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HIV vaccines HIV vaccines Presentation Transcript

  •  
    • Challenges in the development of an HIV vaccine
    • By: Mohammad Shenagari
    • Guieded by: Dr. Taravat Bamdad
    • TMU
    • Spring 2009
    • [email_address]
  • History of HIV HIV 1930 HIV-1 arises 1959 Earliest sero-positive 1981 AIDS emerges 1983 HIV-1 identified 1986 HIV-2 identified 1997 Advent of HAART 2006
  • Complacency High Risk Behavior Human Rights Abuses Stigma- tization Access To Care Sexism Ignorance Poverty Discrimin- ation Disem- powered Women Prejudice Denial Courtesy of Jim Hoxie
  • Is prevention better than cure ever?
    • What is "better?“
    • Vaccination against whooping cough has its dangers,
    • But these are negligible in comparison with whooping cough itself
  • HIV Treatment: Anti-virals
  • X X Reverse Transcription Inhibitors Protease Blockers
  • The Challenge of finding a cure for HIV
    • Highly active antiretroviral therapy ( HAART ) for the chronic suppression of HIV replication has been the major accomplishment in HIV/AIDS medicine
    • Many patients are now in their second decade of treatment , with levels of plasma HIV RNA below the limits of detection of clinical assays
    • Many patients are now enjoying a life-style little encumbered by symptoms or the side effects of medications, many of which require only once daily administration
    • HAART is no panacea .
    • Current treatments must be maintained for life
    • with treatment interruption resulting in the rapid rebound of replicating virus
    • Although drug resistance can emerge
    • Despite the prolonged suppression of HIV replication below the standard limits of detection for patients on HAART, ongoing viremia can be detected at levels of 1 to 50 copies per milliliter in the majority of patients
    • The origin of this viremia has not been fully characterized
    • The suboptimal penetration of many antiretrovirals into the central nervous system may also permit low levels of viral replication and/or release from stable viral reservoirs, resulting in neuropathology
    • There is already growing concern about increased rates of heart disease, diabetes, liver disease , and many forms of cancer in aging HIV-infected patients who are receiving treatment
    • the cost of HAART may be too much to sustain treatments on a global scale, as millions are affected
    • chronic suppressive therapy is required to contain persistent infection in reservoirs such as latently infected CD4+ lymphocytes and cells of the macrophage-monocyte lineage
  • HIV latency • Latently infected resting memory CD4+ T cells are the best characterized latent reservoir for HIV-1. • Less than 1 cell per 1,000,000 resting CD4+ T cells from patients on HAART harbor latent HIV-1 provirus. • Sequence of latent proviruses does not evolve , which suggests no ongoing viral replication. • Discontinuation of HAART allows viral relapse from latent reservoir.
  • HIV latency(cont.)
    • • Patients successfully treated with HAART for longer than 10 years exhibit no appreciable decrease in the size of the latent reservoir.
    • • The persistence of latently infected memory CD4+ T lymphocytes precludes their elimination by HAART alone for the lifetime of the patient.
    • • Other drug-insensitive reservoirs, including brain, macrophages, and hematopoietic stem cells, may also exist.
    • • Latency is likely established and maintained by numerous blocks at multiple steps in the HIV-1 replicative pathway, which potentially complicates eradication strategies.
  • many lymphocytes can be visualized that produce small amounts of viral RNA, yet do not display markers of activation
  • Potential transcriptional blocks in HIV latency
  • Potential post-transcriptional blocks in HIV latency
  • Potential therapies to disrupt latent proviral HIV infection
    • 1. Il-7
    • 2. HMBA(hexamethylbisacetamide)
    • 3. Prostratin ( Homalanthus nutans )
    • 4. HDAC inhibitors
  • Potential therapies to disrupt latent proviral HIV infection
  • Can Mechanisms That Drive Latency Be Therapeutically Exploited?
    • Activation from latency to completion of the replication cycle should result in lytic cell death of CD4+ T cells.
