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Using The Internet7
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Using The Internet7

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  • The Internet has changed our world. Communications and commerce move instantaneously across borders and around the world. Anyone can publish their wares, their ideas and their desires. Chapter 3 will present a brief introduction into where the Internet came from, how it is structured and describe ways in which the Internet is used.
  • Transcript

    • 1. Technology In Action
      • Chapter 3
      • Using the Internet:
      • Making the Most of the Web’s Resources
    • 2. Communications
    • 3. Communications
      • Communication is the transmission of a signal from a sender to a receiver by way of a medium.
      • The signal contains a message composed of data and information.
      • For communication to be effective, both sender and receiver must understand the signals and agree on the way they are to be interpreted.
    • 4. An Overview of Telecommunications
      • Telecommunications: the electronic transmission of signals for communications
      • Telecommunications medium: anything that carries an electronic signal and interfaces between a sending device and a receiving device
    • 5. Telecommunications
    • 6. Telecommunications
      • It starts with a sending unit (1), such as a person, a computer system, a terminal, or another device, that originates the message.
      • The sending unit transmits a signal (2) to a telecommunications device (3).
      • The telecommunications device performs a number of functions, which can include converting the signal into a different form or from one type to another. The telecommunications device then sends the signal through a medium(4).
    • 7. Telecommunications
      • A telecommunications medium is anything that carries an electronic signal and interfaces between a sending device and a receiving device.
      • The signal is received by another telecommunications device (5) that is connected to the receiving computer (6).
      • The process can then be reversed and another message can go back from the receiving unit (6) to the original sending unit (1).
    • 8. Telecommunications
      • Data Communication – A specialized subset of telecommunications that refers to the electronic collection, processing, and distribution of data – typically between computer system hardware devices.
    • 9. Functions of a modem
    • 10. Channel Bandwidth
      • Telecommunications professionals consider the capacity of the communications path or channel when they recommend transmission media for a business
      • Channel bandwidth: the rate at which data is exchanged over a communication channel
        • Usually measured in bits per second (bps)
        • Narrowband channels provide rates up to 64K BPS (twisted pair)
        • Broadband begins with 1.5 MBS
    • 11. Basic Communications Channel Characteristics
      • Simplex channel
        • A communication channel that can transmit data in only one direction
      • Half-duplex channel
        • A communication channel that can transmit data in either direction, but not simultaneously.
      • Full-duplex channel
        • A communication channel that permits data transmission in both directions at the same time.
    • 12. Simplex, half-duplex and full duplex transmission
    • 13. Parallel Transmission
    • 14. Serial Transmission
    • 15. The Internet: The Basics
      • Origin of the Internet
      • The Internet vs. the Web
      • Clients and servers
      • Connecting to the Internet
    • 16. Client and Server
      • Client computer:
        • Users connect to the Internet
        • Request data and Web pages
      • Server computers:
        • Store Web pages and data
        • Return the requested data to the client
      Server Client
    • 17. Client/Server Systems (continued)
    • 18. Client-Based Architectures
    • 19. Two Tier Client-Server Architecture
    • 20. Three Tier Client-Server Architecture
    • 21. Components of a simple network
    • 22. Client/server computing on the Internet N-tier Architecture
    • 23. Packed-switched networks & packet communication
    • 24. TCP/IP and OSI Model
    • 25. Message transmission using layers
    • 26. Connecting to the Internet
      • Dial-up connection:
        • Uses standard telephone line
        • Least costly connection
        • Requires a modem
