Estudios del Discurso




     U.T.R.V.T – Prof. José Legrand - 2008
Contents
   What’s language ?
   Discourse vs. Text
   Sentence vs. Utterance
   The creation of texture
   Presuppos...
What’s Language?

                                 “Language is a purely human and
                                  non-...
Language

   “A language is a system of
    arbitrary vocal symbols by means
    of which a social group co-
    operates...
Language

                             “Language is the institution
                              whereby humans communic...
Language

                                        “From now on I will consider a
                                        ...
   Linguistics approaches language
    through meaning, discourse,
    semiotics (or social signification),
    as well a...
   Theoretical linguistics is mostly
    concerned with developing models
    of linguistic knowledge. Main
    fields:sy...
   Applied linguistics : an
    interdisciplinary field of study. It
    identifies, investigates, and offers
    solutio...
WHAT WOULD YOU SAY IS


THE DIFFERENCE


BETWEEN DISCOURSE AND


TEXT?
A continuous stretch of language
  larger than a sentence, often
  constituting a coherent unit, such
  as a sermon, argum...
A stretch of language interpreted

  formally, without context.√

           (Cook 1989: 158)
A piece of naturally occurring
  spoken, written, or signed
  discourse identified for purposes
  of analysis. It is often...
Stretches of language to be perceived

  to be meaningful, unified and

  purposive.√
                 (Cook, 1989:156)
•Text: any written record
of a communicative event .
The event may itself
involve oral language or
written language .
•Discourse : it refers to
the interpretation of the
communicative event in
context .
DISTINCTION BETWEEN WHAT SENTENCES MEAN,
AND WHAT PEOPLE MEAN BY UTTERING THOSE
SENTENCES.

       study of sentence/lingu...
• THE CREATION OF TEXTURE
• Structural
  – Thematic structure
  – Information structure

  Cohesive
   Reference
    Ellipsis and substitution
     ...
•      REFERENCE            •       INFERENCE


An act by which a           It’s the listener’s use of
 speaker uses a wor...
Referring expressions
  • PROPER NOUNS ( Mr. Burns)

  • NOUN PHRASES (The singer /
    a nice place)

  • PRONOUNS (he, t...
• Using reference is tied to all members of a
  community who share the same language
  and culture.
• There is a pragmati...
Pragmatics

 It’s the study of the choices of
language persons make in social
interaction and of the effects of
these choi...
• The co-text is the linguistic environment in
  which the referring expression is
  immersed.

• The context then is the ...
Cohesion is the grammatical and lexical relationship
             within a text or sentence.
Cohesion can be defined as th...
A cohesive text is created in many different
ways. In Cohesion in English, M.A.K.
Halliday and Hasan identify five general...
The president is undergoing a serious crisis.
She is not giving any conferences. Her whole
cabinet is split. This has put ...
Gorbachev could have become a
cautios modernizer in the
Chinese fashion, promoting
economic reform and sponsoring
new tech...
A: Would you like these
seats?

B: No, as a matter of fact, I’d
like the other seats.
SUBSTITUTION AND ELLIPSIS




NOMINAL             CLAUSAL
          VERBAL
CONJUNCTION

ADDITIVE
                             CAUSAL


               ADVERSATIVE
    TEMPORAL
Soccer as a sport can be very
dangerous. What’s more, fans can be
rather aggressive when the team is
not playing well.
Tea is a blend mostly accepted in
Japan. First, it is ground to a dust.
Then it is usually cooked to high
temperatures.
I’m awfully bored. However, I will do the
effort and smile.
Chinese tea is becoming popular. This is
because it is believed to have health-
giving properties.
Other examples of substitution
Nominal

 These apples are rotten. These ones are rotten,
 too.