  • Purging persistent proviral infection
    • A vaccine that prevents cervical cancer, better therapies to treat malignancies
    • So,
    • Prevention is better than Cure
  • HIV-1 Vaccines (Fields Virology)
    • The major obstacle to vaccine development is the tremendous sequence heterogeneity both within and among clades worldwide .
    • The development of an effective vaccine remains the best chance for ending the epidemic.
  • Vaccines from Bench to Clinic
  • Vaccine Development
    • Discovery
    • Phase 1
    • Phase 2
    • Phase 3
  • Discovery or Pre-Clinical Phase
    • Usually the result of experimentation in academic, pure research or biotech labs
    • Data provide “ Proof of Principal ” and suggest commercialization of idea
    • Academic labs incapable of further product development
    • Idea should be patented to protect “intellectual property”
    • Patent can be licensed to drug companies for commercialization
  • Clinical Development
    • Costs $600 million-$1 billion
    • Takes 8-10 years
    • Incentive-Profit
    • Vaccines must be made employing “ good manufacturing practice (GMP)”
    • Cost and time needed to assure vaccine is safe and efficacious.
    • Begins with submission of an “ Investigational New Drug (IND) ” application to the FDA
  • Clinical Development(cont.)
    • FDA’s Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER) is responsible for regulating vaccines in USA
    • Successful completion of all 3 phases of clinical development can be followed by submission of a Biologic License Application (BLA)
    • Following review, the findings may be presented to FDA’s Vaccines and Related Biological Products Advisory Committee for advice to the agency regarding the safety and efficacy of the vaccine for the proposed indication
    • Vaccine approval also requires adequate labeling
    • FDA continues to monitor product and manufacturing of vaccine to ensure continuing safety
    • The challenge of developing an HIV vaccine spans the need for new basic research insights to product development to clinical trials.
    • The complexity of fostering and coordinating these efforts has led to the creation of:
    • 1. major NIH intramural ( Vaccine Research Center )
    • 2. NIH extramural ( Center for HIV/AIDS Immunology )
    • 3. international, multi-institutional effort ( The Global HIV Vaccine Enterprise ).
  • Phase 1
    • Following submission of IND a candidate vaccine is tested in a small number ( 10-30) healthy human adult volunteers who are not at risk for the disease in question.
    • Main goal is safety and to a lesser extent immunogenicity involving different doses and different immunization schedules.
    • Phase 1 studies usually take 8-12 months and can be done in academic setting or biotech settings but need institutional
  • Phase 2 Studies
    • Involves a larger number of volunteers ( 50-500 ), usually a mixture of low-risk and higher risk individuals from the population where phase 3 studies will be done.
    • Main goal is to generate safety data as well as information for refining dosage and immunization schedule , vaccine formulations and lot consistency
    • May also provide preliminary data relative to efficacy
    • Trials usually take 18-24 months because of screening and enrolling large numbers of participants
  • Phase 3 Studies
    • The randomized, controlled clinical trial aimed at providing scientific evidence about the clinical performance of vaccines.
    • Involves 1000s of participants from high risk populations where individuals, having given informed consent, are randomized into test and control groups to be given vaccine or placebo in a blinded study to avoid bias.
    • The goal of phase 3 trials is to determine vaccine safety and efficacy in a large study population sample leading to licensure application
  • Phase 4 Trials
    • Phase 4 (phase IV) Phase 4 trials are done after a vaccine has been shown to work and has been granted a license . So they are looking at vaccines that are already available for doctors to prescribe, rather than new drugs that are still being developed.The main reasons pharmaceutical companies run phase 4 trials are to find out more about the side effects and safety of the vaccine , what the long term risks and benefits are, and how well the vaccine works when it is used more widely than in clinical trials
  • After a phase III trial
    • Licensing.
    • Large-scale manufacture.
    • Distribution and access.
    • Phase IV effectiveness and public health impact measures.
    • Monitoring and data gathering.
    • Analysis and publication of results .
