Trafficking in
  Persons in
Conflict Zonesby

 Jonathan Martens
 Programme Specialist
 Migration Management Department
 Ge...
1   OVERVIEW OF
                     2   INTRO TO TIP
                                        3     TIP IN   4          5
...
1   OVERVIEW OF
                   2   INTRO TO TIP
                                      3     TIP IN   4          5
    ...
1
OVERVIEW OF
               2   INTRO TO TIP
                                  3     TIP IN   4          5
              ...
Human Trafficking is…
   A Process that is
    commonly described       An organized
    by 3 steps:               crime...
Root Causes and
    Contributing Factors
Push Factors – egs.
   Relative disparity       Root Causes:
   Socio-political...
No! Related Instruments
1904 International Agreement for the Suppression of the
  White Slave Traffic
1926 Slavery Convent...
TIP Protocol Definition
                                     3 key
Art 3(a): “Trafficking in persons”      elements:
    s...
TIP Protocol
 Definition:
Exploitation
            …Exploitation shall
             include, at a
             minimum, t...
1OVERVIEW OF
                    2   INTRO TO TIP
                                       3     TIP IN     4           5
  ...
the Challenge of
          Identification
How do you think you           1.   Relocated to an environment
 would feel if y...
Identifying Victims is
        Not Easy
Trafficked persons…
2. May not speak local
   language
3. May not see themselves
 ...
Common Reactions        How Reactions may be Manifest
in Service Setting
Fear, Insecurity,     Reluctance to meet people, ...
1              2                  3                  4                5
    OVERVIEW OF
               IOM’s Approach
    ...
Thank You!
 For more information, please
             contact:

      Jonathan Martens
         IOM Geneva
      jmartens@...
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Martens Human Trafficking In Conflict