Verbal

  A.      She alw...
Other examples of ellipsis
ELLIPSIS OF SUBJECT + FINITE

A: Marcel isn't here.
B: Never is at this time. Far too early for...
LEXICAL COHESION




REITERATION      COLLOCATION


 REPETITION
                  It’s based on a
                  tenden...
The newspaper is the best way
to be updated. The newspaper
is concise and popular.
You could try by reversing the car up
the slope. The incline isn’t so steep.
We were in town today shopping for
furniture. We saw a lovely table.
daffodil: n. A very common bell-shaped
pale
yellow flower of early spring.
        Longman Dictionary
Love can
       forgive
everything and
       hate nothing.
Hate can’t
       forgive
anything and
       love
nothing.
At its six-month check-up, the brakes had to be
repaired. In general, however, the car was in
good condition.
A drug, “angel dust”, is believed to
produce violent reactions in animals and
people. The tranquiliser was used
yesterday ...
Verb form   Consider   Parallelism
            also …
IT’S THE RELATIONSHIP THAT EXISTS
 BETWEEN WORDS AND THINGS.(LYONS.
 1992)




        REFERENCE
         Semantic relatio...
i.     Theme ( different approaches
       to a definiton of theme)

ii.    Theme and rheme
                              ...
It’s the starting point of the clause message. It
    sets up the local context for each clause.

A formal grammatical c...
THEMATIZATION

  The linear organization of the text.
        It’s a discoursal process.
                     ~
          ...
THEMES - Points of departure

The president is not willing to give up her position.

What will be the economic consequence...
For functional linguistics we can
consider three types of themes:
TOPICAL (they have to do with the information
conveyed i...
Theme                          Rheme


Accidentally,    when   Jason       reached   number 41   he           stopped
Inte...
John kissed Mary.


              Rheme




   Everything that follows the starting point. It’s
   what the speaker states...
GIVEN AND NEW INFORMATION


           GIVEN                       NEW
• IT’S RELATED TO          • IT’S INFORMATION THAT ...
THE THEME TAKES
SPEAKER-
ORIENTED
PROMINENCE.       THE NEW ELEMENT HAS
                  LISTENER-ORIENTED
              ...
•The victorious footballers stepped off the plane.

a. Cheering fans immediately swamped them.
b. They were immediately sw...
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U.T.R.V.T – Prof. José Legrand - 2008
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Discourse Studies

