Transcript of "C:\documents and settings\paul neville\my documents\influences on the audience"
REC Productions Team Presents Influences on the Audience Presentation by Paul Neville Toby Morrison, Daniel Chapman and Geoff Chan
The Hypodermic Syringe Model <ul><li>The Hypodermic Syringe Model or Short Term Effect Theory is the theory that an intended message is directly received and accepted by its audience. </li></ul><ul><li>The model showed that mass media had an astounding effect on audiences and during 1940-50, mass media was perceived as a massive influence on behavioural change. </li></ul><ul><li>During this time Television and Radio were rising and also many persuasion industries existed such as propaganda and even advertising. </li></ul><ul><li>It is shown that through this model, that anyone can use this to become influential and gain power over the viewing/listening audience. </li></ul><ul><li>An Example of this would be Hitler and how he monopolized the mass media in order to gain support and unify Germany under the Nazi Regime. </li></ul>
The Two-Step Flow Model <ul><li>Also known as the Long-Term Effect theory </li></ul><ul><li>This model hypothesises that ideas come from the mass media, to the opinion leaders and they then spread them to the general population. </li></ul><ul><li>The opinion leaders can then put their own spin on what they have seen and therefore influence the masses. It can be seen as a form of manipulation of the population. </li></ul>
The Inoculation Model <ul><li>The inoculation model is a where a person creates a defence against being persuaded or manipulated through a message. </li></ul><ul><li>Was created after the Korean War as many prisoners of war, when given the opportunity, wished to stay with their captors. Having realised the prisoners were brainwashed, several social scientists began developing new ways to defend against suggestion and persuasion. </li></ul><ul><li>While it has positive effects such as creating defences against manipulation, it can be used to manipulate the subject as well to embrace a certain viewpoint and disregard others. </li></ul>
Uses and Gratification Theory <ul><li>A popular approach to understanding mass communication </li></ul><ul><li>This theory places more emphasis on the consumer and audience rather than the message. </li></ul><ul><li>The consumer is not passive but takes an active role interpreting and integrating media into their lives. </li></ul><ul><li>Therefore the consumer chooses the media to match its purposes and uses. And then use the media to fulfil certain gratifications </li></ul><ul><li>Then the media compete against other information sources for the viewers gratification. </li></ul>
Primary, Secondary and Tertiary Media Influence <ul><li>Media influence can be split into 3 degrees of influence. </li></ul><ul><li>Primary: where the viewer is engaged solely on that media text e.g. reading a newspaper. </li></ul><ul><li>Secondary: where the viewer is engaged on two or more media sources e.g. watching television and working on the computer. </li></ul><ul><li>Tertiary: which is where the media text is in the background and no real attention is paid to it at all. </li></ul>
Cultural Effects of Media Influence <ul><li>With the continuing concentration of media ownership and control, long term effects of this can be that the media elite have a form of social and cultural dictatorship. </li></ul><ul><li>This is seen as problematic as when these media barons begin to dominate the news, they put their own views and spin into the article and as this is read by many, it will be eventually accepted. </li></ul><ul><li>This is a form of manipulation and can be used to champion a viewpoint or action all the while slandering other viewpoints. </li></ul>
The Kuleshov Effect <ul><li>This was part of the soviet montage experiment. But this really indicated the usefulness and effectiveness of film editing. </li></ul><ul><li>In short, a well known actor’s expressionless face was edited in with various other shots, such as a plate of soup, a little girl and a little girls coffin. </li></ul><ul><li>When the audience saw the film they believed the actor’s expression changed depending on what he was viewing, so the soup, the girl and the coffin, all the audience believed his expression changed to hunger, to desire and to despair respectively. </li></ul><ul><li>The shots of the actors face were all the same and that really it was the audience who believed his expression changed to fit whatever he was viewing. </li></ul><ul><li>This experiment showed that viewers brought their own emotional reactions to this sequence of images, and then moreover attributed those reactions to the actor, investing his impassive face with their own feelings. </li></ul>
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