  1. 1. Trafficking in Persons in Conflict Zonesby Jonathan Martens Programme Specialist Migration Management Department Geneva, Switzerland May 19, 2009 – Geneva
  2. 2. 1 OVERVIEW OF 2 INTRO TO TIP 3 TIP IN 4 5 CONFLICT IOM’S END Learning Objectives IOM AND TIP ZONES APPROACH OUTLINE 1. Overview of IOM. 2. Introduction to Trafficking in Persons 3. Trafficking in Persons in Conflict Zones 4. IOM’s Approach to Countering Trafficking
  3. 3. 1 OVERVIEW OF 2 INTRO TO TIP 3 TIP IN 4 5 CONFLICT IOM’S END IOM IOM AND TIP ZONES APPROACH IOM is… THE MIGRATION AGENCY The global, intergovernmental organization dealing with the entire range of migration issues.  125 member states and 89 observer states  420 field locations in more than 120 countries  Approx. 6,000 staff  Approx. 2,000 programmes – about
  4. 4. 1 OVERVIEW OF 2 INTRO TO TIP 3 TIP IN 4 5 CONFLICT IOM’S END IOM AND TIP ZONES APPROACH WHAT IS HUMAN TRAFFICKING?
  5. 5. Human Trafficking is…  A Process that is commonly described  An organized by 3 steps: crime; 1. Recruitment  A violation of 2. Transportation 3. Exploitation human rights; …of a person.  A business which earns organized criminal groups approximately $32bn/year;  A problem which may affect between 600,000
  6. 6. Root Causes and Contributing Factors Push Factors – egs.  Relative disparity Root Causes:  Socio-political instability  Profit motive  Discriminatory  Demand for cheap cultural practices and labour and services, attitudes including sexual  Environmental degradation services Q: Is human Pull Factors – eg. trafficking a new  Desire for better opportunities – incl. problem? education,
  7. 7. No! Related Instruments 1904 International Agreement for the Suppression of the White Slave Traffic 1926 Slavery Convention 1930 C29 Forced Labour Convention 1933 International Convention for the Suppression of Traffic in Women of Full Age 1949 Convention for the Suppression of Traffic in Persons 1956 Supplementary Convention on the Abolition of Slavery, the Slave Trade, and Institutions and Practices Similar to Slavery 1957 ILO Convention No.105 concerning the Abolition of Forced Labour 1973 ILO Convention No.138 concerning Minimum Age for Admission to Employment 1989 Convention on the Rights of the Child 1999 C182 Worst Forms of Child Labour Convention 2000 Convention Against Transnational Organized Crime, and 
  8. 8. TIP Protocol Definition 3 key Art 3(a): “Trafficking in persons” elements: shall mean …the recruitment, transportation, transfer, → Action… harbouring or receipt of persons …by means of force or other → Means… forms of coercion, of abduction, of fraud, of deception, of the abuse of power or of a position of vulnerability or of the giving or receiving of payments or benefits to achieve the consent of a person having control over another person, → Purpose…
  9. 9. TIP Protocol Definition: Exploitation  …Exploitation shall include, at a minimum, the exploitation of the prostitution of others, or other forms of sexual exploitation, forced labour or services, slavery or practices similar to slavery, servitude or the removal of organs...
  10. 10. 1OVERVIEW OF 2 INTRO TO TIP 3 TIP IN 4 5 CONFLICT IOM’S END IOM AND TIP ZONES APPROACH  TIP in conflict zones  Amplify pressure of have similar push factors in characteristics as particular elsewhere.  Undermine traditional support structures  But, conflicts can…  Encourage high risk migration  Create favourable conditions for organized criminal groups to expand  Create new markets for traffickers (eg.
  11. 11. the Challenge of Identification How do you think you 1. Relocated to an environment would feel if you where you didn’t understand were: the language, customs ? 2. Deprived of all your identification documents ? 3. Debt bonded for $100,000 ? 4. Confined to one room or one house for 6 months ? 5. Beaten and otherwise ? How likely would you be to assaulted ? seek assistance? 6. Knew that the safety of your family depended on your ? Would you cooperate with cooperation ? law enforcement officials? 7. Saw your abuser’s best friends wearing police
  12. 12. Identifying Victims is Not Easy Trafficked persons… 2. May not speak local language 3. May not see themselves as victims 4. May feel responsible for a family debt 5. May not trust police 6. Fear their traffickers 7. May suffer “Stockholm Syndrome” 8. May have PTSD & Memory loss
  13. 13. Common Reactions How Reactions may be Manifest in Service Setting Fear, Insecurity, Reluctance to meet people, to go outside, to be Anxiety alone; trembling or heart racing, insomnia or nightmares Mistrust of Others Reluctance to disclose information; giving false information Mistrust of Self; low Passivity; difficulty trusting one’s decisions or self esteem planning for future; hyper-sensitivity to outside Self-blame, Guilt, influences expressing oneself; reluctance to Difficulty in Shame undergo physical exams or participate in group therapy Anger Hostility towards support personnel; self- inflicted physical harm; overreacting; Memory Lapses; unwillingness to participate answer questions; Unwillingness to respond or Dissociation altering past events; Inability to recall details or Isolation, entire passages of time Sadness, depression, disengagement from Loneliness others and activities, lethargy; self-absorbed; believing no one can understand Dependence, Desire to please; easily influenced; inability to Subservience or assert self or personal preferences; regular Defensiveness complaining; reluctance to accept assistance or
  14. 14. 1 2 3 4 5 OVERVIEW OF IOM’s Approach IOM AND TIP INTRO TO TIP TIP IN CONFLICT ZONES IOM’S APPROACH END to Counter Trafficking  IOM has been working actively to counter trafficking since Consists of…: 1996/7.  Research and Data Collection  Implemented approx. 500 projects in 85  Prevention countries  Provided direct  Institutional Capacity assistance to approx. Building 20,000 trafficked persons  Victim Protection and Assistance  Pursue a comprehensive
  15. 15. Thank You! For more information, please contact: Jonathan Martens IOM Geneva jmartens@iom.int avrctmms@iom.int International Organization for Migration (IOM) 17 Route des Morillons CH-1211 Geneva 19 – Switzerland www.iom.int
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