Hulya Presentation Ottoman


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With this presentation you can learn about the historical developlent milestones of Turkish Decorative Motifs.

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Hulya Presentation Ottoman

  1. 1. CHARACTERISTICS OF TURKISH DECORATIVE ART THROUGH OUT THE CENTURIES <ul><li>10th Cenury. The Huns. We can reach the very early examples of Turkish Decorative arts in Hun Civilization. Huns were very civilized . They build palaces, libraries, buildings. And they decorated these. They were the first Turkish civilization who are not nomads.So we can find the examples of their art in the archeological surveys on the walls, doors etc.Huns were sending artists, technical man, etc to Arabia, even to Egypt upon their request to teach their civilization. So the Hun civilization effected the Arabs also. </li></ul><ul><li>In the 12th and 13th Centuries, another Turkish civilazation comes.The Seljucks.This civilization also carries many signs from the Huns.Then comes the Ottoman Empire. (1263-1923 ) </li></ul><ul><li>One of the most distinctive characteristics of Turkish decorative art since Seljuks is that , patterns , rules and styles are designed in the PALACE COURT. The Seljuk palace had a court , and the artists employed in the court, developed unique and uniform styles which are aplied to motifs, these motifs had a courtly-style and these were applied to books, to the metalwork, to ceramics, to tiles, to fabrics, upon the order of the court. </li></ul><ul><li>The tradition of “PALACE COURT “ is followed in the Ottoman Empire too. And this courtly style on motifs continued.And new courtly decorative styles are developed .But all these styles have many things in common. They are the followers of HUNS and Seljuks. </li></ul><ul><li>In works of the Early Ottoman period, the most widely-used decorative motifs were “ RUMIS ”.Helezonic patterns. We are going to work on this RUMI MOTIF in this workshop. </li></ul><ul><li>These RUMIS were later enriched with stylized HATAYI blossoms, palmettes, and lotuses on floral scroll and geometric compositions. Cloud bands also begin appearing during the late 15th century. </li></ul>
  2. 2. THE HISTORY OF THE OTTOMAN EMPIRE (1299-1923) (From 13th century to 20th century) <ul><li>A leader of a group of Turks named OSMAN, living in N orthwestern Anatolia (13th century) declared their independence from the Seljuks.(1299) </li></ul><ul><li>This was followed by a period of rapid expansion and conquest and the Ottoman Empire flourished. In 1326 the city Bursa was the capital of his domains. OSMAN’s successors, known as &quot;Osmanlis&quot; or &quot;Ottomans&quot;, continued his successful campaigns </li></ul><ul><li>In 1361 their capital was relocated to Edirne. Osman's sixth successor, Mehmed II, (FATİH THE CONQUERER) conquered Istanbul making it the capital of the Ottoman Empire (1453) to extend its borders as far as Asia and North Africa and incorporate much of S outheastern Europe. </li></ul>
  3. 3. The Ottoman Empire in the Growth period
  4. 4. Ottoman Empire History Timeline <ul><li>1299: Osman I declares his kingdom to be an independent state, founding the Ottoman Empire. </li></ul><ul><li>1326: Osman's son Orkhan I establishes Bursa as the capital. </li></ul><ul><li>1361: Murad I moves the capital to Edirne (Adrianople). </li></ul><ul><li>1453: Mehmed II captures Constantinople </li></ul><ul><li>1483: Constantinople is renamed Istanbul. </li></ul><ul><li>1520: Suleiman the Magnificent assumes power. </li></ul><ul><li>1541: Ottomans conquer Budapest, leading to the addition of Hungary to the empire. </li></ul><ul><li>1604: Ottomans driven out of Iraq </li></ul><ul><li>1686: Ottomans are forced out of Hungary. </li></ul><ul><li>1922: The last sultan, Mohammed IV is overthrown. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Turkish Decorative Motifs in the Ottoman Empire Period. <ul><li>In works of the Early Ottoman period, the most widely-used decorative motifs were “ RUMIS ”.Helezonic patterns. We are going to work on this RUMI MOTIF in this workshop. </li></ul><ul><li>These RUMIS later were enriched with stylized HATAYI blossoms, palmettes, and lotuses on floral scroll and geometric compositions. Cloud bands also begin appearing during the late 15th century. </li></ul><ul><li>In the first half of the 16th century was witness to the development of the Classical style. The chief painter named ŞAHKULU was employed in “ Sultan Süleyman I” ’s court.U nder ŞAHKULU’s direction, there developed a courtly style known as &quot;SAZ YOLU&quot; whose principal elements are HATAYI BLOSOOMS and large serrate leaves that twist and rum among which birds and fantastic creatures are occasionally placed at random. The triple-dot &quot;ÇİNTEMANİS&quot; representing a leopard's spots and the pairs of wavy lines or clouds representing a tiger's stripes become prevalent during this period. </li></ul>
