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Bio ii 7
 

Bio ii 7

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    Bio ii 7 Bio ii 7 Presentation Transcript

    • r;;==; face area of these respiratory organs is a structural adaptation by Calcarea and Silicea Although defined primarily that enhances the exchange of O2 and CO 2 between the he- Cmdana molecular evidence, the dade planet and many onts features. These free-living worms Biology II - Zoology important role in decomposition and nutrient cycling, b molymph and air. Lopholnxhowa Ecdysozoa includes catch animals is known about most species. One species of soil nem Invertebrates A unique adaptation of many spiders is the ability toPoison Ecdysozoa insects by constructing webs of silk, a liquid tough external coat Deuterostorma that shed a protein produced gland Caellorhabditis elegalls, however, is very well studied a by specialized abdominal glands. The silk isthey grow; in fact, (cuticle) as spun by organs Arthropods into fibers that then solidify. Each spider en- become a model research organism in biology (see Chap called spinnerets the group derives its name fromitsthis process, which is called gineers a web characteristic of species and builds it perfectly Myriapods Ongoing studies on C. elegans are revealing some of the molting,on the first try. This complex behavior is of about eight animal or ecdysis. Ecdysozoa consists apparently inherited. anisms involved in aging in humans, among other findin Various spiders also use silk species than droplines for phyla and contains mOTe knownin other ways: asall other protist, Phylum Nematoda includes many significant agric s All living myriapods are terrestrial. The myriapod head has rapid escape, as a cover for eggs, and even as Pedipalp for food fungus, plant, and animal groups Chelicera combined. Here we'll focus that males offerSperm during courtship. Many small spiders females pests that attack the roots ofplants. Other species of nem Silk gland a pair of antennae and three pairs of appendages modified on the two extrude silkreceptacle air and let themselves be transported and also largest e<dysozoan phyla, the nematodes into the parasitize animals. Humans are hosts to at least 50 nem arthropods, which are among the most successful and abun- ... Figure :n.:n A including various pinworms and hookworms. O 3.32 Anatomy of a a behavior known as by wind, spider. species, millipede. dant of all animal as mouthparts, including the jaw-like mandibles. spiralis, the worm that groups. torious nematode is Trichinella Myriapods trichinosis (Figure 33.26). Humans acquire this nemat tained Nematodes and centipedes belong to the subphylum Myriapoda, ve sur- Millipedes eating raw or undercooked pork or other meat (includin tation the myriapods. All living myriapods are terrestrial. The myria- game such as bear or walrus) that has juvenile worms en Some he he- ofpod head has aubiquitous animals, nematodes (phylum the most pair of antennae and three pairs of appendages in the muscle tissue. '(!ithin the human intestines, the ju Nematoda), or roundworms,including the in most aquatic habitats, modified as mouthparts, are found jaw-like mandibles. develop into sexually mature adults. Females burrow i in the soil, in the moist tissues of plants, and in the bodyof catch Millipedes (class Diplopoda) have a large number fluids duced legs, though fewer than the thousand their name implies intestinal muscles and produce more juveniles, whic and tissues of animals.Eachcontrast to annelids, nematodes do organs (Figure 33.33). In trunk segment is formed from two through the body or travel in lymphatic vessels to other der en-havefused segmentsbodies. The cylindrical bodies ofeat not segmented and bears two pairs of legs. Millipedes nema- including skeletal muscles, where they encyst. rfectly range fromleavesthanother plant matter. than a meter in length, todes decaying less and 1 mm to more They may have been erited. often tapering to aearliesttip at the posterior end mosses andmore among the fine animals on land, living on and to a 1 leg pair / Parasitic nematodes have an extraordinary mo nes for 2 leg pairs / segment primitive vascular plants. or food tip at Unlike millipedes, centipedes (class Chilopoda) are carni-body blunt the anterior end (Figure 33.25). A nematode's segment toolkit that enables them to redirect some of the cellula tions of their hosts and thus evade their immune sy is covered by a tough cuticle; centipede's trunkgrows,has periodically piders vores. Each segment ofa as the worm region it one pair ported its oflegs (Figureand secretes a new, larger one. Nematodes Plant-parasitic nematodes inject molecules that indu sheds old Figure :n.:n A millipede. have poison claws on their cuticle 33.34). Centipedes ... Millipede foremost trunk segment that paralyze prey and aid in defense. have an alimentary canal, though they lack a circulatory system. ... Centipede Figure 33.34 A centipede.root cells, which then supply nutrients development of parasites. Trichinella controls the expression of s (Class Diplopoda) Nutrients are transported throughout the body via fluid in the pseudocoelom. The body wall muscles are all longitudinal, and (Class Chilopoda) muscle-cell genes that codeInvertebrates 687 make the ce CHAPTER THIRTY·THREE for proteins that apoda, April 13, 2010 Tuesday, tic enough to house the nematode. Additionally, the in
    • r;;==; Although defined primarily by Calcarea and Silicea Cmdana molecular evidence, the dade planet and many onts features. These free-living worms Biology II - Zoology important role in decomposition and nutrient cycling, b Lopholnxhowa Ecdysozoa includes animals is known about most species. One species of soil nem Ecdysozoa Deuterostorma Invertebrates that shed a tough external coat Caellorhabditis elegalls, however, is very well studied a Arthropods (cuticle) as they grow; in fact, become a model research organism in biology (see Chap the group derives its name from this process, which is called Insects Ongoing studies on C. elegans are revealing some of the molting, or ecdysis. Ecdysozoa consists of about eight animal anisms involved in aging in humans, among other findin phyla and contains mOTe known species than all other protist, Phylum Nematoda includes many significant agric fungus, plant, and animal groups combined. Here we'll focus pests that attack the roots ofplants. Other species of nem on the two largest e<dysozoan phyla, the nematodes and parasitize animals. Humans are hosts to at least 50 nem Insects and their relatives (subphylum Hexapoda) arthropods, which are among the most successful and abun- species, including various pinworms and hookworms. O are more species-rich than all other forms of life dant of all animal groups. torious nematode is Trichinella spiralis, the worm that trichinosis (Figure 33.26). Humans acquire this nemat combined. They live in almost every terrestrial habitat Nematodes eating raw or undercooked pork or other meat (includin game such as bear or walrus) that has juvenile worms en Nematoda), or roundworms, are found in most aquatic habitats, insects fill the air. Insects and in fresh water, and flying Some of the most ubiquitous animals, nematodes (phylum in the muscle tissue. '(!ithin the human intestines, the ju develop into sexually mature adults. Females burrow i are of animals. though annelids, absent, in marine habitats, where rare, In contrast to not nematodes do in the soil, in the moist tissues of plants, and in the body fluids and tissues intestinal muscles and produce more juveniles, whic crustaceans are the dominant arthropods. not have segmented bodies. The cylindrical bodies of nema- through the body or travel in lymphatic vessels to other including skeletal muscles, where they encyst. todes range from less than 1 mm to more than a meter in length, Parasitic nematodes have an extraordinary mo often tapering to a fine tip at the posterior end and to a more toolkit that enables them to redirect some of the cellula blunt tip at the anterior end (Figure 33.25). A nematode's body tions of their hosts and thus evade their immune sy is covered by a tough cuticle; as the worm grows, it periodically Plant-parasitic nematodes inject molecules that indu sheds its old cuticle and secretes a new, larger one. Nematodes development of root cells, which then supply nutrients have an alimentary canal, though they lack a circulatory system. parasites. Trichinella controls the expression of s Nutrients are transported throughout the body via fluid in the muscle-cell genes that code for proteins that make the ce pseudocoelom. The body wall muscles are all longitudinal, and Tuesday, April 13, 2010 tic enough to house the nematode. Additionally, the in