  • Barriers to the Optimal Use of Licensed Vaccines
    • Technical obstacles
    • Economic obstacles
    • Cultural obstacles
    • Legal obstacles
    • Pregnancy and the application of licensed vaccines
    • Regulatory issues.
  • Regulatory Issues
    • Removal of vaccines from the marketplace:
      • Safety issues
      • Obsolescence
      • Disease eradicated
      • Error in judging market size
      • U.S. single largest market for vaccines When reimbursement is denied vaccine availability throughout world may suffer
  • Need for New Vaccines
    • Sexually transmitted vaccines
    • Respiratory infections
    • Enteric infections
    • Vector borne diseases
    • Nosocomial agents
    • Other viruses,bacteria, and fungi
  • Phases on the development and evaluation of HIV vaccines Phase I Phase II Phase III Phase IV Preclinical phase
    • Laboratory
    • Animal protection experiments
    Clinical phases
    • 20–50 HIV-negative volunteers (lower risk)
    • safety and immunogenicity
    • 100s of HIV-negative volunteers (lower and higher risk)
    • safety and immunogenicity; and also
    • doses, routes of administration, different populations
    • 1000s of HIV-negative volunteers (higher risk)
    • efficacy (against infection or against disease)
    • effectiveness
    • (how to use the vaccine for public health purposes )
  • How vaccines are developed? Basic research Preclinical development Clinical trials Phase I/II Phase III Safety, Immunogenicity Discovery Human research in vitro & animal studies Laboratory Exploration Efficacy Vaccine concept Experiments in primates Human trials 1 2 3 4 5 6 Safety, immunogenicity Likelihood of protection in humans 1: Recombinant Protein – 2: Synthetic Peptides – 3: Naked DNA 4. Live-recombinant vectors- 5: Whole inactivated virus – 6: Live attenuated virus
  • Why a HIV vaccine might be feasable? 1. Vaccination has been successful against other viral diseases . 2. Experimental HIV/SIV vaccines have protected chimpanzees/macaques . 3. Candidate HIV vaccines are immunogenic. 4. Some humans can regulate infection and/or HIV replication .
  • Approaches to AIDS vaccine designs
  • Current HIV vaccine strategies
    • (1) Traditional strategies:
    • Live attenuated viruses
    • Whole killed viruses
    • Protein subunits
    • (2) Novel strategies
    • Plasmid DNA vaccines
    • Live recombinant vectors
    • What is immunity?
    • When the body is primed (armed) to resist infection and/or disease by the pathogen.
    • Two arms :
      • cellular (cytotoxic T cells or CTLs)
      • and humoral (antibodies) immunity
    • What is an HIV vaccine?
    • A substance that mimics the properties of the virus without causing infection.
    • A vaccine stimulates immune responses by teaching the immune system to recognise and defend against a disease-causing virus.
  • What is a Vaccine?
    • Vaccine vak - ´sen a substance that teaches the body’s immune system to recognize and protect against a disease caused by an infectious agent or virus
  • WHAT SHOULD AN HIV-1 VACCINE DO ?
      • Induce the body to make
      • protective antibodies and immune cells
      • to prevent infection
      • at mucosal sites (for sexually transmitted HIV)
      • Or
      • lower viral load and stop progression to AIDS
  • But … HIV is particularly challenging because it infects exactly the immune system T cells that are supposed to protect you from infections.
  • Challenges in tha development of HIV-1 vaccine
    • Prophylactic HIV-1 vaccine might to be able to elicit humoral and cellular immunity
    • Vaccine that elicites only cellular immunity might can be used as a therapeutic vaccine
  • The goal of an HIV-1 vaccine would be either to prevent infection or to reduce viral loads and clinical disease progression after infection
  • Challenges in the development of a prophylactic HIV-1 vaccine
    • ( 1 ) Extensive viral clade and sequence diversity .
    • ( 2 ) Early establishment of latent viral reservoirs.
    • ( 3 ) Immune correlates of protection unclear.
    • ( 4 ) Viral evasion of humoral and cellular immune responses.
    • ( 5 ) Antibody responses typically type-specific.