          • Converts analog and digital signals
        • Slowest connection speed (56Kbps)
    • 27. Broadband Connections
      • Digital Subscriber Lines
        • Faster than dial-up
          • Upload (300Kbps – 1.5Mbps)
          • Download (1Mbps – 1.5Mbps)
        • Requires special DSL modem
      DSL modem
    • 28. Broadband Connections
      • Cable:
        • Uses TV coaxial cable
        • Fast connection speed (500Kbps – 4Mbps)
        • Speed depends on number of users
        • Not available in all areas
        • Requires a cable modem
      Coaxial cable
    • 29. Microwave Transmission
    • 30. Satellite Connections
      • Uses a satellite dish and coaxial cable
        • Download speed 500 kbps
        • Upload speed 100 kbps
        • Signal is affected by location and weather
    • 31. Satellite Transmission
    • 32. Network Types: Local Area Network
    • 33. Network Types: Wide Area Network
    • 34. Types of Networks Type Area Local Area Network (LAN) Up to 500 meters (half a mile); an office or floor of a building Campus Area Network (CAN) Up to 1,000 meters (a mile); a college campus or corporate facility Metropolitan Area Network (MAN) A city or metropolitan area Wide Area Network (WAN) Transcontinental or global area
    • 35. Network Topology
    • 36. Network Topology
    • 37. Network Topology
    • 38. Ring Based Design
    • 39. Star Based Design
    • 40. Full and Partial Mesh Design
    • 41. Virtual Private Network Internet VPN Tunnel VPN Tunnel VPN Device Backbone Backbone Office Office VPN Device VPN Device Telephone Line ISP Employee’s Home Access Server
    • 42. Communications Media
    • 43. Communications Media (continued)
    • 44. Twisted-Pair Wire Cable
    • 45. Coaxial Cable
    • 46. Fiber Optic
    • 47. Types of Optical Fiber
    • 48. Communications Software and Protocols
      • Communications protocol: a set of rules that govern the exchange of information over a communications channel
      • Protocols govern several levels of a telecommunications network, such as:
        • Hardware device level
        • Application program level
    • 49. How the Internet Works Routing Messages over the Internet
    • 50. How the Internet Works (continued) Several Ways to Access the Internet
    • 51. Comparing Internet Connection Options Connection Option Maximum Upload Data Transfer Rate (approximate) Maximum Download Data Transfer Rate (approximate) Dial-Up 56 Kbps 56 Kbps DSL (ADSL) 300 Kbps 1 Mbps DSL (SDSL) 1.5 Mbps 1.5 Mbps Cable 500 Kbps 4 Mbps Satellite 100 Kbps 500 Kbps
    • 52. Choosing an ISP
      • Factors to consider:
        • Customer service
        • Local access numbers
        • E-mail options
        • Cost
        • Trial period
    • 53. Internet Service Providers
      • ISP:
        • Internet service provider
        • Provide user access to the Internet
        • National, regional, or local companies
      • OSP:
        • Online service provider
        • Provide online proprietary content as well as Internet access
        • AOL, CompuServe, MSN
    • 54. The Origin of the Internet
      • ARPANET:
        • Advanced Research Projects Agency Network
        • Funded by the U.S. government in the 1960s
        • Allowed computers at leading universities and research organizations to communicate with each other over great distances
    • 55. IT INFRASTRUCTURE
      • Electronic accounting machine era: (1930–1950)
      • General-purpose mainframe and minicomputer era: (1959 to present)
      • Personal computer era: (1981 to present)
      • Client/server era: (1983 to present)
      • Enterprise internet computing era: (1992 to present)
      Evolution of IT Infrastructure: 1950–2005
    • 56. Evolution of IT Infrastructure: 1950–2005 Figure 6-3
    • 57. The Web
      • The Web is a part of the Internet distinguished by:
        • common communication protocols TCP/IP and HTML
        • special links (called hyperlinks )
      • Web invented in 1989 by Tim Berners-Lee
      • 1993, National Center for Supercomputing Applications releases the Mosaic browser
      • Developers of Mosaic release Netscape (1994)
      • Netscape is beginning of Web’s major growth
    • 58. The Internet vs. The Web
      • Internet – part of the system that is primarily hardware infrastructure (telecommunications, routers, servers, disk drives, etcetera)
      • Web – part of the system that contains intellectual property in many multimedia formats (test files, graphic files, sound files, video files, etc.)