  6. 6. DISTINCTIVE THEME OF TURKISH DECORATIVE ART in mid 16th century. <ul><li>The artist KARA MEMİ, was the student of ŞAHKULU. He became the head of the court - studios towards the middle of the 16th century .(Nakkaşhane ) His style was more of naturalist . The floral designs consisting of tulips, roses, hyacinths, fruit trees in blossom, and cypresses begin to appear and become the distinctive theme of Turkish decorative art. </li></ul><ul><li>These naturally-executed flowers were employed according to specific compositional frameworks adhering to the principles of symmetry and infinitely-extensible patterns. Motifs are set individually on diagonally-arranged axes, on vertically-extending floral scroll, and in indexations. </li></ul>
  7. 7. The Story of Turkish Decorative art on the İZNİK TILES AND CERAMICS(15th century to 17th century ) <ul><li>T he Ottoman city İZNİK, flourished as the principal center of a ceramics industry from the 15th to the 17th century .T he ornamental tiles needed to decorate some of the most sublime works of imperial Ottoman architecture were produced in İznik. </li></ul>
  8. 8. WHITE AND RED PASTE IZNIK POTTERY <ul><li>İznik ceramics can be divided into two principle groups: white paste and red paste. Acconrding to their distinctive techniques and styles, “The Red Paste” is divided into three subgroups 1- graffito 2- slip, 3- so-called &quot;Miletos ware“ </li></ul><ul><li>The most brilliant examples of the last group, having blue-and-white decorations on a white slip, were produced during the 15th century. </li></ul>
  9. 9. IZNIK POTTERY IN LATE 1530 <ul><li>In the late 1530's İZNİK POTTERS began producing a group of ceramics whose blue-and-white palette had been augmented with the addition of a pale turquoise as well as a manganese purpose and a sage green. Also encountered from this period are dishes and bowls in the SAZ YOLU styled decorated with large, rounded floral motifs with scaled surfaces resembling either a pomegranate or an artichoke. </li></ul>
  10. 10. İZNİK TOWARDS THE END OF 15th CENTURY <ul><li>Towards the end of the 15th century, we see a group of İZNİK CERAMICS having a white paste and a fine, smooth, and transparent glaze. </li></ul><ul><li>T he Ottoman potters produced wares decorated with RUMI motifs , executed in blue-and-white. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Turkish Decorative art on IZNIK POTTERY in the 16th Century <ul><li>Around the middle of the 16th century, the colors used in lZNIK pottery were increased with the addition of green, turquoise, and black clours , along with red. </li></ul><ul><li>The last, a coral-red forming a slightly raised surface beneath the clear glaze, became the most distinctive feature of 16th century İZNİK CERAMICS .. The decorations are noteworthy for the naturalistic style of their rendition: the most frequently-appearing motifs are flowers such as roses, tulips, carnations, and hyacinths. HATAYI blossoms and rosettes are also frequent. In addition to pottery, tiles were also an important product of the lznik ateliers. These tiles, manufactured according to designs prepared by the court workshops, were ordered for the decoration of the empire's mosques, tombs, medresses, baths, palaces, hospices, libraries, and kiosks. </li></ul>
  12. 12. DECLINE IN IZNIK TILE AND POTTERY (Late 16th Century) <ul><li>After reaching a high point in the late 16th century, the İZNİK TILE industry apparently went into a decline: the lovely coral red color , turned steadily browner and defects in glazes become more frequent. The economic troubles started, and the Ottoman E mpire, started to import cheap Chinese porcelains which are not in high quality and this result ed in wiping away the Iznik Pottery tile-making industry . </li></ul>