  • Challenges in the development of a prophylactic HIV-1 vaccine(cont.)
    • ( 6 ) No method exists to elicit broadly reactive neutralizing antibodies.
    • ( 7 ) Attenuated viruses unsafe for human use.
    • ( 8 ) Lack of a small-animal model.
    • ( 9 ) Little pharmaceutical interest.
  • Diversity (greatest hurdle)
    • The extraordinary worldwide diversity of HIV-1 presents perhaps the greatest hurdle.
    • Driven by the error prone reverse transcriptase, the HIV-1 M group has diversified into nine divergent clades as well as multiple circulating recombinant forms.
    • Amino acid sequences of Env can differ up to 20% within a particular clade and over 35% between clades
    • vaccine protection will necessarily be dependent on the capacity of immune responses to cross-react with highly heterologous viruses
  • HIV-1-specific humoral immunity
    • The HIV-1 Env glycoprotein is a trimer on the virion surface with extensive N-linked glycosylation that effectively shields many conserved epitopes from antibody recognition.
    • Highly immunogenic variable loops also elicit type-specific antibodies that may redirect humoral responses away from conserved regions.
    • In addition, key conserved regions, such as the binding site of the chemokine co-receptor, are only formed after Env binds its cellular receptor CD4 and undergoes an extensive conformational change
  • Current strategies to design vaccines to generate broadly neutralising antibodies
  • Current strategies to design vaccines to generate broadly neutralising antibodies
    • The first is to generate a candidate that mimics the shape of the mature trimeric Env complex on the virion's surface
    • The second is to produce antigen molecules that focus the immune response on cross-reactive immunodominant non-neutralising epitopes.
    • A third strategy is to produce stable intermediates in the HIV binding process that present conserved epitopes to elicit CD4-induced antibodies.
    • The final strategy is to produce epitope mimics of the broadly neutralising monoclonal antibodies, ascertained from structural studies of the MAb-Env complex
  • there are currently no vaccine candidates that are aimed at eliciting broadly reactive Env specific neutralizing antibodies in clinical trials.
  • Cellular immunity Experimental depletion of CD81 lymphocytes has been shown to abrogate immune control of simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) replication in rhesus monkeys Polyfunctional T lymphocytes capable of performing multiple functions have been reported in long-term non-progressors
  • Vaccine trials
    • most licensed viral vaccines seem to function by controlling subclinical viral replication and by preventing clinical disease
    • Despite the urgent need for an HIV-1 vaccine, only two vaccine concepts have completed clinical efficacy studies so far
  • completed clinical efficacy studies
    • monomeric HIV-1 Env gp120 protein, and the aim of this strategy was to induce Env-specific humoral immune responses. In early-phase clinical trials, gp120 immunogens elicited type-specific binding antibodies but failed to induce broadly reactive neutralizing antibodies
    • The second vaccine concept that has completed clinical efficacy studies involved replication-incompetent recombinant adenovirus serotype 5 (rAd5) vectors expressing HIV-1 Gag, Pol and Nef . The aim of this strategy was to elicit HIV-1-specific cellular immune responses
  • phase 3 efficacy trials
    • trials sponsored by the biotechnology company VaxGen ,
    • these vaccine candidates afforded no detectable protective efficacy , indicating that these type-specific antibody responses were insufficient to protect against HIV-1 infection in humans
    • Another phase 3 study evaluating the efficacy of a recombinant canarypox vector prime/gp120 protein boost vaccine regimen is currently underway
  • Vaccine trials in South Africa
    • Phase IIb
    • HVTN 503 (MRK Ad 5 polyvalent B), ‘ Phambili trial ’, started February 2007, ended September 2007 , 3000 participants
    • Approved in SA, waiting for US progress
    • Phase I
    • SAAVI ( South African AIDS Vacine Initiative) (Phase I) - DNA / MVA (C) (2008?)
  • WHERE ARE WE NOW as SAAVI ?