    • r;;==; Calcarea and Silicea Cmdana Although defined primarily by molecular evidence, the dade planet and many onts features. These free-living worms Biology II - Zoology important role in decomposition and nutrient cycling, b Lopholnxhowa Ecdysozoa includes animals is known about most species. One species of soil nem Ecdysozoa Deuterostorma that shed a tough external coat Invertebrates Caellorhabditis elegalls, however, is very well studied a Arthropods (cuticle) as they grow; in fact, become a model research organism in biology (see Chap the group derives its body has three regions: head, The insect name from this process, which is called Insects Ongoing studies on C. elegans are revealing some of the molting, or ecdysis. Ecdysozoa consists of about eight animal thorax, and abdomen. The segmentation anisms involved in aging in humans, among other findin of the thorax and abdomen are obvious, phyla and contains segmentsknown speciesare fused. other protist, but the mOTe that form the head than all Phylum Nematoda includes many significant agric fungus, plant, and animal groups combined. Here we'll focus Abdomen Thorax Head pests that attack the roots ofplants.nerve species of nem Cerebral ganglion. The two Other cords meet in the head, where the .. ............... on the two largest e<dysozoan phyla, the nematodes and Heart. The parasitize animals. Humans are hosts to at least 50 nem insect heart ganglia of several anterior segments Compound eye drives hemolymph are fused into a cerebral ganglion arthropods, which are among the most successful and abun- through an open species, including variouswhite below). The hookworms. O (brain, colored pinworms and circulatory system. antennae, eyes, and other sense dant of all animal groups. organs Trichinella spiralis, torious nematode isare concentrated on the head.the worm that trichinosis (Figure 33.26). Humans acquire this nemat Nematodes eating raw or undercooked pork or other meat (includin Anus game such as bear or walrus) that has juvenile worms en Some of the most ubiquitous animals, nematodes (phylum Malpighian tubules. in the muscle tissue. '(!ithin the human intestines, the ju Nematoda), or roundworms, are foundVagina Metabolic wastes are in most aquatic habitats, develop into sexually mature adults. Females burrow i in the soil, in the moist tissues the plants, and in the body fluids removed from of organs called by contrast hemolymph Malpighian intestinal muscles and produce more juveniles, whic and tissues of animals. In which are to annelids, nematodes do tubules, through the body or travel in lymphatic vessels to other not have segmented bodies.of the cylindrical bodies of nema- out-pocketings The digestive tract. including skeletal muscles, where they encyst. todes range from less than 1 mm to more than a meter in length, Parasitic nematodes have an extraordinary mo often tapering to a fine tip Tracheal tubes. Gas exchange and to is more at the posterior end in insects a Insect mouthparts are formed from Nerve cords. The insect enables pairs of modified appendages. of the cellula toolkit that several them to redirect some blunt tip at the anterior end accomplished by athat infiltrate theofbody and tracheal system branched. (Figure 33.25). A nematode's body nervous system chitin-lined tubes tions of their The mouthparts include for chewing. mandibles, hosts and thus evade their immune sy is covered by a tough cuticle; as oxygen directlygrows,The periodically consists nervepair of carry the worm to cells. it tracheal system opens to the outside of the body ventral of a cords which grasshoppers use through spiracles, larger one. control air Plant-parasitic nematodes inject are with several In other insects, mouthparts molecules that indu new, pores that can closing . sheds its old cuticle and secretes awater loss by opening orNematodes segmental ganglia. flow and specialized for lapping, piercing, development ofsucking.cells, which then supply nutrients or root have an alimentary canal, though they lack a circulatory system. ... Figure 33.35 Anatomy of a grasshopper, an insect. parasites. Trichinella controls the expression of s Nutrients are transported throughout the body via fluid in the muscle-cell genes that code for proteins that make the ce pseudocoelom. The body wall muscles are all longitudinal, and Insects Tuesday, April 13, 2010 tic enough to house the nematode. Additionally, the in
    • r;;==; Although defined primarily by Calcarea and Silicea Cmdana molecular evidence, the dade planet and many onts features. These free-living worms Biology II - Zoology important role in decomposition and nutrient cycling, b Lopholnxhowa Ecdysozoa includes animals is known about most species. One species of soil nem Ecdysozoa Deuterostorma that shed a tough external coatInvertebrates Caellorhabditis elegalls, however, is very well studied a Arthropods (cuticle) as they grow; in fact, become a model research organism in biology (see Chap the group derives its name from this process, which is called Insects Ongoing studies on C. elegans are revealing some of the molting, or ecdysis. Ecdysozoa consists of about eight animal anisms involved in aging in humans, among other findin phyla and contains mOTe known species than all other protist, Phylum Nematoda includes many significant agric Oldest insect fossils: Devonian (~416 Ma) fungus, plant, and animal groups combined. Here we'll focus pests that attack the roots ofplants. Other species of nem on the two largest e<dysozoan phyla, the Carboniferous and Permia Evolution of insect flight: nematodes and parasitize animals. Humans are hosts to at least 50 nem arthropods, which are among the most successful and abun- species, including various pinworms and hookworms. O dant of all animal groups. explosion in insect diversity. torious nematode is Trichinella spiralis, the worm that trichinosis (Figure 33.26). Humans acquire this nemat Jurrassic beetle Nematodes eating raw or undercooked pork or other meat (includin game such as bear or walrus) that has juvenile worms en Some of the most ubiquitous animals, nematodes (phylum Carboniferous dragonfly in the muscle tissue. '(!ithin the human intestines, the ju Nematoda), or roundworms, are found in most aquatic habitats, develop into sexually mature adults. Females burrow i in the soil, in the moist tissues of plants, and in the body fluids intestinal muscles and produce more juveniles, whic Fossil record of insect mouthparts indicates specialized feeding on and tissues of animals. In contrast to annelids, nematodes do not have segmented bodies. The cylindrical bodies of nema- through the body or travel in lymphatic vessels to other gymnosperms and other Carboniferous plants contributed to early todes range from less than 1 mm to more than a meter in length, including skeletal muscles, where they encyst. Parasitic nematodes have an extraordinary mo adaptive radiations often tapering to a fine tip at the posterior end and to a more blunt tip at the anterior end (Figure 33.25). A nematode's body toolkit that enables them to redirect some of the cellula tions of their hosts and thus evade their immune sy is covered by a tough cuticle; as the worm grows, it periodically Plant-parasitic nematodes inject molecules that indu Major increase in insect diversity stimulated by the evolutionary sheds its old cuticle and secretes a new, larger one. Nematodes have an alimentary canal, though they lack a circulatory system. development of root cells, which then supply nutrients expansion of flowering plants during the mid-Cretaceous (~ 90 Ma). Nutrients are transported throughout the body via fluid in the parasites. Trichinella controls the expression of s muscle-cell genes that code for proteins that make the ce pseudocoelom. The body wall muscles are all longitudinal, and Tuesday, April 13, 2010 tic enough to house the nematode. Additionally, the in
    • r;;==; Although defined primarily by Calcarea and Silicea Cmdana molecular evidence, the dade planet and many onts features. These free-living worms Biology II - Zoology important role in decomposition and nutrient cycling, b Lopholnxhowa Ecdysozoa includes animals is known about most species. One species of soil nem Ecdysozoa Deuterostorma that shed a tough external coatInvertebrates Caellorhabditis elegalls, however, is very well studied a Arthropods (cuticle) as they grow; in fact, become a model research organism in biology (see Chap the group derives its name from this process, which is called Insect flight Ongoing studies on C. elegans are revealing some of the molting, or ecdysis. Ecdysozoa consists of about eight animal anisms involved in aging in humans, among other findin phyla and contains mOTe known species than all other protist, Phylum Nematoda includes many significant agric •one key to great success ofand insects fungus, plant, and animal groups combined. Here we'll focus pests that attack the roots ofplants. Other species of nem •facilitates escape successful and abun- on the two largest e<dysozoan phyla, the nematodes parasitize animals. Humans are hosts to at least 50 nem arthropods, which are among the most from many predators species, including various pinworms and hookworms. O • animal groups. dant of all facilitates discovery of food and mates torious nematode is Trichinella spiralis, the worm that Nematodes•facilitates dispersal to new habitats trichinosis (Figure 33.26). Humans acquire this nemat eating raw or undercooked pork or other meat (includin game such as bear or walrus) that