      INTERNET WWW
    • 59. Web Sites
      • Web site:
        • Collection of related Web pages
        • First page known as Home or Index page
      • Web page:
        • HTML document
          • Text and graphics
        • Unique address
        • Hyperlinks
      Home page Related pages
    • 60. The World Wide Web (continued)
      • Hypertext Markup Language (HTML): the standard page description language for Web pages
      • HTML tags: codes that let the Web browser know how to format text - as a heading, as a list, or as body text - and whether images, sound, and other elements should be inserted
    • 61. URL
      • URL:
        • Uniform Resource Locator
        • Unique Web page address
      URL http:// Protocol identifies the means of access www.nytimes.com/ Domain name contains the host and top-level domain Pages/cartoons/ Path identifies the subdirectories within the Web site
    • 62. Hyperlinks
      • Provide access to other Web pages
      • Specially coded text or graphics
      • Cursor becomes a hand with finger pointing upward
    • 63. Internet Communications
      • Instant Messaging
      • Voice over Internet (VoIP)
      • Weblogs
      • Podcasts
      • Webcasts and Wikis
      • Chat Rooms
      • Newsgroups
      • E-mail
    • 64. Instant Messaging
      • Real-time text-based conversations
      • Set up a list of contacts
        • Buddy list
      • Contacts must be online
      • IM software detects presence
      • Example: AOL Instant Messenger
    • 65. Voice over Internet Protocol
      • VoIP - The Internet as a means to place phone calls
      • Uses technology similar to e-mail to send voice data digitally
      • Requires
        • a microphone
        • an Internet connection
        • A VoIP provider
      • Services differ
        • Free services require an account on both ends
        • Paid services connect phone to computer
        • Cable and DSL providers offer phone through broadband
        • WiFi IP phones call through Internet hotspots and wireless networks
    • 66. How IP Telephony Works Figure 8-13
    • 67. Cisco Family of IP Phones
    • 68. Weblogs (blogs)
      • Known as blogs
      • Available to the public
      • Simple to create, read, and manage
      • Entries listed on a single page
      • Most recent entry at the top
      • Searchable
      • Some are personal
      • Many are focused on a topic
    • 69. Podcasts
      • Video blog (vlog) – entries are video clips
      • Podcasts – compressed audio/video files distributed on the Internet
      • RSS (Really Simple Syndication) technology allows constant updates for subscribers
      • Podcasts are all over the Web
        • Requires “aggregator” software to gather podcasts
        • Requires media player software to play them
      • Simple to create and attach RSS files
    • 70. Webcasts and Wikis
      • Webcasts broadcast audio/visual files but are not updated
        • use streaming media
      • A wiki is a Web site that allows anyone to change its content
      • Wikis provide an excellent source for collaborative writing
      • Unlike blogs, wikis can be edited for a “common” opinion
    • 71. E-mail
      • Electronic mail
      • Primary means of communication
      • E-mail accounts
        • Client-based
        • Web-based
      • Spam
        • Prevention
    • 72. Chat Rooms
      • Real-time text-based conversations
      • Rooms focus on specific topics or interests
      • Identity protection
        • Username
    • 73. Newsgroups
      • Online discussion forums
      • Post and reply to messages
    • 74. Social Networking
      • Social networking sites like MySpace.com
      • Members share common interests
      • Members communicate by voice, chat, instant message, video, and blogs
      • Members create personalized profiles
      • Growth has been explosive
      • Risks must be recognized and reduced
    • 75. Web Entertainment
      • Multimedia:
        • Involves forms of media and text
          • Graphics
          • Audio
          • Video
        • Streaming audio and video
        • Plug-in
    • 76. Online Annoyances