    • Two Candidate Vaccines ready for Clinical Trials:
    • SAAVI DNA-C2 to be used as the primary vaccine
    • Two-component DNA vaccine comprising:
        • DNA expressing Gag-RT-Tat-Nef
        • DNA vaccine expressing truncated Env
    • SAAVI MVA-C to be used as the booster vaccine
      • Modified Vaccinia Ankara (MVA) Vaccine expressing Gag-RT-Tat-Nef and truncated Env = Boost
      • Vaccine phase 1 trials to begin 2007/8 (HVTN 073/SAAVI 102)
  • SAAVI-DNA-C2 and SAAVI-MVA-C for clinical trial
  • HIV Vaccine Trials Network ( HVTN )
    • An international collaboration of scientists and educators searching for an effective and safe HIV vaccine. The HVTN's mission is to facilitate the process of testing preventive vaccines against HIV/AIDS. Our organization conducts all phases of clinical trials, from evaluating experimental vaccines for safety and the ability to stimulate immune responses, to testing vaccine efficacy.
  • http://chi.ucsf.edu/vaccines Ongoing HVTN Trials: Phase II Protocol Number Status as of July 2008 Prime Boost Class Producer Product Name Adjuvant Class Producer Product Name Adjuvant HVTN 502/Merck 023 (Step) (n=3000) Closed to accrual Nonreplicating adenoviral vectors (clade B Gag-Pol-Nef) Merck MRKAd5 trivalent HVTN 503 (n=801) Closed to accrual Nonreplicating adenoviral vectors (clade B Gag-Pol-Nef) Merck MRKAd5 trivalent
  • http://chi.ucsf.edu/vaccines Ongoing HVTN Trials: Phase I (Slide 1 of 2) Protocol Number Status as of July 2008 Prime Boost Class Producer Product Name Adjuvant Class Producer Product Name Adjuvant HVTN 050/Merck 018 (n=435) Closed to accrual Nonreplicating adenoviral vector (clade B Gag) Merck MRKAd5 HIV-1 Gag HVTN 063 (n=156) Closed to accrual DNA plasmid (clade B Gag) Wyeth GENEVAX gag -2962 DNA plasmid cytokine ( IL-15) + bupivacaine Peptides ( poly- epitopic:  clade B Env, Gag, Nef ) Wyeth Wyeth multiepitope CTL peptide vaccine RC529-SE, GM-CSF Or DNA plasmids (clade B Gag) Wyeth GENEVAX gag -2962 DNA plasmid cytokine (IL-12) + bupivacaine HVTN 065 (n=120) Closed to accrual DNA plasmid ( clade B Gag, Pro, RT, Env, Tat, Rev, Vpu ) GeoVax HIVB DNA pGA2/JS7 MVA vector (clade B Gag, Pol, Env) GeoVax MVA-HIV 62
  • http://chi.ucsf.edu/vaccines Ongoing HVTN Trials: Phase I (Slide 2 of 2) Protocol Number Status as of July 2008 Prime Boost Class Producer Product Name Adjuvant Class Producer Product Name Adjuvant HVTN 067 (n=108) Closed to accrual DNA plasmid (polyepitopic: Gag, Pol, Vpr, Nef, Rev, Env) Pharmexa-Epimmune EP HIV-1233 MVA vector (poly-epitopic: Gag, Pol, Vpr, Nef, Rev, Env) Bavarian-Nordic MVA-mBN32 HVTN 069 (n=90) Closed to accrual DNA plasmids (clade B Gag-Pol-Nef; clade A,B,C Env) given by IM route NIH VRC VRC-HIVDNA-009 Nonreplicating adenoviral vectors (clade B Gag-Pol; clade A,B,C Env) given by SC or ID vs IM route NIH VRC VRC-ADV-014 HVTN 070 (n=120) Enrolling DNA plasmids (clade B Gag, Pol, Env) Univ. of Pennsyl-vania (D. Weiner) PENNVAX-B DNA plasmid cytokines (IL-12 or IL-15) + bupivacaine HVTN 071 (n=35) Closed to accrual Nonreplicating adenoviral vectors (clade B Gag, Pol, Nef) Merck MRKAd5
