Astronomy

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Astronomy

  1. 1. Astrology vs. Astronomy Which one is science? astro - star -logy – study of -nomy – arrangement, law
  2. 2. Calendars – based on astronomical movements Day – Earth’s rotation (spinning) Month – moon orbits Earth (approx.) Year – Earth revolves around sun
  3. 3. Early Astronomers Ptolemy – thought Earth was center of the universe geo centric
  4. 4. Copernicus -determined that the Sun is the center of the solar system
  5. 5. Tycho Brahe – made very precise observations. Thought moon and sun revolved around Earth, but other planets around the sun.
  6. 6. Johannes Kepler Used Brahe data to determine that the planets revolve around the sun in elliptical orbits. The sun is not in the exact center.
  7. 7. Galileo Galilei <ul><li>One of the first to use a telescope </li></ul><ul><li>Discovered </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Craters and mountains on moon </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>4 moons of Jupiter </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sunspots on the sun </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Phases of Venus </li></ul></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Isaac Newton -described the force of gravity which depends on the mass of the objects and the distance between them -explained observations of other astronomers
  9. 9. Edwin Hubble <ul><li>Proved galaxies exist beyond our own </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Milky Way </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Optical Telescopes <ul><li>Refracting </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Set of lenses </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Not perfect focus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lens can’t be very large </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Reflecting </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Uses curved mirror </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can focus perfectly </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Flaws do not affect focus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can be very large </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Preferred by astronomers </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Where is the best place to put a telescope? <ul><li>On mountain to avoid light and air pollution </li></ul><ul><li>Dry areas to avoid moisture problems </li></ul><ul><li>Space – to avoid all those problems </li></ul>
  12. 12. Light Year <ul><li>Unit of distance not time </li></ul><ul><li>Light travels 946,000,000,000,000 km in a year </li></ul><ul><li>We can observe objects 10 billion light years away </li></ul>
  13. 13. Artificial Satellites Military Weather Communication
  14. 14. Space Probes <ul><li>Uncrewed vehicle that carries instruments to planets or other bodies in space </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Luna 9 (1966) – moon </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Venera 9 (1975) – Venus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vikings (1975) – Mars </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stardust (1999) – comet </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. People in Space <ul><li>1 st person – Yuri Gagarin </li></ul><ul><li>1 st American – Alan Shepherd </li></ul><ul><li>1 st person on moon – Neil Armstrong </li></ul><ul><li>1 st American woman – Sally Ride </li></ul>
  16. 16. Tragedies <ul><li>1986 Challenger Explosion just after takeoff </li></ul><ul><li>Columbia Explosion – upon reentry </li></ul>

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