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    Agriculture Agriculture Presentation Transcript

    • Agriculture Chapters 6 & 7
      • Agriculture As a primary source
      • Inputs, processes and outputs of agriculture-an agriculture system
      • Shifting cultivation
      • Wet rice cultivation
      • Plantation agriculture
      • High technology farming
    • Agriculture as a primary activity
      • Primary secondary tertiary
      • Mining logging manufacturing processing services F&B
      • Subsistence farming: Majority or all of the outputs are consumed within a family
      • Commercial farming: Majority or all of the outputs are sold in the market.
    • Inputs, processes and outputs of Agriculture- an agriculture system
      • -Rainfall
      • -sunlight
      • -relief flat and fertile land)
      • -soil
      • -Fertilizer
      • -capital
      • -Farming tools
      • -seeds
      • -labour
      • -pesticides
      • -herbicides
      • Ploughing
      • Sowing
      • Irrigating
      • Fertilizing
      • harvesting
      OUTPUTS Cash earned from the sale of farm produce
    • Shifting cultivation
      • Also know as the “slash and burn farming”
      • Rainforest is cleared and burned
      • Burned area of land are used to plant crops E.g. rice, maize and tapioca
      • Farmers abandon the land when the soil fertility is diminished
      • It is practiced by tribes in the hilly areas of tropical rainforests
      • They can be found in:
      • - Amazon Basin of South America
      • - the Congo Basin of Africa
      • - the islands and hilly regions of South East Asia
      • - Papua New Guinea
    • The cycle of shifting cultivation (a) When a site is selected, The farmers cut down the trees (b) The farmers burn the woods and weeds to make a small clearing. The ash left on the land is used as a fertilizer (c) Simple tools are used to prepare the land for cultivation. (D) After 3 to 4 years, the soil diminishes in fertility
    • Kantu tribe
      • Lived in the river valleys
      • Built longhouses
      • 1. Headman of the Kantu tribe selects site for household
      • 2. Begin the stage of slashing or burning of the forests [ ashes behind is fertilizers]
      • 3. Grow mainly dry or hill rice and other many other varieties of rice
      • -root crops -long bean
      • - banana -pumpkin
      • -maize -cucumber
      • -kunyit—medicine
      • -tobacco—smoking and poison against crop pests
      • -serai– attract the rice spirit
      • 4. 3-4 years later, soil loose fertility and the Kantus will move to another new plot to repeat the process
      • Limited damage to the forest ecology
      • Threat of over-exploitation be various groups [ loggers, plantation companies]
    • Wet Rice Cultivation
      • Practiced in tropical regions
      • South asia
      • Southeast asia
      • South china
      • Growing of padi on flooded fields in the lowlands of hot and wet regions.
      • Process
      • sowing seeds
      • nursing seedlings
      • Transplanting
      • Harvesting
      • Thrashing
    • Physical and human inputs of wet rice cultivation
      • Physical inputs
      • flat land
      • Abundant sunlight
      • Heavy rainfall
      Human inputs - Buffaloes used for Ploughing - Animal manure - Chemical fertilizers
      • Rice cultivation in Thailand
      • Udon thani had been selected for its favorable area
      • Located at the boundary of Thailand and Laos
      • no irrigation nor use of fertilizers and pesticides
    • Plantation Agriculture
      • It is found in countries or areas within the tropics that experience :
      • -high temperatures
      • -high humidity
      • -heavy rainfall
      • Examples of countries:
      • -Malaysia
      • -Indonesia
      • -Sri Lanka in Asia
      • -Brazil
      • -Colombia in South America
    • Plantation Agriculture
      • Crop is grown and sold for cash
      • Usually 40 hectares large
      • Examples of cash crops:
      • -rubber
      • -cacao
      • -oil palm
      • -coconut
      • -pineapple
      • -banana
      • -tea
      • -coffee
      • -sugar cane
    • Inputs, processes and outputs
      • -climatic conditions suitable for crops
      • -large areas of arable land
      • - cheap plantation workers
      • -labour with management skills
      • -high capital
      • -modern and efficient machinery
      • -processing facilities
      • -fertilizers and pesticides
      • -efficient transport infrastructure
      • 0research and development
      PROCESSES Cultivating and processing of crops OUTPUTS Semi-processed products PROFIT (PART OF PROFIT)
    • Plantation in Peninsular Malaysia
      • It is the most important agriculture type
      • Peninsular Malaysia extends from 1.5degreesN to 7degreesN.
