November 18, 2009
    26
    Thinking About Energy Policy Peter M. O'Neill
  • Internal Combustion Car – Motivations
    November 18, 2009
    Thinking About Energy Policy Peter M. O'Neill
    27
    All
    High energy density fuel for long range.
    Fast fueling.
    Simple technology.
    Low capital cost.
    Gasoline & Diesel
    Easy handling.
    Traditional availability.
    Natural gas
    Lower emissions.
    New US sources – shale & coal beds.
  • Electric Car – Motivations
    November 18, 2009
    28
    No emissions during use.
    Conversion efficiency
    Internal combustion engine – 25%
    Electric motor – 82%, 3.3x better
    Use electric storage to capture braking energy – Regenerative braking – Wheel to tank path.
    Create mobility from stationary primary energy source.
    Thinking About Energy Policy Peter M. O'Neill
  • Hybrid Gasoline/Electric Car – Motivations
    November 18, 2009
    Thinking About Energy Policy Peter M. O'Neill
    29
    “Combustion” Hybrid
    All energy comes from gasoline.
    Use electric storage to optimize ICE operation.
    Regenerative braking.
    “Plug” Hybrid
    Operate as, & with advantages of, electric car for short trips.
    Extend range with ICE.
  • Hydrogen Fuel Cell Car – Motivations
    November 18, 2009
    30
    Thinking About Energy Policy Peter M. O'Neill
    No emissions during use.
    Conversion efficiency
    Internal combustion engine – 25%
    Fuel cell (60%) × Electric motor (82%) – 49%
    Can make hydrogen from any primary energy source.
  • Representative Cars
    November 18, 2009
    Thinking About Energy Policy Peter M. O'Neill
    31
    Similar size cars.
  • Attraction of Transport Fuels – Tank to Wheel Analysis
    November 18, 2009
    Thinking About Energy Policy Peter M. O'Neill
    32
    Distance travelled from energy stored onboard.
  • Full Story – Well to Wheel Analysis
    November 18, 2009
    Thinking About Energy Policy Peter M. O'Neill
    33
    Distance travelled from primary energy source.
    Quite different!
  • Tank to Wheel / Well to Wheel
    November 18, 2009
    Thinking About Energy Policy Peter M. O'Neill
    34
  • Gasoline & Hybrid Analyses
    November 18, 2009
    Thinking About Energy Policy Peter M. O'Neill
    35
  • Electrical Generation to Vehicle
    November 18, 2009
    Thinking About Energy Policy Peter M. O'Neill
    36
    Renewable sources don’t directly emit net GHG so much better charging source.
  • Electric Car Analysis
    November 18, 2009
    Thinking About Energy Policy Peter M. O'Neill
    37
    Can manufacturer’s reported 5.3x MJ/km vs. 3.3x motor efficiency of electric to ICE be due entirely to regenerative braking?
  • Hydrogen Fuel Cell Car Analysis
    November 18, 2009
    Thinking About Energy Policy Peter M. O'Neill
    38
  • Conclusions on Car Fuels
    Combustion/electric hybrid advances all 3 objectives.
    Hydrogen fuel cell present energy efficiency & CO2 emission worse than gasoline ICE.
    Only helps independence if cheap, plentiful stationary source available like nuclear was supposed to be.
    Must improve H2 generation, storage, transport.
    Electric can advance all 3 objectives.
    In exchange for cost & limited range.
    Better way to use NG for transport than CNG.
    Will make sense with more renewable generation.
    November 18, 2009
    Thinking About Energy Policy Peter M. O'Neill
    39
  • It’s About Time – TemporalMatching of Source to Load
    November 18, 2009
    40
    Thinking About Energy Policy Peter M. O'Neill
  • Electricity Load Duration Curve
    Short duration demand peaks set system size.
    Demand response can reduce system size & same energy.
    November 18, 2009
    Thinking About Energy Policy Peter M. O'Neill
    41
    EPRI – “The Green Grid”
  • How Well Could PhotovoltaicsMatch Loads in Texas?
    Canyon
    Abilene
    Overton
    El Paso
    Austin
    Del Rio
    Corpus Christi
    Laredo
    Edinburg
    Courtesy of Walter Short, NREL
    Simulated 16 GW of PV generating 11% of load at 9 sites spread
    uniformly around Texas and compared generation with load
    Min base
    Load op.
