Global Warming is occurring due to a process called the Greenhouse Effect. This occurs when certain gases in the air prevent heat from escaping the Earth’s atmosphere. One third of the sun’s solar energy is reflected back into space by the Earth and its atmosphere. The other two-thirds is absorbed by the Earth and becomes trapped by gases in the atmosphere, warming the land, oceans, and air.
These gases act like a mirror and reflect the Earth’s radiation back to the surface. 100% of the observed temperature increase has been due to the increase of these greenhouse gases .
They allow sunlight to enter the atmosphere freely. They absorb infrared radiation, trapping heat in the atmosphere and causing the average temperature to rise.
Natural causes: Release of methane gas from arctic tundra's and wetlands. Earth’s natural climate change cycle. Usually lasts around 40,000 --- Some believe that global warming is a natural occurrence as the earth travel’s through a natural cycle, whether mankind contributed or not. Cow manure releases methane. Sun spots are exploding, raising heat levels. Volcano eruptions increase gases and damage plants. Man-made causes: Cars: Emit harmful gases. Air travel: Carbon from fuel bonds with oxygen in air to form C0 2 . Deforestation: Limiting the number of trees reduces the amount of C0 2 being converted to oxygen. 4. Population: The more people, the greater need for transportation, food, etc = more burning of fossil fuels and respired CO 2
By burning these carbon-based materials, carbon dioxide is released into the atmosphere.
Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), are the main culprits of ozone depletion. They are used for refrigerators, propellants for aerosols, foaming agents and cleaning solvents. When met with UV light, chlorofluorocarbons emit chlorine ions that destroy ozone molecules. Because of ozone depletion, more ultraviolet light has been reaching the Earth’s surface. Humans, plants, marine ecosystems, and the weather are all experiencing the effects of the depletion.
It is important to reduce our carbon emissions to lessen the impacts of global warming, as they effect the world on several different levels. 1. The Spread of Disease: As northern countries warm, disease carrying insects migrate north, bringing plague and disease with them. Some scientists believe that in some countries malaria has not been fully eradicated due to global warming. 2. Warmer waters and more hurricanes : As the temperature of oceans rises, so will the probability of more frequent and stronger hurricanes. 3. Increased probability and intensity of droughts and heat waves: Although some areas of Earth will become wetter due to global warming, other areas will suffer serious droughts and heat waves. Africa will receive the worst of it, with more severe droughts also expected in Europe. Water is already a dangerously rare commodity in Africa, and according to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, global warming will worsen the conditions which could lead to conflicts and war. 4. Economic consequences: Most of the effects of anthropogenic global warming won’t be good. And these effects spell one thing for the countries of the world: economic consequences. Hurricanes cause billions of dollars in damage, diseases cost money to treat and control, and conflicts exacerbate all of these.
The melting of polar ice caps is a major effect of Global Warming. There are four occurrences that follow: First , it will raise sea levels. There are 5,773,000 cubic miles of water in ice caps, glaciers, and permanent snow. According to the National Snow and Ice Data Center, if all glaciers melted today the seas would rise about 230 feet. Luckily, that’s not going to happen all in one go! But sea levels will rise. Second , melting ice caps will throw the global ecosystem out of balance. The ice caps are fresh water, and when they melt they will desalinate the ocean, or in plain English - make it less salty. The desalinization of the gulf current will “screw up” ocean currents, which regulate temperatures. The stream shutdown or irregularity would cool the area around north-east America and Western Europe. Luckily, that will slow some of the other effects of global warming in that area! Third , temperature rises and changing landscapes in the artic circle will endanger several species of animals. Only the most adaptable will survive. Fourth , global warming could snowball with the ice caps gone. Ice caps are white, and reflect sunlight, much of which is relected back into space, further cooling Earth. If the ice caps melt, the only reflector is the ocean. Darker colors absorb sunlight, further warming the Earth.
