Second life type of environments resonate with the situated and socio-cultural camp of how people learn (Brown, Collins, & Duguid, 1989; Greeno, 1997;Hutchins, 1993; Lave, 1993; Lave & Wenger, 1991; Roth & Bowen, 1995; Suchman, 1987; Van Lier, 2004), :
These environments also support objectivist approach of learning
Young, M. F., Kulikowich, J. M., & Barab, S. A. (1997). The unit of analysis for situated assessment. Instructional Science , 25(2), 133-150.
Kulikowich, J. M., & Young, M. F. (2001). Locating an ecological psychology methodology for situated action. Journal of the Learning Sciences, 10(1 & 2), 165-202.
Zheng, D. (2006). Affordances of a 3D Virtual Environment for English Language Learning: An Ecological Psychological Analysis. Unpublished Doctoral Dissertation, University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT. http://msu.edu/~zhengdo/dissertation.htm
Barab, S., Hay, K., & Yamagata-Lynch(2001). Constructing networks of Action-relevant episodes: An in situ research methodology. The Journal of Learning Sciences , 10 (1&2), 63–112.
Loh, C. S. (2007). Designing online games assessments as “information trails”. In G. Gibson, C., Aldrich, & M. Prensky (2007) (Eds.), Games and simulations in online leanring: Research and development frameworks (pp.323-365). Hershey, PA: Information Science Publishing.
At the museum (3 right clues) At the tall building ( 1 good clues , one useless clues ) Behind Beijing hotel ( 2 right clues , 1 false one ) At the 静香亭 （ 1 right clue, 2 false clues) Scaffolding the actual process of interaction from moment to moment
Scaffolding interaction through Negotiation for Action ( Zheng, Young, Wagner, & Brewer, forthcoming ) : L anguage is both embodied and dialogical
Tyler: I am going to check the mall, so, 我去看看 mall.