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Caused separation among Southeast Asia by ways of communication and location
Enabled Southeast Asia to have a lot of harbors and ports to use for trade routes
Lords would charge merchants to use local ports, protect their ships, or pass through their waters.
Influence of India and China
Indian influence shaped the culture of Southeast Asia.
Southeast Asians wrote pieces of literature in Sanskrit, India’s ancient language.
Hindu and Buddhist beliefs spread.
Many kingdoms modeled on Indian political ideas.
Migration and trade with China spread more influential ideas and culture.
The Khmer Empire
They built elaborate irrigation systems and waterways.
About 3 or 4 crops a year instead of only 1.
Became more prosperous because of improved rice cultivation.
Angkor Wat was built for the Hindu god, Vishnu.
It was considered one of the world’s greatest architectural achievements.
Borodubur is also known as another great architectural monument.
It reflects a strong Indian influence.
Empire of Srivijaya grew wealthy by taxing trade on its waters.
Island Trading Kingdoms
Palembang was the capital of The Srivijaya Empire.
It became a great center for Buddhist learning.
The Vietnamese were least influenced by India.
Vietnam was under control by China for 1,000 years.
Finally the Tang dynasty grew weaker in the early 900’s.
Vietnam took that advantage and broke away from China’s control.
It became an independent country in 939.
Although it was independent it still absorbed come Chinese culture.
After a long time as an independent country, the Mongols tried to invade them.
Vietnam forced them to withdraw three times.
Geography of Korea
Korea is a peninsula that extends out of the Asian mainland toward Japan.
It is a small country about the size of Utah.
Korea is a very mountainous land.
It is very isolated from its neighbors.
In early Korea, different clans controlled different parts of the country.
The Han empire conquered much of Korea and established a military government.
The Koreans built Buddhist monasteries and produced elegant stone sculptures.
The Koreans also developed a writing style that used Chinese characters.
What you don’t know
Wang Kon wasn’t the only rebel officer who weakened Shilla’s rule
Kyon Hown [proclaimed Latter Paekche (Hu Paeche) State in chonju in 900]
Kung Ye [proclaimed to latter Koguryo (Hu Koguryo) state (following year) at Kaesong]
& finally Wang Kon himself [son of gentry family] became 1st minister of Kung Ye
Wang Kon overthrew Kung Ye in 918 for “misdemeanors and malpractice” (asninfo.org)
What were these misdemeanors and malpractices that made Wang Kon overthrow Kung Ye?
“… began to persecute people who expressed their opposition against his religious arguments. He executed many monks, then later even his own wife and two sons, and the public began to turn away from him. His costly rituals and harsh rule caused even more opposition…” [Asninfo]
1213 – Mongols swept Korea
Destroyed Shila pagoda of Hwangnyongsa temple
Demanded tribute from rulers
clothing for 1 million soldiers
children & artisans- taken as slaves
Demands & occupation lasted until 1350s-where it collapsed
The problems with the Koryu Dynasty
Besides invasions from the Mongols, Koryu Dynasty suffered others problems as well
The 2nd problem- question of land holdings.
land-grant system broke down
Mongol-favored officials & military men [& handful of landed gentry] owned most of agricultural land
3rd problem- rising animosity between Buddhist and Confucian scholars
” New Confucian scholars did not agree w/ idea 1 should denounce 1’s family ties to become monk because basis of Confucian philosophy founded on strong family & social relationships” [asninfo.org]
Wealth & Power of monasteries & expense incurred by state for Buddhist festivals became major target or criticism
4th problem- Japanese privates went from hit and run to organized military marauders
World History Patterns of Interaction, McDougal Littell