has juvenile worms en Some of the most ubiquitous animals, nematodes (phylum •one or two pairs of wings emerging from the dorsal side of Nematoda), or roundworms, are found in most aquatic habitats, in the muscle tissue. '(!ithin the human intestines, the ju develop into sexually mature adults. Females burrow i the thorax in the soil, in the moist tissues of plants, and in the body fluids and tissues of animals. In contrast to annelids, nematodes do intestinal muscles and produce more juveniles, whic through the body or travel in lymphatic vessels to other not have segmented bodies. The cylindrical bodies of nema- including skeletal muscles, where they encyst. •because wings are extensions of the cuticle and not true todes range from less than 1 mm to more than a meter in length, often tapering to a fine tip at the posterior end and to a more Parasitic nematodes have an extraordinary mo appendages, insects can fly without sacrificing any walking blunt tip at the anterior end (Figure 33.25). A nematode's body toolkit that enables them to redirect some of the cellula tions of their hosts and thus evade their immune sy legs is covered by a tough cuticle; as the worm grows, it periodically Plant-parasitic nematodes inject molecules that indu sheds its old cuticle and secretes a new, larger one. Nematodes development of root cells, which then supply nutrients have an alimentary canal, though they lack a circulatory system. parasites. Trichinella controls the expression of s Nutrients are transported throughout the body via fluid in the muscle-cell genes that code for proteins that make the ce pseudocoelom. The body wall muscles are all longitudinal, and Tuesday, April 13, 2010 tic enough to house the nematode. Additionally, the in
    • r;;==; Calcarea and Silicea Cmdana Although defined primarily by Biology II - Zoology molecular evidence, the dade planet and many onts features. These free-living worms important role in decomposition and nutrient cycling, b Lopholnxhowa Ecdysozoa includes animals is known about most species. One species of soil nem Ecdysozoa Deuterostorma that shed a tough external coat Invertebrates Caellorhabditis elegalls, however, is very well studied a Arthropods (cuticle) as they grow; in fact, become a model research organism in biology (see Chap the group derives its name from this process, which is called Exploring Insect Diversity Insects Ongoing studies on C. elegans are revealing some of the molting, or ecdysis. Ecdysozoa consists of about eight animal anisms involved in aging in humans, among other findin phyla ,and contains mOTe known species than all other protist, Phylum Nematoda includes many significant agric Approximate fungus, plant, and animal groups combined. Here we'll focus Order Number of Main Characteristics attack the roots ofplants. Other species of nem pests that Examples on the two largest e<dysozoan phyla, the nematodes and Species parasitize animals. Humans are hosts to at least 50 nem arthropods, which are among the most successful and abun- species, including various pinworms and hookworms. O dant of8lattodea groups. 4,"" all animal Cockroaches ha'c a dorso'entrally torious nematode is Trichinella spiralis, the worm that body, with lqs modified for rapid running. Forewings hen present, are leath· ery, ",ilereas hind wings are fan6J.:e. F trichinosis (Figure 33.26). Humans acquire this nemat w than 40 cockroKh German cockroach Nematodes habitUs raw or undercooked pork or other meat (includin §Ilt'cies moe in houses; the rest exploit eating r.lnging from forest floors to caves and descn.s. game such as bear or walrus) that has juvenile worms en Some of the most ubiquitous animals, nematodes (phylum in the muscle tissue. '(!ithin the human intestines, the ju Nematoda), or roundworms, are found in most aquatic habitats, Coleoptera 350.000 BcrtIcs comprise the most specks-rich Ofdcr of ins«u.sexually mature adults. Females burrow i develop into Thq- in the soil, in the moist tissues of plants, and in''''-0 pairs of ",;ngs, one of.....hich is thick and stiff, the ha'e the body fluids intestinal muscles and produce more juveniles, whic and tissues of animals. In contrast to annelids,membranous. lbty h;l'e an armomi nosktltton and other nematodes do mouthPMU adapled for biting and ehe",;ng. BertIes undergo or travel in lymphatic vessels to other through the body not have segmented bodies. The cylindrical bodies of nema- complete metamorphosis. including skeletal muscles, where they encyst. todes range from less than 1 mm to more than a meter in length, Parasitic nematodes have an extraordinary mo often tapering to a fine tip at the posterior end and to a more DermaptcnII 1.200 Earwigs are generally nocturnal Ka'mgers. Sotmo species are them to redirect some of the cellula toolkit that enables blunt tip at the anterior end (Figure 33.25).'oingless, while others ha...e Iwo p,airs of"'ings, one of ....hich is A nematode's body tions of their hosts and thus evade their immune sy is covered by a tough cuticle; as the worm grows, itkoathery, the other membranous. EalVoigs have biting thick and periodically Plant-parasitic nematodes inject molecules that indu mouthparts and large posterior pincer" They undergo incom- sheds its old cuticle and secretes a new, larger one. Nematodes plete metamorphosis. Earwig development of root cells, which then supply nutrients have an alimentary canal, though they lack a circulatory system. parasites. Trichinella controls the expression of s Nutrients are transported throughout the body via fluid in the Diptera 151,000 Diptl"I'1UIS ha.T one pair of ..... ings;!.he muscle-cell genes that code for proteins that make the ce SCCOlld pair has be<:OITK' pseudocoelom. The body wall muscles are modined into balancing organs called haltcrtS. Their mouth- all longitudinal, and Tuesday, April 13, 2010 tic enough to house the nematode. Additionally, the in pam are adapll'd for sucking, piercing. or lapping. Dipll."rans
    • r;;==; Although defined primarily by specks-rich Ofdcr and many onts features. These free-living worms Calcarea and Silicea 350.000 Coleoptera Cmdana Biology II - Zoology BcrtIcs comprise the most ha'e ''''-0 pairs of dade planet of ins«u. Thq- molecular evidence, the",;ngs, one of.....hich is thick and stiff, the decomposition and nutrient cycling, b important role in Lopholnxhowa other membranous. lbty h;l'e an armomi nosktltton and Ecdysozoa mouthPMU adapled for biting and ehe",;ng. BertIes undergo includes animals is known about most species. One species of soil nem Ecdysozoa Deuterostorma tough metamorphosis.Invertebrates that shed a completeexternal coat Caellorhabditis elegalls, however, is very well studied a Arthropods Insect Diversity in fact, Exploring (cuticle) as they grow; become a model research organism in biology (see Chap the group derives its name from this process, which is called DermaptcnII 1.200 Insects Earwigs are generally nocturnal Ka'mgers. Sotmo species are C. elegans are revealing some of the Ongoing studies on molting, or ecdysis. Ecdysozoa consists of 'oingless,eightothers ha...e Iwo p,airs of"'ings, involved in aging in humans, among other findin , about while animal anisms one of ....hich is Approximate thick and koathery, the other membranous. EalVoigs have biting includes many significant agric phyla and contains mOTe known species than all other protist, mouthparts and large posterior pincer" Phylum Nematoda Order Number of Main Characteristics incom- plete metamorphosis. They undergo Examples Earwig fungus, plant, and animal Species groups combined. Here we'll focus pests that attack the roots ofplants. Other species of nem on the two largest e<dysozoan phyla, the nematodes and parasitize animals. Humans are hosts to at least 50 nem Cockroaches ha'c dorso'entrally species, including various pinworms and hookworms. O arthropods, which are among4,"" most successfulha.T oneapair of .....ings;!.he SCCOlldbody,has be<:OITK' the Diptl"I'1UIS and abun- 8lattodea with lqs Diptera 151,000 pair modified for rapid running. Forewings hen present, are leath· dant of all animal groups. modined into balancing organs called haltcrtS. nematode is Trichinella spiralis, the worm that torious Their mouth- German ery, ",ilereas hind wings are fan6J.:e. F w than 40 cockroKh pam are adapll'd for sucking, piercing. or lapping. Dipll."rans cockroach trichinosis (Figure 33.26).Horsefly §Ilt'cies moe in houses; the rest exploit habitUs r.lnging from undergo complete metamorphosis. Flies and mosquitoes are Humans acquire this nemat forest floors to caves and descn.s. Nematodes eating raw or undercooked pork or other meat (includin among the best·known dipterans, which live as scavengers. predators. and parasites. game such as bear or walrus) that has juvenile worms en Some of the most ubiquitous animals, nematodes (phylum Coleoptera 350.000 BcrtIcs comprise the most specks-rich the muscle tissue. '(!ithin the human intestines, the ju in Ofdcr of ins«u. Thq- Nematoda), or roundworms, are found in most aquatic habitats, of.....hich is thick and stiff, the ha'e ''''-0 pairs of ",;ngs, one Hemiptera 85,000 develop bed sexually