      • Spam – electronic junk mail
      • Pop-ups – intrusive advertising
      • Cookies – tracking user’s browsing habits
      • Spyware – programs that collect data from a user’s computer
      • Malware - software that has a malicious intent
      • Phishing and Hoaxes – Ruses to fool and maybe steal from users
    • 77. Spam
      • Junk e-Mail
      • Spam filters
      • Antispam practices
    • 78. Pop-ups
      • Usually advertising
      • Pop-up automatically
      • Pop-up blockers
    • 79. Cookies
      • Text files stored on client computers when visiting Web sites
      • Used on return visits to Web sites
      • Unique ID number
      • Personal information remembered
      • Privacy risk
        • Selling information
    • 80. Spyware
      • Added as a program piggybacked with a requested program
      • Gathers information, usually about surfing habits
      • Antivirus software doesn’t detect it
      • Spyware removal programs are required
    • 81. Malware
      • Software that has a malicious intent
      • Spyware is a form of malware
      • Other forms are viruses, worms, and Trojan horses
      • Designed to render a computer useless or penetrate it completely
    • 82. Phishing and Hoaxes
      • Phishing is a phony communication
      • Attempts to scam someone into sending vital information
      • Hoaxes are attempts to scam people into sending money, or join a chain letter
    • 83. Navigating the Web: Web Browsers
      • Computer software
      • Graphical
      • Enables Web navigation
      • Popular browsers:
        • Internet Explorer
        • Netscape Navigator
        • Camino (Mac OSX)
    • 84. Browser Toolbars
    • 85. Getting Around the Web
      • Web sites
      • URLs
      • Hyperlinks
      • Favorites and Bookmarks
    • 86. Current Top-Level Domains
      • . aero Members of the air transport industry
      • .biz Businesses
      • .com Can be used by anyone
      • .coop Cooperative associations
      • .edu Degree granting institutions
      • .gov United States government
      • .info Information service providers
      • .mil United States military
      • . museum Museums
      • . name Individuals
      • .net Networking organizations
      • .org Organizations (often nonprofits)
      • .pro Credentialed professionals
    • 87. Favorites and Bookmarks
      • List created of favorite Web pages
      • Easy method of returning to Web pages
      • Internet Explorer uses Favorites
      • Netscape uses Bookmarks
      • Live Bookmarks use RSS
    • 88. Tabbed Browsing
      • Found on Firefox and Safari browsers
        • Available on the latest version of Internet Explorer
      • Multiple pages in same browser window
    • 89. Search Engines
      • User keys word or phrase in search box
      • “ Spider” or “Web Crawler” program scans Web pages
      • Results are indexed and sent to the client
    • 90. What do YOU use the web for?
      • ???
    • 91.
      • Information technology infrastructure: The Internet provides a universal and easy-to-use set of technologies and technology standards that can be adopted by all organizations.
      • Direct communication between trading partners: Disintermediation removes intermediate layers and streamlines processes.
      ELECTRONIC BUSINESS, ELECTRONIC COMMERCE, AND THE EMERGING DIGITAL FIRM
    • 92. Open System Interconnect Model
    • 93. ELECTRONIC BUSINESS, ELECTRONIC COMMERCE, AND THE EMERGING DIGITAL FIRM
      • Round the clock service: Web sites available to consumers 24 hours
      • Extended distribution channels: Outlets created for attracting customers who otherwise would not patronize a firm
      • Reduced transaction costs: Costs of searching for buyers declines
    • 94. How the Internet Reduces Transaction Costs
    • 95.
      • Information asymmetry: One party in a transaction has more information than the other. The Internet decreases information asymmetry.
      • Increases richness: The Internet increases the depth, detail, and scope of information.
      • Increases reach: The Internet increases the number of people who can be contacted efficiently.