  • http://chi.ucsf.edu/vaccines Planned HVTN Trials: Phase I, July 2008 Protocol Number Anticipated Start Date Prime Boost Class Producer Product Name Adjuvant Class Producer Product Name Adjuvant HVTN 073 (n=96) Q3 2008 DNA plasmids (clade C Gag, RT, Tat, Nef; clade C Env) SAAVI SAAVI DNA-C2 MVA vector (clade C Gag, RT, Tat, Nef; clade C gp150CT) SAAVI SAAVI MVA-C HVTN 076 Q3 2008 DNA plasmids (clade B Gag, Pol, Nef; Clade A, B, C Env NIH VRC VRC-HIVDNA-016 Non-replicating adenoviral vectors (clade B Gag-Pol; clade A, B, C Env) NIH VRC VRC-ADV-014 HVTN 077 Q3 2008 DNA plasmids (clade A Env) NIH VRC VRC-HIVDNA044 Non-replicating adenoviral vectors , type 5 (clade A Env) NIH VRC VRC-HIVDNA038 OR OR Non-replicating adenoviral vector, type 35 (clade A Env) NIH VRC VRC-HIVADV027 Non-replicating adenoviral vector, type 35 (clade A Env) NIH VRC VRC-HIVADV027
  • http://chi.ucsf.edu/vaccines Completed HVTN Trials, July 2008 (Slide 1 of 5 ) Protocol Number Year Completed Prime Boost Class Producer Product Name Adjuvant Class Producer Product Name Adjuvant References HVTN 039 (n=110) 2003 Canarypox vector (clade B Env, Gag, Pro, RT, Nef) Sanofi Pasteur ALVAC vCP1452 (high-dose) Goepfert P, et al. J Infect Dis 2005; 192:1249-59 HVTN 041 (n=84) 2003 Protein (clade B Nef-Tat fusion protein + clade B Env subunit) GlaxoSmith Kline NefTat + gp120W61D AS02A Goepfert, P et al. Vaccine 2007 Jan 5;25(3):510-8 HVTN 203 (n=330) 2003 Canarypox vector (clade B Env, Gag, Pro, RT, Nef) Sanofi Pasteur ALVAC vCP1452 Protein subunit (clade B Env) VaxGen AIDSVAX B/B (gp120 MN, gp120 GNE8) Aluminum hydroxide gel Russell N, et al. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2007 Feb 1;44(2):203-12 HIVNET 026 (n=160) 2004 Canarypox vector (clade B Env, Gag, Pro, RT, Nef) Sanofi Pasteur ALVAC vCP1452 Protein subunit (clade B Env) VaxGen gp120 MN Aluminum hydroxide/ thimerosol Cleghorn F, et al . J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2007 Oct 1;46(2):222-30. HVTN 045 (n=30) 2004 DNA plasmid (clade B Env, Gag, Pro, RT, Tat, Vpu, Rev) Emory Univ. (H. Robinson) pGA2/JS2 DNA Mulligan MJ, et al. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 2006;22:678-83
  • http://chi.ucsf.edu/vaccines Completed HVTN Trials, July 2008 (Slide 2 of 5) Protocol Number Year Completed Prime Boost Class Producer Product Name Adjuvant Class Pro-ducer Product Name Adjuvant References HIVNET 040 (n=48) 2005 VEE vector (clade C Gag) AlphaVax AVX-101 HVTN 048 (n=42) 2005 DNA plasmid (poly-epitopic: Gag, Pol, Vpr, Nef, Rev, and Env) Epimmune EP HIV-1090 Gorse G, et al. Vaccine. 2008 Jan 10;26(2):215-23. Epub 2007 Nov 20. HVTN 052 (n=180) 2005 DNA plasmids (clade B Gag-Pol-Nef; clade A,B,C Env) NIH VRC VRC-HIVDNA-009 See HVTN 057 HVTN 057 (n=70) (HVTN 052 rollover) 2006 See HVTN 052 Non-replicating adenoviral vectors (clade B Gag-Pol; clade A,B,C Env) NIH VRC VRC-ADV-014 HVTN 044 (n=70) 2006 DNA plasmids (clade B Gag-Pol-Nef; clade A,B,C Env) NIH VRC VRC-HIVDNA-009 DNA plasmid cytokine (IL2-Ig)