mature adults. Females burrow i Hemipterans are so-called "true bugs; includingintobugs, u· otherthe body fluids h;l'e an armomi nosktltton and membranous. lbty in the soil, in the moist tissues of plants, and in bugs, and chinch bugs. ([nsects in other orders are some· sassin Leaf- times erroneously called bugs.) Hemipterans have muscles and produce more juveniles, whic intestinal t.....o pairs of mouthPMU adapled for biting and ehe",;ng. BertIes undergo and tissues of animals. In contrast to annelids, nematodes do complete metamorphosis. footed wings, one pair partly leathery. the other membranous. Theyor travel in lymphatic vessels to other through the body bog not have segmented bodies. The cylindrical bodies of sucking mouthparts and undergo incomplete have piercing or nema- metamorphosis. including skeletal muscles, where they encyst. todes range from less than 1 mm to more than a meter in length, DermaptcnII 1.200 Parasitic nematodes have an extraordinary mo Earwigs are generally nocturnal Ka'mgers. Sotmo species are often tapering to a fine tip at the posterior end and to others ha...e Iwo p,airs of"'ings, one of ....hich is 'oingless, while a more toolkit that enables them to redirect some of the cellula 125,000 A nematode's theare membranous. EalVoigs have biting at the anterior end (Figure 33.25). Ants, and koathery, body generally highly social insects. They blunt tipHymenopten thick bees, and wasps other mouthparts and large posterior pincer" They undergo incom- and thus evade their immune sy tions of their hosts is covered by a tough cuticle; as the worm grows,metamorphosis. it periodically have two pairs of membranous wings. a mobile head. and plete Earwig Plant-parasitic nematodes inject molecules that indu chewing or sucking mouthparts. The females of many spe<ies sheds its old cuticle and secretes a new, larger one. Nematodes have a posterior stinging organ. Hymenopterans undergo com- development of root cells, which then supply nutrients have an alimentary canal, though they lack a plete metamorphosis. circulatory system. Cicad<l-killer wasp Diptera 151,000 parasites. Trichinella controls the expression of s Diptl"I'1UIS ha.T one pair of ..... ings;!.he SCCOlld pair has be<:OITK' Nutrients are transported throughout the body viainto balancing organs called haltcrtS. Their mouth- modined fluid in the muscle-cell genes that code for proteins that make the ce pseudocoelom. The body wall 2,"" muscles are all longitudinal, andsocialpiercing.thatlapping. Dipll."rans pam are adapll'd for sucking, or Horsefly Termites complete metamorphosis. tic enough to house the nematode. Additionally, the in are Widespread lsoptcra Tuesday, April 13, 2010 undergo Flies produce enormous ins«ts and mosquitoes are
    • r;;==; Hemiptera Calcarea and Silicea Cmdana 85,000 Hemipterans are so-called "true bugs; including bed bugs, u· Although defined primarily by ([nsects in other orders are some· features. These free-living worms Biology II - Zoology sassin bugs, and chinch bugs. times erroneously dade planet and many onts important role in of Leaf- molecular evidence, the called bugs.) Hemipterans have t.....o pairs decomposition and nutrient cycling, b footed Lopholnxhowa wings, one pair partly leathery. the other membranous. They bog Ecdysozoa have piercing or sucking mouthpartsis known about most species. One species of soil nem includes animals Invertebrates and undergo incomplete Ecdysozoa metamorphosis. that shed a tough external coat Caellorhabditis elegalls, however, is very well studied a Deuterostorma Arthropods Exploring Insect Diversity in fact, (cuticle) as they grow; become a model research organism in biology (see Chap Hymenopten Ants, bees, and wasps are Insects the group derives its name from this process, which is called generally Ongoing studies on C. elegans are revealing some of the 125,000 highly social insects. They molting, or ecdysis. Ecdysozoa consists of about eightofanimal , have two pairs membranous wings. a mobileinvolved in aging in humans, among other findin anisms head. and Approximate chewingother mouthparts. The females of many spe<ies or sucking phyla and contains mOTe known species than all posterior protist,organ. Hymenopterans undergo com- includes many significant agric Phylum Nematoda have a stinging Order Number of Main Characteristics Examples fungus, plant, and animal Species groups combined. Here we'll focus plete metamorphosis. pests that attack the roots ofplants. Other species of nem Cicad<l-killer wasp on the two largest e<dysozoan phyla, the nematodes and parasitize animals. Humans are hosts to at least 50 nem 8lattodea 4,"" Cockroaches ha'c a dorso'entrally species, including various pinworms and hookworms. O arthropods, which are among2,"" most successful and abun-social ins«ts that produce enormous the body, with lqs lsoptcra Termites are Widespread modified for rapid running. Forewings hen present, are leath· dant of all animal groups. colonies. It has been estimated that F w are 700 kg oftet'mites Trichinella spiralis, the worm that ery, ",ilereas hind wings are fan6J.:e. torious nematode is there than 40 cockroKh German for every per50Il on Earth! Some termites ha,'e t"'·o pairs of cockroach Approximate membranous ....ings, .....the rest exploit ....ingless.r.lnging from 33.26). Humans acquire this nemat §Ilt'cies moe in houses; hile others aretrichinosis (Figure habitUs They f«d on forest floors to caves and descn.s. Nematodes Order Number of eating raw aid of microbial symbionts carried in spe<ial.izcd Examples .....ood. ....ith the Main Characteristics or undercooked pork orTerrmte meat (includin other Species chambers in their hindgut.690 game such as bear or walrus) that has juvenile worms en Some of the most ubiquitous animals, nematodes (phylum Coleoptera 350.000 BcrtIcs comprise the most specks-rich the muscle tissue. '(!ithin the human intestines, the ju in Ofdcr of ins«u. Thq- Nematoda), or roundworms, 120.000 Lepidoptera are found in most aquatic habitats, amOllg the best-knownstiff, the ha'e ''''-0 pairs of ",;ngs, one of.....hich is thick and insects. Butterflies and moths arc other membranous. of ""ings covered ....ith tinyinto sexually mature adults. Females burrow i They have two J»irslbty develop SQlI('$. To in the soil, in the moist tissues of plants, andfeed, the body illfluids h;l'e an armomi nosktltton and in they uncoil long proboscis. Most ft'rd on n«ur, but mouthPMU adapled for biting and ehe",;ng. BertIes undergo and produce more juveniles, whic intestinal muscles and tissues of animals. In contrast to annelids, species feed on other substan<:es. including animal $Orne nematodes do complete metamorphosis. blood or tears. through the body or travelSwallowtaIl in lymphatic vessels to other not have segmented bodies. The cylindrical bodies of nema- butterfly 690 UNIT fiVE The Evolutionary History of Biological Diversity including skeletal muscles, where they encyst. todes range from less than 1 mm to more than a meter in length, DermaptcnII 1.200 Parasitic nematodes have an extraordinary mo Earwigs are generally nocturnal Ka'mgers. Sotmo species are often tapering to a fine tip at the posterior end and to others ha...e Iwo p,airs of"'ings, one of ....hich is 'oingless, while a more toolkit that enables them to redirect some of the cellula thick and koathery, the other membranous. EalVoigs blunt tipOdonalaanterior end (Figure 33.25). A nematode's body han' two J»irs of large. have biting at the 5.000 Dragonflies and damselflies nous '>lings. and large posterior pincer" They undergo incom- and thus evade their immune sy mouthparts They N'''' an dongakdtions of Large. com- abdomen. their hosts is covered by a tough cuticle; as the worm grows,metamorphosis. mouthparts. They undcrgo plete pound it periodically and cheo.ooing Earwig Plant-parasitic nematodes inject molecules that indu sheds its old cuticle and secretes a new, larger one. Nematodes and arc active predators. incompktt metamorphosis development of root cells, which then supply nutrients Dragoofty have an alimentary canal, though they lack a circulatory system. Diptera 151,000 parasites. Trichinella controls the expression of s Diptl"I'1UIS ha.T one pair of ..... ings;!.he SCCOlld pair has be<:OITK' Nutrients are transported throughout the body viainto balancing organs called haltcrtS. Their mouth- modined fluid in the muscle-cell genes that code for proteins that make the ce Grasshoppers. crickcu. and piercing. or alt' mostly herbr.'O- pseudocoelom. The body wall13.000 muscles are all longitudinal, and their rdatin'$ lapping. Dipll."rans pam are adapll'd for sucking, Horsefly Tuesday, April 13, 2010 rous. They have Large hind Iq;s adapted enough to house the nematode. Additionally, the in undergo complete metamorphosis. tic for jumping. '....0 are Flies and mosquitoes pairs
