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Geography notes ><

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  • 1. Agriculture Chapters 6 & 7
    • Agriculture As a primary source
    • Inputs, processes and outputs of agriculture-an agriculture system
    • Shifting cultivation
    • Wet rice cultivation
    • Plantation agriculture
    • High technology farming
  • 2. Agriculture as a primary activity
    • Primary secondary tertiary
    • Mining logging manufacturing processing services F&B
    • Subsistence farming: Majority or all of the outputs are consumed within a family
    • Commercial farming: Majority or all of the outputs are sold in the market.
  • 3. Inputs, processes and outputs of Agriculture- an agriculture system
    • -Rainfall
    • -sunlight
    • -relief flat and fertile land)
    • -soil
    • -Fertilizer
    • -capital
    • -Farming tools
    • -seeds
    • -labour
    • -pesticides
    • -herbicides
    • Ploughing
    • Sowing
    • Irrigating
    • Fertilizing
    • harvesting
    OUTPUTS Cash earned from the sale of farm produce
  • 4. Shifting cultivation
    • Also know as the “slash and burn farming”
    • Rainforest is cleared and burned
    • Burned area of land are used to plant crops E.g. rice, maize and tapioca
    • Farmers abandon the land when the soil fertility is diminished
    • It is practiced by tribes in the hilly areas of tropical rainforests
    • They can be found in:
    • - Amazon Basin of South America
    • - the Congo Basin of Africa
    • - the islands and hilly regions of South East Asia
    • - Papua New Guinea
  • 5. The cycle of shifting cultivation (a) When a site is selected, The farmers cut down the trees (b) The farmers burn the woods and weeds to make a small clearing. The ash left on the land is used as a fertilizer (c) Simple tools are used to prepare the land for cultivation. (D) After 3 to 4 years, the soil diminishes in fertility
  • 6. Kantu tribe
    • Lived in the river valleys
    • Built longhouses
    • 1. Headman of the Kantu tribe selects site for household
    • 2. Begin the stage of slashing or burning of the forests [ ashes behind is fertilizers]
    • 3. Grow mainly dry or hill rice and other many other varieties of rice
    • -root crops -long bean
    • - banana -pumpkin
    • -maize -cucumber
    • -kunyit—medicine
    • -tobacco—smoking and poison against crop pests
    • -serai– attract the rice spirit
    • 4. 3-4 years later, soil loose fertility and the Kantus will move to another new plot to repeat the process
    • Limited damage to the forest ecology
    • Threat of over-exploitation be various groups [ loggers, plantation companies]
  • 7. Wet Rice Cultivation
    • Practiced in tropical regions
    • South asia
    • Southeast asia
    • South china
    • Growing of padi on flooded fields in the lowlands of hot and wet regions.
    • Process
    • sowing seeds
    • nursing seedlings
    • Transplanting
    • Harvesting
    • Thrashing
  • 8. Physical and human inputs of wet rice cultivation
    • Physical inputs
    • flat land
    • Abundant sunlight
    • Heavy rainfall
    Human inputs - Buffaloes used for Ploughing - Animal manure - Chemical fertilizers
    • Rice cultivation in Thailand
    • Udon thani had been selected for its favorable area
    • Located at the boundary of Thailand and Laos
    • no irrigation nor use of fertilizers and pesticides
  • 9. Plantation Agriculture
    • It is found in countries or areas within the tropics that experience :
    • -high temperatures
    • -high humidity
    • -heavy rainfall
    • Examples of countries:
    • -Malaysia
    • -Indonesia
    • -Sri Lanka in Asia
    • -Brazil
    • -Colombia in South America
  • 10. Plantation Agriculture
    • Crop is grown and sold for cash
    • Usually 40 hectares large
    • Examples of cash crops:
    • -rubber
    • -cacao
    • -oil palm
    • -coconut
    • -pineapple
    • -banana
    • -tea
    • -coffee
    • -sugar cane
  • 11. Inputs, processes and outputs
    • -climatic conditions suitable for crops
    • -large areas of arable land
    • - cheap plantation workers
    • -labour with management skills
    • -high capital
    • -modern and efficient machinery
    • -processing facilities
    • -fertilizers and pesticides
    • -efficient transport infrastructure
    • 0research and development
    PROCESSES Cultivating and processing of crops OUTPUTS Semi-processed products PROFIT (PART OF PROFIT)
  • 12. Plantation in Peninsular Malaysia
    • It is the most important agriculture type
    • Peninsular Malaysia extends from 1.5degreesN to 7degreesN.