  • http://chi.ucsf.edu/vaccines Completed HVTN Trials, July 2008 (Slide 3 of 5) Protocol Number Year Completed Prime Boost Class Producer Product Name Adjuvant Class Producer Product Name Adjuvant HVTN 054 (n=48) 2006 Nonreplicating adenoviral vectors (clade B Gag-Pol; clade A,B,C Env) NIH VRC VRC-ADV-014 HVTN 056 (n=96) 2006 Peptides (polyepitopic: clade B Env, Gag, Nef) Wyeth Wyeth multiepitope CTL peptide vaccine RC-529-SE, GM-CSF HVTN 059 (n=96) 2006 VEE vector ( clade C Gag ) AlphaVax AVX-101 HVTN 042/ANRS VAC19 (n=174) 2007 Canarypox vector (clade B Env, Gag, Pro, RT, Nef) Sanofi Pasteur ALVAC vCP1452 Lipopeptides (poly-epitopic: clade B Gag, Pol, Nef) Sanofi Pasteur/ ANRS LIPO-5 HVTN 068 (n=66) 2007 Nonreplicating adenoviral vectors (clade B Gag-Pol; clade A,B,C Env) NIH VRC VRC-ADV-014 Nonreplicating adenoviral vectors (clade B Gag-Pol; clade A, B, C Env) NIH VRC VRC-HIVADV014 OR DNA plasmids (clade B Gag-Pol-Nef; clade A,B,C Env) NIH VRC VRC-HIVDNA-009
  • http://chi.ucsf.edu/vaccines Completed HVTN Trials, July 2008 (Slide 4 of 5) Protocol Number Year Completed Prime Boost Class Producer Product Name Adjuvant Class Producer Product Name Adjuvant HVTN 055 (n=150) 2007 MVA vectors (clade B Env, Gag; Tat, Rev, Nef, Pol) Therion TBC-M358; TBC-M335 Fowlpox vector (clade B Env, Gag; Tat, Rev, Nef, Pol) Therion TBC-F357;TBC-F349 HVTN 049 (n=96) 2007 DNA plasmids (clade B Gag, Env) Chiron Gag and Env DNA/PLG microparticles PLG Protein subunit (clade B Env) Chiron Oligomeric, V2-deleted HIV gp140 SF-162 HVTN 064 (n=120) 2008 Protein (containing T-helper epitopes from clade B Env, Gag, Pol, Vpu) + DNA plasmid (polyepitopic: Gag, Pol, Vpr, Nef) Pharmexa-Epimmune EP-1043 + EP HIV-1090 Alum (for EP-1043 only) HVTN 204 (n=480) 2008 DNA plasmids (clade B Gag, Pol, Nef; clade A,B,C Env) NIH VRC VRC-HIVDNA-016 Non-replicating adenoviral vectors (clade B Gag-Pol; clade A,B,C Env) NIH VRC VRC-ADV-014
  • http://chi.ucsf.edu/vaccines Completed HVTN Trials, July 2008 (Slide 5 of 5) Protocol Number Year Completed Prime Boost Class Producer Product Name Adjuvant Class Producer Product Name Adjuvant HVTN 060 (n=144) 2008 DNA plasmid (clade B Gag) Wyeth GENEVAX gag -2962 DNA plasmid cytokine (IL-12) + bupivacaine Wyeth peptides (see 056 prime)
  • Nonhuman Primate HIV/SIV Trials Database
  • Does an HIV vaccine already exist?
    • The answer is
    • Research is being conducted today to find a safe and effective vaccine !
    NO
  • Savalan-Azerbaycan