    • r;;==; Calcarea and Silicea Although defined primarily by covered ....ith tiny SQlI('$. To onts features. These free-living worms They have two J»irs of ""ings Biology II - Zoology planet and many feed, they uncoil ill long proboscis. Most ft'rd on n«ur, but molecular evidence, the on other substan<:es. including animalin decomposition and nutrient cycling, b $Orne species feed dade Cmdana important role Lopholnxhowa SwallowtaIl Ecdysozoa blood or tears. animals includes is known about most species. One species of soil nem Invertebrates Ecdysozoa butterfly Deuterostorma that shed a tough external coat Caellorhabditis elegalls, however, is very well studied a Arthropods Insect Diversity in fact, Exploring (cuticle) as they grow; become a model research organism in biology (see Chap Odonala 5.000 Insects the group derives its name from this process, which isdamselflies han' two J»irs of large. Dragonflies and called Ongoing studies on C. elegans are revealing some of the molting, or ecdysis. Ecdysozoa consists of about eight animal dongakdanisms involved in aging in humans, among other findin , nous '>lings. They N'''' an abdomen. Large. com- Approximate than all other protist,mouthparts. They undcrgoNematoda includes many significant agric pound and cheo.ooing phyla and contains mOTe known species incompktt metamorphosis and arc active predators. Phylum Order Number of Main Characteristics Examples fungus, plant, and animal Species groups combined. Here we'll focus pests that attack the roots ofplants. Other species of nem Dragoofty on the two largest e<dysozoan phyla, the nematodes and parasitize animals. Humans are hosts to at least 50 nem 8lattodea 13.000 Cockroaches ha'c a dorso'entrally species, including various pinworms and hookworms. O arthropods, which are among4,"" most successful and abun- their rdatin'$ alt' mostly herbr.'O- the Grasshoppers. crickcu. and body, with lqs modified for rapid running. Forewings hen present, are leath· rous. They have Large hind Iq;s adapted for jumping. '....0 pairs dant of all animal groups. ery, ",ilereas hind wings aremembnnous), than nematode is Trichinella spiralis, the worm that torious 40 cockroKh of.... ings (one leathery, one fan6J.:e. F w and biting orcbew- German §Ilt'cies moe in houses; commonly make courtship sounds by 33.26). cockroach acquire this nemat trichinosis (Figure ing mouthparts. Malesthe rest exploit habitUs r.lnging from Humans rubbing forest floors to palU. and descn.s. on their hind legs. togelht-r body caves such as ill ridge Nematodes Orthopterans undergo incomplete mrtamorphosis. eating raw or undercooked pork or other meat (includin Katydid game such as bear or walrus) that has juvenile worms en Some of the most ubiquitous animals, nematodes (phylum Coleoptera 350.000 BcrtIcs comprise the most specks-rich the muscle tissue. '(!ithin the human intestines, the ju in Ofdcr of ins«u. Thq- Nematoda), or roundworms, are found in most aquatic habitats, of.....hich is thick and stiff, the Phasmalodea Stick inserts and leaf insects are exquisite mimics of plants. ha'e ''''-0 pairs of ",;ngs, one develop into sexually mature insect Females burrow i l"he eggs of some sjX'Cies e"en mimic seeds nosktltton and other membranous. lbty h;l'e an armomi orthe plants on Stick adults. in the soil, in the moist tissues of plants, and in the insects live. Their body iscylindrkal or natlenro ....hich the body fluids mouthPMU adapled for biting and ehe",;ng. BertIes undergo and produce more juveniles, whic intestinal muscles dorsoventrally. They lack foreWings but have fanlike hind and tissues of animals. In contrast to annelids, nematodes do complete metamorphosis. dngs. Their mouthparts arc adapted for biting or chewing. or travel in lymphatic vessels to other through the body not have segmented bodies. The cylindrical bodies of nema- including skeletal muscles, where they encyst. todes range from less than 1 mm to more than a meter in length, DermaptcnII 1.200 Parasitic nematodes have an extraordinary mo Earwigs are generally nocturnal Ka'mgers. Sotmo species are often tapering to a fine tip at the posterior end and called sucking lice, these insects spend their entire Phthiraplcr<i 2.400 Commonly to a more 'oingless, while others ha...e Iwo p,airs of"'ings, one of ....hich is life as an ectoparasite feeding on thetoolkit that enables them to redirect some of the cellula hair or feathers of a single thick and koathery, the other membranous. EalVoigs have Human blunt tip at the anterior end (Figure 33.25). A nematode's body with clawlike tarsi, are adaptedbiting host. Their legs, equipped for mouthparts and large posterior pincer" They undergo incom- and body evade their immune sy tions havetheir hosts of reduced eyes. thus is covered by a tough cuticle; as the worm grows,metamorphosis. They lack wings and plete it periodically clinging to their hosts. louse Earwig Plant-parasitic nematodes inject molecules that indu Sucking lice undergo incomplete metamorphosis. sheds its old cuticle and secretes a new, larger one. Nematodes , development of root cells, which then supply nutrients have an alimentary canal, though they lack a circulatory system. Diptera 151,000 parasites. Trichinella controls the expression of s Diptl"I'1UIS ha.T one pair of ..... ings;!.he SCCOlld pair has be<:OITK' Nutrients are transported throughout the body are bloodsucking ectoparasites on birds and mammals. Siphonaplel'll 2.400 fleas via fluid in the modined into balancing organs called haltcrtS. Their mouth- muscle-cell genes that code for proteins that make the ce Their body is Wingless and laterally compressed. Their legs are pseudocoelom. The body wall muscles are all longitudinal, and hosts and or lapping. Dipll."rans pam are adapll'd for sucking, piercing. modified for clinging to their for long-distance jump- Horsefly Tuesday, April 13, 2010 undergo complete metamorphosis. tic enough to house the nematode. Additionally, the in Flies and mosquitoes are
    • r;;==; Phasmalodea and Silicea Calcarea Cmdana Stick inserts and leaf by Although defined primarilyinsects are exquisite mimics of plants. onts features. These free-living worms Biology II - Zoology planet and many molecular evidence,some sjX'Cies e"en mimic seeds orthe plants on decomposition and nutrient cycling, b l"he eggs of the dade important role in Stick insect Lopholnxhowa ....hich the insects live. Their body iscylindrkal or natlenro Ecdysozoa dorsoventrally. animalsforeWings butknown about most species. One species of soil nem includes They lack is have fanlike hind Ecdysozoa Deuterostorma Invertebrates that shed a toughTheir mouthparts arc adapted for biting or chewing. dngs. external coat Caellorhabditis elegalls, however, is very well studied a Arthropods Insect Diversity in fact, Exploring (cuticle) as they grow; become a model research organism in biology (see Chap Phthiraplcr<i 2.400 Insects the group derives its name from this process, which is called lice, theseOngoing studies on C. elegans are revealing some of the Commonly called sucking insects spend their entire molting, or ecdysis. Ecdysozoa consists of about eight animal on theanisms involved in aging in humans, among other findin , life as an ectoparasite feeding hair or feathers of a single Human Approximate host. Their legs, equipped with clawlike tarsi, are adapted for phyla and contains mOTe known species than all other protist, lack wings and have reduced eyes. body Phylum Nematoda includes many significant agric Order Number of clinging to their hosts. They Main Characteristics louse Examples fungus, plant, and animal Species groups combined. Here we'll focus Sucking lice undergo incomplete metamorphosis. attack the roots ofplants. Other species of nem pests that , on the two largest e<dysozoan phyla, the nematodes and parasitize animals. Humans are hosts to at least 50 nem 8lattodea the Cockroaches ha'c a dorso'entrally species, including various pinworms and hookworms. O arthropods, which are among4,"" most successful and abun- body, with lqs Siphonaplel'll 2.400 fleas are bloodsucking ectoparasites on birds and mammals. modified for rapid running. Forewings hen present, are leath· dant of all animal groups. ery, ",ilereas hind wings arelaterally compressed. Their legs are Trichinella spiralis, the worm that Their body is Wingless and fan6J.:e. F w than nematode is torious 40 cockroKh German modified for clinging to their hosts and for long-distance jump- trichinosis (Figure 33.26). cockroach acquire this nemat §Ilt'cies moe in houses; the rest exploit habitUs r.lnging from ing. They undergo complete metamorphosis. Humans forest floors to caves and descn.s. Nematodes Flea eating raw or undercooked pork or other meat (includin game such as bear or walrus) that has juvenile worms en Some of the most ubiquitous 450 animals, nematodes small, Wingless insects with a nauenM body and Silverfish arc (phylum Coleoptera 350.000 BcrtIcs comprise the most specks-rich the muscle tissue. '(!ithin the human intestines, the ju in Ofdcr of ins«u. Thq- reduced eycs. They live inleaflittl'l" or under Inri:. Theyan Nematoda), or roundworms, are found in most aquatic habitats, of.....hich is thick and stiff, the ha'e ''''-0 pairs of ",;ngs, one also infest buildings, whl'l"e they candevelop into sexually mature adults. Females burrow i become pests. in the soil, in the moist tissues of plants, and in otherthe body fluids h;l'e an armomi nosktltton and membranous. lbty mouthPMU adapled for biting and ehe",;ng. BertIes undergo and produce more juveniles, whic Silverfish intestinal muscles and tissues of animals. In contrast to annelids, nematodes do complete metamorphosis. through the body or travel in lymphatic vessels to other not haveTrichapten bodies. The cylindrical bodies of nema- in streams, ,,'here they make segmented 7.100 The larvae of caddistlies lin' including skeletal house'S from sand gr;AiRS•..