      ELECTRONIC BUSINESS, ELECTRONIC COMMERCE, AND THE EMERGING DIGITAL FIRM
    • 96. The Changing Economics of Information Figure 4-1
    • 97. Conducting Business Over the Internet
      • E-Commerce:
        • Electronic commerce
        • Business-to-consumer (B2C)
        • Business-to-business (B2B)
        • Consumer-to-consumer (C2C)
        • Secure transactions
      B2B E-commerce Manufacturer Suppliers Retailer
    • 98. Business-To-Consumer
      • Advantages of E-commerce:
      • Customer-centered retailing: Closer and more personalized relationship with customers is possible
      • Web sites: Provide a corporate-centered portal for the consumer to quickly find information on products, services, prices, orders
    • 99.
      • Disintermediation: The elimination of organizations or business process layers responsible for certain intermediary steps in a value chain, reducing costs to the consumer
      • Reintermediation: The shifting of the intermediary role in a value chain to a new source, adding additional value to the consumer
      Business-To-Consumer
    • 100. The Benefits of Disintermediation to the Consumer
    • 101.
      • Clickstream tracking tools:
      • Collect data on customer activities at Web sites and store them in a log
      Interactive Marketing and Personalization
    • 102. Web Site Visitor Tracking
    • 103.
      • Create unique personalized Web pages for each customer
      • Increased closeness to customer increases value to the customer, while reducing costs of interacting with the customer
      Web Personalization
    • 104. Web Site Personalization
    • 105.
      • Compares information gathered about a specific user’s behavior at a Web site to data about other customers with similar interests to predict what the user would like to see next. The software then makes recommendations to users based on their assumed interests .
      Collaborative filtering:
    • 106.
      • The use of Web sites to provide customers with access to information and answers to questions
      • Replacing human call center operators and clerks
      • UPS.com: Customer tracking of packages
      • Orbitz.com: Customer self-help for organizing and managing a trip
      • Dell.com: “My Order Status” facility
      Customer self-service:
    • 107.
      • Electronic Data Interchange (EDI): Enables the computer-to-computer exchange between two organizations of standard transactions. Currently 80% of B2B e-commerce uses this system.
      • EDI is being replaced by more powerful Web-based alternatives.
      Business-to-Business Electronic Commerce
    • 108. Electronic Data Interchange (EDI) Figure 4-5
    • 109.
      • The largest Web-based form of B2B commerce
      • Private B2B extranets that focus on continuous business process coordination between a small group of companies for collaboration and supply chain management.
      • Wal-Mart uses its own private network to coordinate more than 15,000 suppliers to its stores.
      A Private Industrial Network
    • 110. A Private Industrial Network
    • 111.
      • Distributors: B2B online catalogs provide buyers with access to thousands of parts and other goods (Grainger.com)
      • Procurement platforms: Platforms for purchasing goods and materials and also sourcing, negotiating with suppliers, paying for goods, and making delivery arrangements (Ariba.com)
      Four different types of Net Marketplaces: Net Marketplaces
    • 112.
      • Independent exchanges: Third-party Net marketplace that is primarily transaction-oriented and that connects many buyers and suppliers for spot purchasing (Freemarkets.com, GEPolymerland.com)
      • Industry consortia: Industry-owned Net marketplaces used primarily for long-term sourcing of direct inputs to production (ChemConnect.com)
      Net Marketplaces Four different types of Net Marketplaces: (Continued)
    • 113. A Net Marketplace
    • 114. Consumer-To-Consumer I want that Dino!
    • 115. Electronic Commerce Payment Systems
    • 116. Electronic Commerce
    • 117. Now that I know hardware, software and network, I want to build something!
      • Personal Video Recorder – record TV shows and watch it at anytime, skip commercials
        • Slingbox http://www.slingmedia.com/
        • Build your own PVR
          • A used computer, a wireless network card, TV tuner/capture card, home wireless network, ubuntu operating system, MythTV video recording software ( http://www.byopvr.com/Sections+index-req-viewarticle-artid-10-page-1.html )
          • How does it look? http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-jH_E3NmX8U

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