Sep 07, 2008
Agriculture Chapters 6 & 7
Agriculture As a primary source
Inputs, processes and outputs of agriculture-an agriculture system
Agriculture as a primary activity Primary secondary tertiary Mining logging manufacturing processing services F&B Subsistence farming: Majority or all of the outputs are consumed within a family
Commercial farming: Majority or all of the outputs are sold in the market.
Inputs, processes and outputs of Agriculture- an agriculture system OUTPUTS Cash earned from the sale of farm produce
-relief flat and fertile land)
Shifting cultivation Also know as the “slash and burn farming” Rainforest is cleared and burned Burned area of land are used to plant crops E.g. rice, maize and tapioca Farmers abandon the land when the soil fertility is diminished It is practiced by tribes in the hilly areas of tropical rainforests - Amazon Basin of South America - the Congo Basin of Africa
- the islands and hilly regions of South East Asia
The cycle of shifting cultivation (a) When a site is selected, The farmers cut down the trees (b) The farmers burn the woods and weeds to make a small clearing. The ash left on the land is used as a fertilizer (c) Simple tools are used to prepare the land for cultivation. (D) After 3 to 4 years, the soil diminishes in fertility
Kantu tribe Lived in the river valleys 1. Headman of the Kantu tribe selects site for household 2. Begin the stage of slashing or burning of the forests [ ashes behind is fertilizers] 3. Grow mainly dry or hill rice and other many other varieties of rice -tobacco—smoking and poison against crop pests -serai– attract the rice spirit 4. 3-4 years later, soil loose fertility and the Kantus will move to another new plot to repeat the process Limited damage to the forest ecology
Threat of over-exploitation be various groups [ loggers, plantation companies]
Wet Rice Cultivation Practiced in tropical regions
Growing of padi on flooded fields in the lowlands of hot and wet regions.
Physical and human inputs of wet rice cultivation Human inputs - Buffaloes used for Ploughing - Animal manure - Chemical fertilizers Rice cultivation in Thailand Udon thani had been selected for its favorable area Located at the boundary of Thailand and Laos
no irrigation nor use of fertilizers and pesticides
Plantation Agriculture It is found in countries or areas within the tropics that experience :
-Colombia in South America
Plantation Agriculture Crop is grown and sold for cash
Usually 40 hectares large
Inputs, processes and outputs -climatic conditions suitable for crops -large areas of arable land - cheap plantation workers -labour with management skills -modern and efficient machinery -fertilizers and pesticides -efficient transport infrastructure PROCESSES Cultivating and processing of crops OUTPUTS Semi-processed products PROFIT (PART OF PROFIT)
0research and development
Plantation in Peninsular Malaysia It is the most important agriculture type Peninsular Malaysia extends from 1.5degreesN to 7degreesN. The hot and wet conditions together with its diverse relief and its colonial background, favor the development of plantation agriculture It had continued to flourish and remains as the country’s dominant agriculture activity. It is found on the foothills and coastal plains of Peninsular Malaysia Examples of plantation crops in Malaysia Malaysia earned RM28.6 billion from oil palm in 2005
Oil palm and rubber are the most important.
Oil palm In 1971, Malaysia replaced Nigeria as the world’s largest producer of oil palm. Processes of oil palm: cultivation and processing Cultivation begins at the pre-nursery with selection of good oil palm seeds: - soak in water for seven days with daily change of water - put into plastic bags and kept in germinators for about 80 days - placed in pre-nursery for 2 months - young plants are transplanted to the nursery for a year
- transportation young palms to the field during the early part of the rainy season
High-technology farming It is the use of modern technology including machinery, robots, computers and even satellites in agriculture Enable farmers to maximize profits and minimize costs of production
Can be applied to agriculture of different types and different scales
Agro-chemicals Chemical fertilizers are used to increase farm output per unit of land. However, chemical fertilizers have negative effect.
Weedicides prevent the growth of unwanted plants, leaving more nutrients for the plant
Irrigation Crops may die if there is insufficient water during a dry season Productivity will be raised: if irrigation is provided for second harvest Modern sprinklers are designed to apply the right amounts of water to the crops
This method prevents over-irrigation which depletes water and leads to soil leeching when soil nutrients are washed away into the ground water
Farm machinery Raise the efficiency of various farming processes Solve the problem of labour shortage Machines replace human labour In farming processes such as ploughing, sowing and harvesting of crops, even for milking of cows
Trucks used to send he meat or milk to markets are refrigerated to keep the product fresh.
Greater care for poultry and livestock Computers are used to calculate the right amounts of nutrients that the poultry requires to grow quickly and healthily. This raises production and results in quality meat, milk and eggs
Farm animals are vaccinated to prevent disease
Improved breeds and seeds Advancements in biotechnology results in healthier breeds of poultry, livestock and crop Examples: hens and ducks lay more egg, sheep produces good quality wool Many DCs now utilize technology to increase farm productivity.
Greenhouses trap heat from sunlight through the glass roofs and walls to help the crop grow
High-technology farming in Singapore High technology farming is essential for small country like singapore as most land are devoted to urban development. With scarcity of land, singapore farmers cannot meet with the local demand for food
It is risky to rely solely on imports to meet local demand for food as it makes singapore vulnerable to sudden price increases in food imports or a sudden reduction in supply
Characteristic of high technology farming in singapore The cost of each high-technology farm can vary between $60 000 to $15 million, depending on the size and types practiced Most of the capital is invested in machines, technology and research and development to improve the quality and quantity of the output A highly specialized labour force is needed to keep up with research and development of the output
The high technology farms need to employ laboratory technicians to engage in Research and development to maintain the quality of the products and their competitiveness in the market
Inputs, processes and outputs -capital in the range of a few million dollars -specialized equipment: computers PROCESSES -Germinating seeds in a dark room -transplanting to growing trough -adding nutrient solution to growing troughs using computers (hydroponics) -spraying nutrient solution to roots (aeroponics) -monitoring plant growth using computers -harvesting (manually) -packaging and refrigerated transport -research and development (bayam, caixin and kang kong)
Temperate and subtropical vegetables, such as butterhead lettuce and Hong Kong kai lan