-ood fragments. or ot.hef material muscles, where they encyst. todes range from less than 1 mm to more than a meter in length, haw f',Hl pairs of hairy wings and held tosether by silk. Adults DermaptcnII 1.200 Parasitic nematodes have an extraordinary mo Earwigs are generally nocturnal Ka'mgers. Sotmo species are often tapering to a fine tip at the posterior end and lappingmore Iwo p,airs of"'ings, one of ....hich is chOling or to a mouthpalU. They undtrgo complete meta- 'oingless, while others ha...e morphosis. toolkit that enables them to redirect some of the cellula Caddisfty blunt tip at the anterior end (Figure 33.25). A nematode's body membranous. EalVoigs have biting thick and koathery, the other mouthparts and large posterior pincer" They undergo incom- and thus evade their immune sy tions of their hosts is covered by a tough cuticle; as the worm grows,metamorphosis. plete it periodically Earwig Plant-parasitic nematodes inject molecules that indu sheds its old cuticle and secretes a new, larger one. Nematodes development of rootlHIUl·TllIIU Invertebrates nutrients cells, which then supply 691 have an alimentary canal, though they lack a circulatory system. Diptera 151,000 parasites. Trichinella controls the expression of s Diptl"I'1UIS ha.T one pair of ..... ings;!.he SCCOlld pair has be<:OITK' Nutrients are transported throughout the body viainto balancing organs called haltcrtS. Their mouth- modined fluid in the muscle-cell genes that code for proteins that make the ce pseudocoelom. The body wall muscles are all longitudinal, and piercing. or lapping. Dipll."rans pam are adapll'd for sucking, Horsefly Tuesday, April 13, 2010 undergo complete metamorphosis. tic enough to house the nematode. Additionally, the in Flies and mosquitoes are
    • r;;==; Calcarea and Silicea Cmdana Although defined primarily by Biology II - Zoology molecular evidence, the dade planet and many onts features. These free-living worms important role in decomposition and nutrient cycling, b Crustaceans Lopholnxhowa Ecdysozoa includes animals is known about most species. One species of soil nem Ecdysozoa Deuterostorma Invertebrates Vhjle arachnids and insects thrive on a tough external coat that shed land, crustaceans, for the most part. have remained in marine and freshwater environ- Caellorhabditis elegalls, however, is very well studied a (cuticle) as they grow; in fact, become a model research organism in biology (see Chap ments. Crustlre.ms the group derives itsappendages. Lobsters process, which instance. specialized name from this and crayfIShes, for is called Crustaceans Crustlce,) typically M" highly Ongoing studies on C. elegans are revealing some of the molting, live marine of 19 pairs of appendages about eight animal • oranteriormost and freshwater of crustaceans areThe ecdysis. Ecdysozoa consists environments; typically have highly specializedin humans, among other findin have a toolkit 33.29). anisms involved in aging appendages phyla andanteriormost known are antennae; antennae; crustaceans are the only arthropods with two pairs agric appendages species than contains mOTe appendages are all other protist, the • only arthropods with two pairs. Three or more pairs of ap- Phylum Nematoda includes many significant fungus, plant, and animal groups combined. Here we'll focus pests that attack the roots ofplants. Other species of nem pendages are modified as mouthparts. including the hard on the Three or more pairs of appendages are modified as mouthparts, including the hard mandibles 50 nem twomandibles. Walking legs are present on the thorax, and, unlike largest e<dysozoan phyla, the nematodes and parasitize animals. Humans are hosts to at least arthropods, insects, crustaceans alsothe most successful and and, unlike insects, including various pinworms and hookworms. O Walking legs among regenerated at nextthorax, abun- which are are present on theon their abdomen. have appendages species, crustaceans also have appendages A lost groups. (a) Ghost crabs live on sandy ocean beaches worldwide. Pnmarily dant of all animalappendage can beA lost appendage can be regenerated atnematode is burrows dunng the day_ the worm that on their abdomen. molt. nocturnal. they take shelter In Trichinella spiralis, torious next molt. Small crustaceans exchange gases across thin areas of the cuticle; larger species have gills. Nitrogenous ....'astes also dif- trichinosis (Figure 33.26). Humans acquire this nemat Nematodes through thin areas of the cuticle. but a pair of glands reg- fuse eating raw or undercooked pork or other meat (includin the ulates the salt balance of the hemolymph. game such as bear or walrus) that has juvenile worms en Some of the mostare separate in most crustaceans. In the case of lob- on- Sexes ubiquitous animals, nematodes (phylum in the muscle tissue. '(!ithin the human intestines, the ju Nematoda), sters and crayfish. theare foundain most aquatic habitats, hly or roundworms, male uses specialized pair of abdomi- develop into sexually mature adults. Females burrow i in the soil, in the moist tissues of plants, and reproductive pore of ce. nal appendages to transfer sperm to the in the body fluids the female during copulation. Most aquatic crustaceans go intestinal muscles and produce more juveniles, whic The tissues of animals. In contrast to larval stages.nematodes do and through one or more swimming annelids, through the body or travel in lymphatic vessels to other the have segmented bodies. groups cylindrical bodies of nema- not One ofthe largest The ofcrustaceans (numbering about ap- including skeletal muscles, where they encyst. todes range from less than the isopods, which includemeter in length, IO,lXX') species) is 1 mm to more than a terrestrial. fresh· Parasitic nematodes have an extraordinary mo often tapering to and marine species. Some isopodend and to a more ard water, a fine tip at the posterior species are abundant ike tip at thehabitats at the bottom of the deep ocean. Among thebody in ter· toolkit that enables them to redirect some of the cellula blunt anterior end the pill bugs. or wood lice. common on the restrial isopods are (Figure 33.25). A nematode's en. tions of their hosts and thus evade their immune sy is covered by a tough of moistsandyand worm grows, it periodically undersides cuticle;logs the leaves. (a) Ghost crabs live on as ocean beaches worldwide. Pnmarily (b) Planktonic crustaceans known (el The injectappendages Plant-parasitic nematodes JOinted molecules that indu Lobsters. crayfishes. crabs.new, larger one. Nematodes cuticle they take shelter and shrimpsare all day_ large sheds its oldnocturnal. and secretes a In burrows dunng the as I:::rin are consumed In vast prOjectlng from the shells the crust:aceanscalleddecapods (Figure 33.38a). Thecuticleofde- development of root cells, which thencapture nutrients quantities by some whales. of these barnacles supply have an alimentary canal, though they lack a circulatory system. dif- organISms and organic capods is hardened by calcium carbonate; the portion that cov- parasites. Trichinella controls the expression of s partlCles suspended in Nutrients are transported ofthe cephalothorax body a shield called the eg- ers the dorsal side throughout the forms via fluid in the the water. muscle-cell genes that code for proteins that make the ce pseudocoelom. The Most decapod species are marine. Crayfishes, how- carapace. body wall muscles are all longitudinal, and • Figure 33.38 Crustaceans. the nematode. Additionally, the in Tuesday, April 13, 2010 ever, live in fresh water, and some tropical crabs live on land. tic enough to house