    • The hot and wet conditions together with its diverse relief and its colonial background, favor the development of plantation agriculture
    • It had continued to flourish and remains as the country’s dominant agriculture activity.
    • It is found on the foothills and coastal plains of Peninsular Malaysia
    • Examples of plantation crops in Malaysia
    • Malaysia earned RM28.6 billion from oil palm in 2005
    • Oil palm and rubber are the most important.
  • 13. Oil palm
    • In 1971, Malaysia replaced Nigeria as the world’s largest producer of oil palm.
    • Processes of oil palm: cultivation and processing
    • Cultivation begins at the pre-nursery with selection of good oil palm seeds:
    • - soak in water for seven days with daily change of water
    • - put into plastic bags and kept in germinators for about 80 days
    • - placed in pre-nursery for 2 months
    • - young plants are transplanted to the nursery for a year
    • - transportation young palms to the field during the early part of the rainy season
  • 14. High-technology farming
    • It is the use of modern technology including machinery, robots, computers and even satellites in agriculture
    • Enable farmers to maximize profits and minimize costs of production
    • Can be applied to agriculture of different types and different scales
  • 15. Agro-chemicals
    • Chemical fertilizers are used to increase farm output per unit of land.
    • However, chemical fertilizers have negative effect.
    • Pesticides kill pests
    • Weedicides prevent the growth of unwanted plants, leaving more nutrients for the plant
  • 16. Irrigation
    • Crops may die if there is insufficient water during a dry season
    • Productivity will be raised: if irrigation is provided for second harvest
    • Modern sprinklers are designed to apply the right amounts of water to the crops
    • This method prevents over-irrigation which depletes water and leads to soil leeching when soil nutrients are washed away into the ground water
  • 17. Farm machinery
    • Raise the efficiency of various farming processes
    • Solve the problem of labour shortage
    • Machines replace human labour In farming processes such as ploughing, sowing and harvesting of crops, even for milking of cows
    • Trucks used to send he meat or milk to markets are refrigerated to keep the product fresh.
  • 18. Greater care for poultry and livestock
    • Computers are used to calculate the right amounts of nutrients that the poultry requires to grow quickly and healthily.
    • This raises production and results in quality meat, milk and eggs
    • Farm animals are vaccinated to prevent disease
  • 19. Improved breeds and seeds
    • Advancements in biotechnology results in healthier breeds of poultry, livestock and crop
    • Examples: hens and ducks lay more egg, sheep produces good quality wool
    • Many DCs now utilize technology to increase farm productivity.
    • Greenhouses trap heat from sunlight through the glass roofs and walls to help the crop grow
  • 20. High-technology farming in Singapore
    • High technology farming is essential for small country like singapore as most land are devoted to urban development.
    • With scarcity of land, singapore farmers cannot meet with the local demand for food
    • It is risky to rely solely on imports to meet local demand for food as it makes singapore vulnerable to sudden price increases in food imports or a sudden reduction in supply
  • 21. Characteristic of high technology farming in singapore
    • The cost of each high-technology farm can vary between $60 000 to $15 million, depending on the size and types practiced
    • Most of the capital is invested in machines, technology and research and development to improve the quality and quantity of the output
    • A highly specialized labour force is needed to keep up with research and development of the output
    • The high technology farms need to employ laboratory technicians to engage in Research and development to maintain the quality of the products and their competitiveness in the market
  • 22. Inputs, processes and outputs
    • -sunlight/shade
    • -land
    • -capital in the range of a few million dollars
    • -seedlings
    • -nutrient solution
    • -inorganic chemicals
    • -specialized equipment: computers
    • -Laboratory technicians
    • -technology
    • -rent for farm
    • -research and development
    PROCESSES -Germinating seeds in a dark room -transplanting to growing trough -adding nutrient solution to growing troughs using computers (hydroponics) -spraying nutrient solution to roots (aeroponics) -monitoring plant growth using computers -harvesting (manually) -packaging and refrigerated transport
    • -local leafy vegetables
    • (bayam, caixin and kang kong)
    • Temperate and subtropical vegetables, such as butterhead lettuce and Hong Kong kai lan
    • - Dwarf cabbage
  • 23.
    • DONE BY:
    • Agnes (1)
    • Rachel lee (13)
    • Jingyi (20)
    • JJ (30)
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