    Surplus
    Spring Day
    Summer Day
    42
  • How Well Could PhotovoltaicsMatch Loads in Texas? (2)
    Courtesy of Walter Short, NREL
    43
  • Solar Generation Match to Load
    1st year of operation of my PV system
    Rating: 2.1 kW
    Energy produced: 3,327 kWh
    Energy consumed: 5,493 kWh
    Read meters weekly
    November 18, 2009
    Thinking About Energy Policy Peter M. O'Neill
    44
  • Stochastic Modeling of Source & Load
    Computation:
    Assume instantaneous match = net match over interval, i.e. some storage.
    Determine surplus or deficit at each weekly interval.
    Sum intervals over year.
    Net = TotalPVGen/TotalLoad
    Load Met = 1-TotalDeficit/TotalLoad
    Observations:
    Sized to use all I produce
    Make large surpluses to avoid deficit
    Would be more dramatic with hourly data.
    November 18, 2009
    Thinking About Energy Policy Peter M. O'Neill
    45
  • Source Diversity
    November 18, 2009
    46
    Thinking About Energy Policy Peter M. O'Neill
    Spatial & temporal diversity
    Wind blows different places at different times
    Sun can power evening loads to east
    Clouds are spotty
    Place sources closer to loads, reducing transmission loss
    Consequences
    Must connect renewable sources to grid
    Must build a lot more transmission
    Transmission will become more expensive because it will only be used intermittently
    More difficult to maintain grid stability
  • How Well Could Wind GenerationMatch Loads in the West?
    Courtesy of Walter Short, NREL
    Results from Optimizing Wind and PV Sites to
    Match Loads in the WECC
    Surplus
    Wind
    Shortfall
    In generation
    47
    80% Wind & PV
    Only Wind & PV
  • Storage for Temporal Load Offset
    November 18, 2009
    48
    Thinking About Energy Policy Peter M. O'Neill
    Ice Energy, Inc. ice storage air conditioning.
    Solves root cause of peak load problem.
    Thermal efficiency through non-cycling design & off peak consumption.
    Stores energy off-peak,dispatching it on-peak
    Predictable and measurable
  • Combined Heat & Power
    Where does waste energy in electrical generation go?
    Low temperature heat.
    What use is low temperature heat?
    Space, water, process heating.
    Solution
    Generate electricity in building that needs heating.
    But heat not always needed when electricity is.
    Freewatt® reciprocating engine
    Electricity: 1.2 kW, 26%
    Heat: 3.46 kW, 74%
    Close to my 23%/77% Elect./Heat
    Microturbine >75% efficient
    November 18, 2009
    Thinking About Energy Policy Peter M. O'Neill
    49
    Honda/ECR Freewatt Micro Combined Heat & Power example residential installation
  • Demand Management
    Electric utility model has been to vary generation to meet the load.
    Load has changed
    Higher peak to average with AC
    More is optional or deferrable: laundry, dishes, computer print & backup, landscape lights
    Renewable sources not as dispatchable or schedulable.
    Control & communication technology now enable better matching of intermittent loads to intermittent sources  Smart Grid.
    Significant distributed storage possible:
    Domestic hot water
    Ice for air conditioning
    PHEV – do I want to donate my expensive battery cycles?
    November 18, 2009
    Thinking About Energy Policy Peter M. O'Neill
    50
  • Can Individuals Afford Clean Energy?
    November 18, 2009
    51
    Take my utility expenses
    2 people, 2 cars, 2 cell phones
    Efficient house
    Live close to activities
    Count all electric as purchased from utility (ignore PV)
    Energy only 30%
    Discretionary > 32%
    A lot didn’t exist 20 years ago but has great use
    Could make room for substantial energy cost increase
    Wouldn’t get more use for it
    Would use less
    Thinking About Energy Policy Peter M. O'Neill
  • Population Growth
    November 18, 2009
    52
    310
    Due to population growth
    80% Reduction from today
    Thinking About Energy Policy Peter M. O'Neill
  • Meeting the Objectives
    Independence
    Replace oil for transport with gas, electric not from oil.
    Global Warming
    Replace coal for electric generation with nuclear, wind, solar.
    Replace oil for transport with gas, electric after replacing coal generation.
    Resource Depletion
    Nuclear electric with advanced breeder fuel cycle.
    Wind & solar electric.
    Electric transport.
    Solar & electric geo-backed heat pump for space & process heat.
    All
    Domestic renewables
    November 18, 2009
    53
    Thinking About Energy Policy Peter M. O'Neill