    • Sea stars, sea urchins, and other spiny, and derma, skin) are slow-moving or sessile mar ! Cmdana Lopholrochozoa e<hinoderms (phylum Biology II - Zoology imals. A thin epidermis covers an endoskeleton of h dermata) may seem to have lit- careous plates. Most echinoderms are prickly from Ecdysozoa Deuterostomia tle in common with phylum Chordata, which includes the Invertebrates bumps and spines. Unique to echinoderms is the vascular system, a network of hydraulic canals branch vertebrates-animals that have a backbone. In fact, however, Echinoderms extensions called tube feet that function in locomotio echinoderms and chordates share features characteristic of a ing, and gas exchange (Figure 33.39). Sexual reprodu deuterostome mode of development, such as radial cleavage echinoderms usually involves separate male and fema and formation of the mouth at the end of the embryo opposite viduals that release their gametes into the water. Echinoderms are deuterostomes. the blastopore (see Figure 32.9). Molecular systematics has re- The internal and external parts of most adult echin inforced Deuterostomia as a clade of bilaterian animals. But radiate from the center, often as five spokes. However molecular evidence also indicates that some animal phyla with oderm larvae have bilateral symmetry. Furthermore, th Molecular systematics has reinforced Deuterostomia as a members that have deuterostome developmental features, in- metry of adult echinoderms is not truly radial. For ex clade of bilaterian animals. But molecular evidence also cluding ectoprocts and brachiopods, are not in the deutero- stome dade (see Chapter 32). Hence, despite its name, the clade the opening (madreporite) ofa sea star's water vascular is not central but shifted to one side. indicates that some animal phyla with members that have deuterostome developmental features, including ectoprocts and brachiopods, are not in the deuterostome clade. Hence, despite The surface of a sea star is its name, the cladedigestive tract runs from theis defined primarily by DNA Ashort Deuterostomia covered by spines that help defend against predators, as similarities, not developmentalcentral mouth on the bottom of the similarities. small gills that well as by provide gas exchange. disk to the anus on top of the disk. Central disk. The central disk Tuesday,a nerve ring and nerve has April 13, 2010 r
    • Sea stars, sea urchins, and other spiny, and derma, skin) are slow-moving or sessile mar ! Cmdana Lopholrochozoa e<hinoderms (phylum Biology II - Zoology imals. A thin epidermis covers an endoskeleton of h dermata) may seem to have lit- careous plates. Most echinoderms are prickly from Ecdysozoa Deuterostomia tle in common with phylum Chordata, which includes the Invertebrates bumps and spines. Unique to echinoderms is the vascular system, a network of hydraulic canals branch vertebrates-animals that have a backbone. In fact, however, Echinodermata extensions called tube feet that function in locomotio echinoderms and chordates share features characteristic of a ing, and gas exchange (Figure 33.39). Sexual reprodu deuterostome mode of development, such as radial cleavage echinoderms usually involves separate male and fema and formation of the mouth at the end of the embryo opposite viduals that release their gametes into the water. the blastopore (see Figure 32.9). Molecular systematics has re- The internal and external parts of most adult echin inforced Deuterostomia as a clade of bilaterian animals. But radiate from the center, often as five spokes. However molecular evidence also indicates that some animal phyla with oderm larvae have bilateral symmetry. Furthermore, th members that have deuterostome developmental features, in- metry of adult echinoderms is not truly radial. For ex cluding ectoprocts and brachiopods, are not in the deutero- the opening (madreporite) ofa sea star's water vascular stome dade (see Chapter 32). Hence, despite its name, the clade is not central but shifted to one side. (a) Asea star (class Asteroidea) (b) Abrittle star (class Ophiuroidea) The surface of a sea star is covered by spines that help Ashort digestive tract runs from the defend against predators, as mouth on the bottom of the central well as by small gills that disk to the anus on top of the disk. provide gas exchange. Central disk. The central disk Tuesday,a nerve ring and nerve has April 13, 2010 r «) Asea urchin (class E(hinoidea) (d) Afeather star (class Crinoidea)
    • spiny, and derma, skin) are slow-moving or sessile mar Sea stars, sea urchins, and other ! Cmdana Lopholrochozoa e<hinoderms (phylum Biology II - Zoology imals. A thin epidermis covers an endoskeleton of h careous plates. Most echinoderms are prickly from dermata) may seem to have lit- Ecdysozoa Deuterostomia tle in common with phylum Chordata, which includes the Invertebrates bumps and spines. Unique to echinoderms is the vascular system, a network of hydraulic canals branch vertebrates-animals that have a backbone. In fact, however, Echinodermata extensions called tube feet that function in locomotio «) Asea urchin (class E(hinoidea) ing, and gas exchange (Figure 33.39). Sexual reprodu echinoderms and chordates share features characteristic of a (d) Afeather star (class Crinoidea) deuterostome mode of development, such as radial cleavage echinoderms usually involves separate male and fema and formation of the mouth at the end of the embryo opposite viduals that release their gametes into the water. the blastopore (see Figure 32.9). Molecular systematics has re- The internal and external parts of most adult echin inforced Deuterostomia as a clade of bilaterian animals. But radiate from the center, often as five spokes. However molecular evidence also indicates that some animal phyla with oderm larvae have bilateral symmetry. Furthermore, th members that have deuterostome developmental features, in- metry of adult echinoderms is not truly radial. For ex cluding ectoprocts and brachiopods, are not in the deutero- the opening (madreporite) ofa sea star's water vascular stome dade (see Chapter 32). Hence, despite its name, the clade is not central but shifted to one side. The surface of a sea star is (e) Asea cucumber (class Holothuroidea) (f) A sea daisy (class Con(entricycloidea) covered by spines that help .. Figure 33.40 Echinoderms. Ashort digestive tract runs from the defend against predators, as mouth on the bottom of the central well as by small gills that disk to the anus on top of the disk. provide CHECK 33.5 CONCEPT gas exchange. Chordales 1. Describe how sea star tube feet attach to substrates. Phylum Chordata consists of m'o subphyla of invertebrates as 2. Are characteristics shared by a sea star and a sea daisy r well as the hagfishes and the vertebrates. Chordates are bilat- erally symmetrical coelomates with segmented bodies. The dose relationship between echinoderms and chordates does Central disk. The central diskevolved from the other. In fact, not mean 13, 2010 and nerve Tuesday,a nerve ring phylum has April that one homologous or analogous? Explain. 3. •i,il:O'I,. The insect Drosophila me/anogasler and the nematode Caenurhabditis e/egans are prominent model organisms. Are these species the most appro-
    • spiny, and derma, skin) are slow-moving or sessile mar Sea stars, sea urchins, and other ! Cmdana Lopholrochozoa e<hinoderms (phylum Biology II - Zoology imals. A thin epidermis covers an endoskeleton of h careous plates. Most echinoderms are prickly from dermata) may seem to have lit- Ecdysozoa Deuterostomia tle in common with phylum Chordata, which includes the Invertebrates bumps and spines. Unique to echinoderms is the vascular system, a network of hydraulic canals branch Echinoderms vertebrates-animals that have a backbone. In fact, however, Echinodermata extensions called tube feet that function in locomotio echinoderms and chordates share features characteristic of a ing, and gas exchange (Figure 33.39). Sexual reprodu deuterostome mode of development, such as radial cleavage echinoderms usually involves separate male and fema Class and and formation of the mouth at the end of characteristics Main the embryo opposite viduals that release their gametes into the water. Examples the blastopore (see Figure 32.9). Molecular systematics has re- The internal and external parts of most adult echin inforced Deuterostomia as a clade of bilaterian animals. But radiate from the center, often as five spokes. However molecular evidence also indicatesStar-shaped body with multipleoderm larvae have bilateral symmetry. Furthermore, th Asteroidea that some animal phyla with arms; mouth directed to substrate members that have deuterostome developmental features, in- metry of adult echinoderms is not truly radial. For ex Ophiuridea cluding ectoprocts and brachiopods, are not in thedisk; long, flexible opening (madreporite) ofa sea star's water vascular Distinct central deutero- the arms; incomplete digestive system stome dade (see Chapter 32). Hence, despite its name, the clade is not central but shifted to one side. Echinoidea Roughly spherical or disk-shaped; no arms; five rows of tube feet, enabling slow movement; mouth ringed by complex, jaw-like structure Crinoidea Feathered arms surrounding upward-pointing mouth; suspension feeders The surface of a sea star is Holothuroidea Cucumber-shaped body; five rows covered by spines that feet around the of tube feet; tube help Ashort digestive tract runs from the tentacles; against predators, as mouth are bottom of the central modified as feeding defend reduced skeleton; mouth on the well as by small gills that no spines disk to the anus on top of the disk. provide gas exchange. Concentri- Armless, disk-shaped body ringed with small spines: incomplete digestive r cycloidea system; live on sub- merged wood Central disk. The central disk Tuesday,a nerve ring and nerve has April 13, 2010