      • The hot and wet conditions together with its diverse relief and its colonial background, favor the development of plantation agriculture
      • It had continued to flourish and remains as the country’s dominant agriculture activity.
      • It is found on the foothills and coastal plains of Peninsular Malaysia
      • Examples of plantation crops in Malaysia
      • Malaysia earned RM28.6 billion from oil palm in 2005
      • Oil palm and rubber are the most important.
    • Oil palm
      • In 1971, Malaysia replaced Nigeria as the world’s largest producer of oil palm.
      • Processes of oil palm: cultivation and processing
      • Cultivation begins at the pre-nursery with selection of good oil palm seeds:
      • - soak in water for seven days with daily change of water
      • - put into plastic bags and kept in germinators for about 80 days
      • - placed in pre-nursery for 2 months
      • - young plants are transplanted to the nursery for a year
      • - transportation young palms to the field during the early part of the rainy season
    • High-technology farming
      • It is the use of modern technology including machinery, robots, computers and even satellites in agriculture
      • Enable farmers to maximize profits and minimize costs of production
      • Can be applied to agriculture of different types and different scales
    • Agro-chemicals
      • Chemical fertilizers are used to increase farm output per unit of land.
      • However, chemical fertilizers have negative effect.
      • Pesticides kill pests
      • Weedicides prevent the growth of unwanted plants, leaving more nutrients for the plant
    • Irrigation
      • Crops may die if there is insufficient water during a dry season
      • Productivity will be raised: if irrigation is provided for second harvest
      • Modern sprinklers are designed to apply the right amounts of water to the crops
      • This method prevents over-irrigation which depletes water and leads to soil leeching when soil nutrients are washed away into the ground water
    • Farm machinery
      • Raise the efficiency of various farming processes
      • Solve the problem of labour shortage
      • Machines replace human labour In farming processes such as ploughing, sowing and harvesting of crops, even for milking of cows
      • Trucks used to send he meat or milk to markets are refrigerated to keep the product fresh.
    • Greater care for poultry and livestock
      • Computers are used to calculate the right amounts of nutrients that the poultry requires to grow quickly and healthily.
      • This raises production and results in quality meat, milk and eggs
      • Farm animals are vaccinated to prevent disease
    • Improved breeds and seeds
      • Advancements in biotechnology results in healthier breeds of poultry, livestock and crop
      • Examples: hens and ducks lay more egg, sheep produces good quality wool
      • Many DCs now utilize technology to increase farm productivity.
      • Greenhouses trap heat from sunlight through the glass roofs and walls to help the crop grow
    • High-technology farming in Singapore
      • High technology farming is essential for small country like singapore as most land are devoted to urban development.
      • With scarcity of land, singapore farmers cannot meet with the local demand for food
      • It is risky to rely solely on imports to meet local demand for food as it makes singapore vulnerable to sudden price increases in food imports or a sudden reduction in supply
    • Characteristic of high technology farming in singapore
      • The cost of each high-technology farm can vary between $60 000 to $15 million, depending on the size and types practiced
      • Most of the capital is invested in machines, technology and research and development to improve the quality and quantity of the output
      • A highly specialized labour force is needed to keep up with research and development of the output
      • The high technology farms need to employ laboratory technicians to engage in Research and development to maintain the quality of the products and their competitiveness in the market
    • Inputs, processes and outputs
      • -sunlight/shade
      • -land
      • -capital in the range of a few million dollars
      • -seedlings
      • -nutrient solution
      • -inorganic chemicals
      • -specialized equipment: computers
      • -Laboratory technicians
      • -technology
      • -rent for farm
      • -research and development
      PROCESSES -Germinating seeds in a dark room -transplanting to growing trough -adding nutrient solution to growing troughs using computers (hydroponics) -spraying nutrient solution to roots (aeroponics) -monitoring plant growth using computers -harvesting (manually) -packaging and refrigerated transport
      • OUTPUTS
      • -local leafy vegetables
      • (bayam, caixin and kang kong)
      • Temperate and subtropical vegetables, such as butterhead lettuce and Hong Kong kai lan
      • - Dwarf cabbage
      • DONE BY:
      • Agnes (1)
      • Rachel lee (13)
      • Jingyi (20)
      • JJ (30)
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