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Discourse Studies

  1. 1. Estudios del Discurso U.T.R.V.T – Prof. José Legrand - 2008
  2. 2. Contents  What’s language ?  Discourse vs. Text  Sentence vs. Utterance  The creation of texture  Presuppositions  Coherence and cohesion
  3. 3. What’s Language?  “Language is a purely human and non-instinctive method of communicating ideas, emotions and desires by means of voluntarily produced symbols.” – Sapir (1921) Language. Harcourt Brace. Edward Sapir. Photograph by Florence M. Hendershot, Chicago, Ill.
  4. 4. Language  “A language is a system of arbitrary vocal symbols by means of which a social group co- operates.” – Bloch and Trager. Outline of Linguistics Analysis. Linguistic Society of America/ Waverly Press.
  5. 5. Language  “Language is the institution whereby humans communicate and interact with each other by means of habitually used oral- auditory arbitrary symbols.” – Hall. (1968)An Essay on Language. Chilton Books. http://edwardthall.com/
  6. 6. Language  “From now on I will consider a language to be a set of sentences, each finite in length and constructed out of a finite set of elements.” – Chomsky. Syntactic Structures. The Hague: Mouton. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Noam_ Chomsky
  7. 7.  Linguistics approaches language through meaning, discourse, semiotics (or social signification), as well as through existing narrative and grammatical structures.
  8. 8.  Theoretical linguistics is mostly concerned with developing models of linguistic knowledge. Main fields:syntax, phonology, morphology, and semantics.
  9. 9.  Applied linguistics : an interdisciplinary field of study. It identifies, investigates, and offers solutions to language-related real life problems. Major branches : conversation analysis, language assessment, discourse analysis, language pedagogy, sociolinguistics, sec ond language acquisition, pragmatics, forensi c linguistics, and translation.
  10. 10. WHAT WOULD YOU SAY IS THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN DISCOURSE AND TEXT?
  11. 11. A continuous stretch of language larger than a sentence, often constituting a coherent unit, such as a sermon, argument or narrative.√ (Crystal 1992: 25)
  12. 12. A stretch of language interpreted formally, without context.√ (Cook 1989: 158)
  13. 13. A piece of naturally occurring spoken, written, or signed discourse identified for purposes of analysis. It is often a language unit with a definable communicative function, such as a conversation or a poster.√ (crystal, 1992:72)
  14. 14. Stretches of language to be perceived to be meaningful, unified and purposive.√ (Cook, 1989:156)
  15. 15. •Text: any written record of a communicative event . The event may itself involve oral language or written language .
  16. 16. •Discourse : it refers to the interpretation of the communicative event in context .
  17. 17. DISTINCTION BETWEEN WHAT SENTENCES MEAN, AND WHAT PEOPLE MEAN BY UTTERING THOSE SENTENCES. study of sentence/linguistic meaning = SEMANTICS study of utterance/speaker meaning = PRAGMATICS Sentences have invariant/context-independent properties—an invariant meaning in virtue of the meaning of the words. Utterances are fairly concrete things: they happen; they’re spoken; they’re heard; they’re out there in the world. The meaning of an utterance is context- dependent, in that it depends on the context in which it is used and the intentions behind its use.
  18. 18. • THE CREATION OF TEXTURE
  19. 19. • Structural – Thematic structure – Information structure Cohesive Reference Ellipsis and substitution Conjuction Lexical cohesion
  20. 20. • REFERENCE • INFERENCE An act by which a It’s the listener’s use of speaker uses a word , or words, to enable a additional knowledge listener to identify to make sense of what someone or is not explicit in an something. (Yule, George utterance. (Yule, George – – 1996:17) 1996:17)
  21. 21. Referring expressions • PROPER NOUNS ( Mr. Burns) • NOUN PHRASES (The singer / a nice place) • PRONOUNS (he, them, its, yourself) • DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUNS (this, those)
  22. 22. • Using reference is tied to all members of a community who share the same language and culture. • There is a pragmatic connection between proper names and objects. Ex: Pass me the Shakespeare, will you? (meaning the book whose author is the famous English play writer)
  23. 23. Pragmatics It’s the study of the choices of language persons make in social interaction and of the effects of these choices on others (Crystal, 1987).
  24. 24. • The co-text is the linguistic environment in which the referring expression is immersed. • The context then is the physical environment.
  25. 25. Cohesion is the grammatical and lexical relationship within a text or sentence. Cohesion can be defined as the links that hold a text together and give it meaning. There are two main types of cohesion: grammatical: it refers to the structural content lexical: it refers to the language content of the piece.
  26. 26. A cohesive text is created in many different ways. In Cohesion in English, M.A.K. Halliday and Hasan identify five general categories of cohesive devices that create coherence in texts: REFERENCE CATAPHORIC ANAPHORIC PERSONAL DEMONSTRATIVE COMPARATIVE
  27. 27. The president is undergoing a serious crisis. She is not giving any conferences. Her whole cabinet is split. This has put the country under alert.
  28. 28. Gorbachev could have become a cautios modernizer in the Chinese fashion, promoting economic reform and sponsoring new technology while holding firm against political change. This did not happen.