    • and formation of the mouth at the end of the embryo opposite spiny, and derma, skin) are slow-moving or sessile mar Sea stars, sea urchins, and other The internal and external parts of most adult echinoderms Biology II - Zoology the blastopore (see Figure 32.9). Molecular systematics has re- ! e<hinoderms (phylum Cmdana Deuterostomia as a clade of bilaterian animals. But inforced molecular evidence also indicates that some animal phyla with radiate from the center, often epidermis However, echin- imals. A thin as five spokes. covers an endoskeleton of h oderm larvae have bilateral symmetry. Furthermore, the sym- Lopholrochozoa dermata) may seem to have lit- metry ofcareous plates. not truly echinoderms are prickly from Most radial. For example, Invertebratesnetwork of hydraulic canals branch members that have deuterostome developmental features, in- Ecdysozoa adult echinoderms is Deuterostomia brachiopods, are not the deutero- bumps and spines. Unique to echinoderms is the cluding ectoprocts andtle in common inwith phylum the opening (madreporite) ofa sea star's water vascular system stome dade (see Chapter 32). Hence, despite its name, the clade is not central but shifted to one side. Chordata, which includes the vascular system, a Echinoderms vertebrates-animals that have a backbone. In fact, however, Sea star tube feet that function in locomotio extensions called echinoderms and chordates share features characteristic of a ing, and gas exchange (Figure 33.39). Sexual reprodu The surface of a sea star is deuterostome mode of development, such as radial cleavage covered by spines that help usually involves separate male and fema echinoderms Ashort digestive tract runs from the defend against predators, as and formation of the mouth at the endmouth on the bottom ofopposite of the embryo the central well as by small gills that release their gametes into the water. viduals that provide gas exchange. the blastopore (see Figure 32.9). Molecularthe anus on top of the disk. disk to systematics has re- The internal and external parts of most adult echin inforced Deuterostomia as a clade of bilaterian animals. But radiate from the center, often as five spokes. However has a nerve ring and nerve r molecular evidence also indicates that some animal phyla with members that have deuterostome developmental features, in- Central disk. The central disk cluding ectoprocts and brachiopods, are not in the deutero- cords radiating from the ring into the arms. oderm larvae have bilateral symmetry. Furthermore, th metry of adult echinoderms is not truly radial. For ex the opening (madreporite) ofa sea star's water vascular Madreporite. Water can flow in or out stome dade (see Chapter 32). Hence, despite its name, the clade is not central but shifted vascular side. of the water to one system into the surrounding water through the madreporite. Digestive glands secrete digestive juices and aid in the absorption and storage of nutrients. The surface of a sea star is covered by spines that help Ashort digestive tract runs from the defend against predators, as mouth on the bottom of the central well as by small gills that / disk to the anus on top of the disk. Radial canal. The water vascular provide gas exchange. Each tube foot consists of a bulb-like ampulla and a podium (foot system consists of a ring canal in the portion). When the ampulla squeezes. water is forced into the podium, central disk and five radial canals, which expands and contacts the substrate. Adhesive chemicals are then r each running in a groove down the secreted from the base of the podium, attaching it to the substrate. To entire length of an arm. Branching detach the tube foot, de-adhesive chemicals are secreted and muscles from each radial canal are hundreds in the podium contract, forcing water back into the ampulla and of hollow, muscular tube feet filled shortening the podium. As it moves, a sea star leaves an observable with fluid. Nfootprint of adhesive material on the substrate. H Central disk. The Figure 33.39 Anatomy of a sea star, an echinoderm. ... central disk Tuesday,a nerve ring and nerve has April 13, 2010
    • Sea stars, sea urchins, and other spiny, and derma, skin) are slow-moving or sessile mar ! Cmdana Lopholrochozoa e<hinoderms (phylum Biology II - Zoology imals. A thin epidermis covers an endoskeleton of h dermata) may seem to have lit- careous plates. Most echinoderms are prickly from Ecdysozoa Deuterostomia tle in common with phylum Chordata, which includes the Invertebrates bumps and spines. Unique to echinoderms is the vascular system, a network of hydraulic canals branch vertebrates-animals that have a backbone. In fact, however, Chordates extensions called tube feet that function in locomotio echinoderms and chordates share features characteristic of a ing, and gas exchange (Figure 33.39). Sexual reprodu deuterostome mode of development, such as radial cleavage echinoderms usually involves separate male and fema and formation of the mouth at the end of the embryo opposite viduals that release their gametes into the water. Chordates are bilaterally symmetrical coelomates the blastopore (see Figure 32.9). Molecular systematics has re- inforced Deuterostomia as a clade of bilaterian animals. But The internal and external parts of most adult echin radiate from the center, often as five spokes. However with segmented bodies. The close relationship molecular evidence also indicates that some animal phyla with oderm larvae have bilateral symmetry. Furthermore, th members that have deuterostome developmental features, in- metry of adult echinoderms is not truly radial. For ex between echinoderms and chordates does not cluding ectoprocts and brachiopods, are not in the deutero- the opening (madreporite) ofa sea star's water vascular mean that one phylum evolved from the other. In stome dade (see Chapter 32). Hence, despite its name, the clade is not central but shifted to one side. fact, echinoderms and chordates have evolved independently of one another for at of a sea star500 The surface least is covered by spines that help million years. on the bottom of thefrom the defend by small predators, as Ashort digestive tract runs mouth central well as against gills that disk to the anus on top of the disk. provide gas exchange. Central disk. The central disk Tuesday,a nerve ring and nerve has April 13, 2010 r
    • Sea stars, sea urchins, and other spiny, and derma, skin) are slow-moving or sessile mar ! Cmdana Lopholrochozoa e<hinoderms (phylum Biology II - Zoology imals. A thin epidermis covers an endoskeleton of h dermata) may seem to have lit- careous plates. Most echinoderms are prickly from Ecdysozoa Deuterostomia tle in common with phylum Chordata, which includes the Chordatesbumps and spines. Unique to echinoderms is the vascular system, a network of hydraulic canals branch Echinodermata vertebrates-animals that have a backbone. In fact, however, extensions (sister group to chordates) that function in locomotio called tube feet echinoderms and chordates share features characteristic of a ing, and gas exchange (Figure 33.39). Sexual reprodu ANCESTRAL - deuterostome mode of development, such as radial cleavage DEUTEROSTOME Cephalochordata echinoderms usually involves separate male and fema (Iancelets) 9 o and formation of the mouth at the end of the embryo opposite viduals that release their gametes into the water. a Urochordata • Not"h; the blastopore (see Figure 32.9). Molecular systematics has re- inforced Deuterostomia as a clade of bilaterian animals. But Common The internal and external parts of most adult echin (tunicates) radiate from the center, often as five spokes. However ancestor of - Myxini molecular evidence also indicates that some animal phyla with chordates (haglishes) oderm larvae have bilateral symmetry. Furthermore, th members that have deuterostome developmental features, in- metry of adult echinoderms is not truly radial. For ex cluding ectoprocts and brachiopods, are not in the deutero- H:t Petromyzontida (lampreys) the opening (madreporite) ofa sea star's water vascular Phylogeny of living stome dade (see Chapter 32). Hence, despite its name, the clade is not central but shifted to one side. Chondrichthyes chordates. This Vertebral COI± (sharks. rays, chimaeras) "..",.,.. phylogenetic Actinopterygii ..-.... hypothesis shows Jaws. mineralized skel± (ray·finned fishes) the major clades of Actinistia .. chordates in relation lungs or lung deriva± The surface of a sea star is (coelacanths) .. covered by spines that help to the other main Ashort digestive tract runs from the against predators, as , defend Dipnoi • deuterostome clade, mouth on the bottom of the central well as by small gills that disk to the anus on top of the disk. Echinodermata. For selected clades, - provide gas exchange. Amphibia salamanders) '.-Q some of the derived characters are • .. Figure 34.2 Phylogeny of living chordates. This :t - ! r listed; for example all chordates, and of chordates in phylogenetic hypothesis shows the major clades Reptilia _ (turtles. snakes, •• relation to the other main deuterostome clade. Echinodermata (see only chordates, have aselected clades. some 01 the derived characters , 3 Chapter 33). For notochord. crocodiles. birds) are listed; for example. all chordates. and only chordates. have 'j; + Am"ioti' Mammalia o· ; • a notochord. Milk (mammals) Central disk. The central disk Tuesday,a nerve ring and nerve has April 13, 2010