-Number of people on each trip -Destination -Calculation based on number and distance of trips you take -Carbon index which indicates amount of fuel burned on average, per mile of the journey. -Multiply carbon index and distance traveled, amount of fuel burned per passenger that particular flight could be deduced -Result bigger than actuality: 9.4x 10^2 kg/person/year
So many things can be done to combat Global Warming. All over the world, people are beginning to change their lifestyles in an attempt to solve this issue- but it’s not enough. We all need to contribute to the efforts. Reduce your carbon footprint, reduce greenhouse gases, stop global warming.
Transcript of "Global Warming"
Global Warming: The General Theory Lauren Gibbons, Martyn ‘S Gravemade, Arcan Chirathivat, Arielle Tenorio
Global Warming is defined as “the increase of the average temperature on Earth.” Every year the average temperature increases, causing natural disasters.
The sun is the Earth’s primary source of energy. The Greenhouse Effect : When energy trapped in the atmosphere warms the land, oceans, and air.
The gases that used to make life on Earth possible are now threatening our very existence. CARBON DIOXIDE CO 2 METHANE CH 4 NITROUS OXIDE NO 2
Greenhouse Gases: Gases that contribute to the Greenhouse Effect. Some Greenhouse Gases occur in nature- such as water vapor, methane, nitrous oxide, and carbon dioxide. Others are man made. Gas Main Source Overall contribution to increased global warming H 2 O Evaporation of oceans and lakes - CO 2 Combustion of fossil fuels and biomass 50% CH 4 Anaerobic decay of organic matter caused by intensive farming 18%% N 2 O Artificial fertilizers and combustion of biomass 6% O 3 Secondary pollutant in photochemical smogs 12% CFCs Refrigerants, repellants, foaming agents, solvents. 14%
The burning of fossil fuels such as oil, coal and natural gas is the main cause of climate change. Countries by Carbon Dioxide Emissions
As these gases and chemicals are released into the air, the concentration of the Ozone layer in the stratosphere decreases.
1. The spread of disease 2. Warm waters, hurricanes 3. Droughts and heat waves 4. Economic consequences Global Warming is negatively affecting the Earth and it’s occupants. Effects of Global Warming include:
5 . A major effect of Global Warming is the melting of polar ice caps . This is a “four-pronged” danger resulting in different situations. Raised sea levels Global ecosystem off balance Changing landscapes in the arctic circle endangers animals Global Warming increases with the melting of ice caps.
International School Bangkok can reduce their carbon footprint and their contribution to Global Warming by limiting the Week Without Walls (WWW) trips within Asia and the surrounding area. Finding the carbon footprint based on WWW air travel: <ul><li>Result bigger than actuality: 9.4x 10^2 kg/person/year </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.terrapass.com/carbon-footprint-calculator/#air </li></ul>
“ Carbon Offsets." PACURH No Frills . University of Washington. <http://students.washington.edu/nofrills/phil.htm>. "The Greenhouse Effect." Climate Change . United States Environmental Protection Agency. <http://www.epa.gov/climatechange/kids/greenhouse.html>. Simmons. "5 Deadliest Effects of Global Warming." Environmental Graffiti . 11 Sept. 2007. <http://www.environmentalgraffiti.com/sciencetech/5-deadliest-effects-of-global-warming/276>. TerraPass . Carbon Footprint Calculator. 3 Mar. 2009 <http://www.terrapass.com/carbon-footprint-calculator/#air>. "What Is Global Warming?" Kowledge Allianz . Ed. Karen Lindinger. 30 Aug. 2007. Allianz. <http://knowledge.allianz.com/en/globalissues/climate_change/global_warming_basics/global_warming_ definition.html>. "What is the Greenhouse Effect?" Kowledge.Allianz . Ed. Thilo Kunzemann. 30 Apr. 2007. Allianz. <http://knowledge.allianz.com/en/globalissues/climate_change/global_warming_basics/global_warming_ greenhouse_effect.html>. "With Knowledge Comes a Responsibility to Act." Allianz . 2 Mar. 2009 <http://knowledge.allianz.com/en/>. Our Sources include:
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