  29. 29. A: Would you like these seats? B: No, as a matter of fact, I’d like the other seats.
  30. 30. SUBSTITUTION AND ELLIPSIS NOMINAL CLAUSAL VERBAL
  31. 31. CONJUNCTION ADDITIVE CAUSAL ADVERSATIVE TEMPORAL
  32. 32. Soccer as a sport can be very dangerous. What’s more, fans can be rather aggressive when the team is not playing well.
  33. 33. Tea is a blend mostly accepted in Japan. First, it is ground to a dust. Then it is usually cooked to high temperatures.
  34. 34. I’m awfully bored. However, I will do the effort and smile.
  35. 35. Chinese tea is becoming popular. This is because it is believed to have health- giving properties.
  36. 36. Other examples of substitution Nominal These apples are rotten. These ones are rotten, too. Verbal A. She always studies at night. B. So do I. Clausal A: Are you going to the movies? B: I think so.
  37. 37. Other examples of ellipsis ELLIPSIS OF SUBJECT + FINITE A: Marcel isn't here. B: Never is at this time. Far too early for him. ELLIPSIS OF SUBJECT + FINITE + PREDICATOR A: How many are you talking about? B: About half a dozen. ELLIPSIS OF RESIDUE A: Has the jury reached a verdict? B: We have, your Honor.
  38. 38. LEXICAL COHESION REITERATION COLLOCATION REPETITION It’s based on a tendency of items to SYNONYM co-occur in certain contexts. SUPERORDINATE HYPONYMY ANTONYMY MERONIMY
  39. 39. The newspaper is the best way to be updated. The newspaper is concise and popular.
  40. 40. You could try by reversing the car up the slope. The incline isn’t so steep.
  41. 41. We were in town today shopping for furniture. We saw a lovely table.
  42. 42. daffodil: n. A very common bell-shaped pale yellow flower of early spring. Longman Dictionary
  43. 43. Love can forgive everything and hate nothing. Hate can’t forgive anything and love nothing.
  44. 44. At its six-month check-up, the brakes had to be repaired. In general, however, the car was in good condition.
  45. 45. A drug, “angel dust”, is believed to produce violent reactions in animals and people. The tranquiliser was used yesterday to sedate wild bears. Drugging and releasing the animals is a procedure followed in inhabited areas. No research has been done into the effects of giving other animals repeated doses of phencyclidine.
  46. 46. Verb form Consider Parallelism also …
  47. 47. IT’S THE RELATIONSHIP THAT EXISTS BETWEEN WORDS AND THINGS.(LYONS. 1992) REFERENCE Semantic relationship IT’S SOMETHING A PERSON USES TO REFER TO SOMETHING. (STRAWSON’S POINT OF VIEW)
  48. 48. i. Theme ( different approaches to a definiton of theme) ii. Theme and rheme • Theme and Rheme iii. Thematization iv. Types of themes in functional linguistics • Given and New v. Staging Information vi. Given and new information vii. The ethnography of communication • Conversational Analysis viii. Ethnomethodology ix. Sociolinguistics and the sociology of discourse x. Conversational analysis xi. Turn - taking system xii. Conversational structure
  49. 49. It’s the starting point of the clause message. It sets up the local context for each clause. A formal grammatical category, the left-most constituent of the sentence. “it’s the discourse process by which a referent comes to be developed as the central subject of the discourse.” (Perfetti and Goldman)  A formal grammatical category which refers to the initial element in the clause around which the sentence is organized.
  50. 50. THEMATIZATION The linear organization of the text. It’s a discoursal process. ~ STAGING For Clements it’s a dimension of prose structure. It includes rethorical devices (lexical selection, alliteration, etc.)
  51. 51. THEMES - Points of departure The president is not willing to give up her position. What will be the economic consequences for the country? Fetch me the glass of water, please.
  52. 52. For functional linguistics we can consider three types of themes: TOPICAL (they have to do with the information conveyed in the discourse) INTERPERSONAL (it reveals something of the attitude of the speaker) TEXTUAL (it links a clause to the rest of the discourse) (Halliday) Language has certain functions in society.
  53. 53. Theme Rheme Accidentally, when Jason reached number 41 he stopped Interpersonal Textual Topical Theme Rheme
  54. 54. John kissed Mary. Rheme Everything that follows the starting point. It’s what the speaker states about the starting point of the utterance.
  55. 55. GIVEN AND NEW INFORMATION GIVEN NEW • IT’S RELATED TO • IT’S INFORMATION THAT IS INFORMATION THAT HAS INTRODUCED FOR THE ALREADY BEEN FIRST TIME. INTRODUCED OR IS • IT APPEARS BY THE END OF PRESSUPOSED. THE SENTENCE OR • IT COMES FIRST IN THE UTTERANCE. ORDER OF THE SENTENCE. • IT CARRIES TONIC • IT OCCURS THROUGH PROMINENCE. PRONOUNS WHEN IT IS IN CONTEXT.
  56. 56. THE THEME TAKES SPEAKER- ORIENTED PROMINENCE. THE NEW ELEMENT HAS LISTENER-ORIENTED PROMINENCE. THEME IS WHAT I AM TALKING ABOUT. IT’S WHAT I’M ASKING YOU TO ATTEND.
  57. 57. •The victorious footballers stepped off the plane. a. Cheering fans immediately swamped them. b. They were immediately swamped by the cheering fans. c. They were immediately buffeted by the wind. d. The wind immediately buffeted them. e. All the journalists were immediately smiled at by them. f. They immediately smiled at all the journalists. What would be the most common choice between the previous options ?
  58. 58. Next presentatio n U.T.R.V.T – Prof. José Legrand - 2008
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