  15. 15. – Turkish Decorative art on ÇANAKKALE CERAMICS- LATE 17th CENTURY to the first quarter of the 20th century. <ul><li>From the late 17th century until about the first quarter of the 20 th century, the Ottoman city Çanakkale was a ceramics manufacturing center in which produced works were distinctive for their originality of form. </li></ul><ul><li>Rough red clay was used in pottery making though beige-colored clay is encountered on rare occasions. Large, shallow dishes and jars make an appearance in Çanakkale's output in the late 17th and early 18th centuries. </li></ul><ul><li>These are of higher quality and more successfully executed than those made a t a later date. Motifs are painted in purplish brown, orange, yellow, dark blue, and white under green, brown, oxide-yellow, and colorless glazes. Large plates are decorated with cross-hatching in the rims and with centrally-located rosette flowers . D ishes are decorated with galleons, mortars, mosques, and dwellings as well with animal figures such as fish and birds. </li></ul>
  17. 17. Turkish Decorative art in the 17th Century OTTOMAN EMPIRE. <ul><li>In the 17th century Turkish decorative art suffered a decline . During the so-called &quot;TULIP PERIOD of the Ottoman’s &quot; early 18th century, an effort was made to reverse this and recapture some of the magnificence of the 16th century. As a result of increased relations between the Ottoman Empire and the WESTERN CULTURE during this period . We see the influences of European art . T he floral motifs of the Classical period are now arranged in bouquets while an attempt is made to capture the effects of light and shade by means of tonal gradations. Dishes of fruit, landscapes with perspective, and scenes depicting celebrations and styles of dress (characteristic of the work of the MINIATURIST LEVNİ) are among the most popular themes of this period. </li></ul>
  18. 18. TURKISH ROCOCCO (18th Century ) <ul><li>As a result of steadily-increasing interest in European art and life-styles during the late 18th century, there emerged a style of art known as &quot;TURKISH ROCOCCO &quot; that was widely employed incorporating garlands of flowers, large acanthus leaves, baskets and dishes (tabak çanak) full of fruit, ribbons and bows, ( fiyonk) oyster shells, and cornucopia ( Boynuz biçimli kap) that were used extensively in a wide range of applications in everything from architecture to minor handicrafts </li></ul>
  19. 19. Examples of Turkish Rococco
  20. 20. AFTER İZNİK AND ÇANAKKALE cities, THE FIRST ATTEMPT TO MANUFACTURE PORCELAIN IN ISTANBUL (1845) <ul><li>The first serious attempt to manufacture porcelains in Istanbul in the Ottoman period was made in 1845 by Ahmet Fethi Paşa, whose efforts resulted in the establishment of a tile factory at Beykoz (a village outside Istanbul on the Asian shore of the Bosporus) in which were employed potters who had been recruited from small independent workshops. In addition to wall tiles, this factory also turned out dishes, pitchers, bowls, covered deep dishes, and other articles for everyday use. </li></ul>
  21. 21. The factory is shut down in 30 years! <ul><li>The production of this factory is easily identified thanks to a stamp that was placed on the bottoms of objects. This impressed seal, consisting of the words Eser-i istanbul (&quot;Istanbul ware&quot;) in the old script, is executed in black, green, red, or blue and may or may not be framed by an ellipse. Confronted by financial difficulties and poor maintenance, the factory managed to survive only 20-30 years before it was forced to shut down. </li></ul>
  22. 22. Second serious attempt to manufacture porcelains in Istanbul(1892) <ul><li>The second serious attempt of local porcelain production was the establishment of a porcelain factory within the outer gardens of Yıldız Palace by order of Sultan Abdülhamid II, in 1892. Known as &quot;Yıldız Çini Fabrikasi ” T he factory was originally intended to supply porcelains to be used in the palace and court. </li></ul>
  23. 23. First porcelains of Yildiz Factory <ul><li>The first porcelains to come out of the Yıldız factory in Istanbul, were large decorative vases, dishes, and plaques. These were decorated with portraits of sultans and with panoramic views of Istanbul, most of which bear the artist's signature. Articles for everyday use such as dishes, plates, pudding-decanters, and covered dessert bowls were also manufactured. These wares were modeled on European porcelains manufactured for the Ottoman market and are decorated inside and out with bouquets of colored flowers in keeping with Turkish tastes. Gilding is much in evidence. Knobs are shaped like roses, fruits, and vegetables. The (imperial monogram or initials of the reigning sultan usually appears on coffee cups and saucers. On the backs or bottoms of Yıldız porcelains is a stamp consisting of a star-and-crescent and the last two digits of the year in which the piece was manufactured. </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul>
  24. 24. Porcelain samples manufactured in Yıldız Factory , Istanbul