Biological Classification


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This presentation gives detail about biological classification system and its history

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Biological Classification

  1. 1. Biological Classification
  2. 2. Why classify? Helps to understand things under the complexity of biological diversity One and half million types of organism have been discovered on this planet and it has been estimated that there may be 10-100 million kinds of organisms.
  3. 3. How Classification Began? Classification began By ancient people that observed nature and had a desire to organize the knowledge gained. Classification- the grouping of objects based on similarities ex:: baseball cards, coins, shoes, etc Ancient Chinese classification of dogs Stray Dogs Those have broken flower vase Resemble flies at a distance
  4. 4. Taxonomy •… the identification, naming, and classification of species Has two parts Nomenclature Systematics Taxonomic hierarchy Kingdom* Phylum (Introduced by Heackel in 19 th century) Class* Order* Family* Genus* Species* * Introduced by Linnaeus
  5. 5. What is species <ul><li>Group of closely related interbreeding individual capable of producing fertile offspring </li></ul><ul><li>Mule </li></ul>
  6. 6. Types of classification <ul><li>Artificial classification </li></ul><ul><li>Based on easily observed characters (Ancient Chinese classification) </li></ul><ul><li> Linnaeus classification of worms in Vermes (Earthworm, Nematode, Snakes) </li></ul><ul><li>Natural classification </li></ul><ul><li>Use natural relation between organisms </li></ul><ul><li>Use diverse characters like anatomy, physiology, biochemistry etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Phylogenetic classification </li></ul><ul><li>Based on evolutionary relationship </li></ul><ul><li>Phenetic Classification – Numerical taxonomy </li></ul>
  7. 7. Aristotle (384-322 B.C.) Developed first widely accepted system of biological classification According to his system, birds, bats, and flying insects are classified together even though they have little in common besides the ability to fly. As time passed, more organisms were discovered and some did not fit easily into Aristotle’s groups, but many centuries passed before Aristotle’s system was replaced Animals (classified based on Habitat) Living on land Living in water Living in air Plants (classified based on structure) Herbs-- has (soft) stems Shrubs-- has several (woody) stems Trees-- has one main (woody) trunk
  8. 8. Linnaeus’s system of binomial nomenclature Carolus Linnaeus (1707—1778) Based on physical and structural similarities of organisms As a result,, the groupings revealed the relationships of the organisms Eventually, some biologists proposed that structural similarities reflect the evolutionary relationships of species Binomial nomenclature system
  9. 9. Kingdom concept Linnaeus (1735) 2 kingdoms Haeckel (1866) 3 kingdoms Chatton (1925) 2 groups Copeland (1938) 4 kingdoms Whittaker (1969) 5 kingdoms Woese (1977,1990) 3 domains Animalia Animalia Eukaryote Animalia Animalia Eukarya Vegetabilia Plantae Plantae Plantae Protoctista Fungi Protista Protista Procaryote Monera Monera Archaea Bacteria
  10. 11. Prokaryote lifestyle <ul><li>unicellular : all alone </li></ul><ul><li>colony : forms a film </li></ul><ul><li>filamentous : forms a chain of cells </li></ul>
  11. 12. Prokaryote Feeding <ul><li>Photosynthetic : energy from sunlight </li></ul><ul><li>Disease-causing : feed on living things </li></ul><ul><li>Decomposers : feed on dead things </li></ul>
  12. 13. Eukaryotes are bigger and more complicated <ul><li>Have organelles </li></ul><ul><li>Have chromosomes </li></ul><ul><li>can be multicellular </li></ul>
  13. 14. Organelles are membrane-bound cell parts <ul><li>Mini “organs” that have unique structures and functions </li></ul><ul><li>Located in cytoplasm </li></ul>
  14. 15. <ul><li>Cell membrane </li></ul><ul><ul><li>delicate lipid and protein skin around cytoplasm </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>found in all cells </li></ul></ul>Cell Structures
  15. 16. <ul><li>Nucleus </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a membrane-bound sac evolved to store the cell’s chromosomes(DNA) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>has pores: holes </li></ul></ul>
  16. 17. <ul><li>Nucleolus </li></ul><ul><ul><li>inside nucleus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>location of ribosome factory </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>made or RNA </li></ul></ul>
  17. 18. <ul><li>mitochondrion </li></ul><ul><ul><li>makes the cell’s energy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>the more energy the cell needs, the more mitochondria it has </li></ul></ul>
  18. 19. <ul><li>Ribosomes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>build proteins from amino acids in cytoplasm </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>may be free-floating, or </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>may be attached to ER </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>made of RNA </li></ul></ul>
  19. 20. <ul><li>Endoplasmic reticulum </li></ul><ul><ul><li>may be smooth : builds lipids and carbohydrates </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>may be rough : stores proteins made by attached ribosomes </li></ul></ul>
  20. 21. <ul><li>Golgi Complex </li></ul><ul><ul><li>takes in sacs of raw material from ER </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>sends out sacs containing finished cell products </li></ul></ul>
  21. 22. <ul><li>Lysosomes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>sacs filled with digestive enzymes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>digest worn out cell parts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>digest food absorbed by cell </li></ul></ul>
  22. 23. Cytoskeleton <ul><li>made of microtubules </li></ul><ul><li>found throughout cytoplasm </li></ul><ul><li>gives shape to cell & moves organelles around inside. </li></ul>
  23. 24. Structures found in plant cells <ul><li>Cell wall </li></ul><ul><ul><li>very strong </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>made of cellulose </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>protects cell from rupturing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>glued to other cells next door </li></ul></ul>
  24. 25. <ul><li>Vacuole </li></ul><ul><ul><li>huge water-filled sac </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>keeps cell pressurized </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>stores starch </li></ul></ul>
  25. 26. <ul><li>Chloroplasts </li></ul><ul><ul><li>filled with chlorophyll </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>turn solar energy into food energy </li></ul></ul>
  26. 27. How are plant and animal cells different?
  27. 28. Structure Animal cells Plant cells cell membrane Yes yes nucleus Yes yes nucleolus yes yes ribosomes yes yes ER yes yes Golgi yes yes centrioles yes no cell wall no yes mitochondria yes yes cholorplasts no yes One big vacuole no yes cytoskeleton yes Yes
  28. 29. Virus Bacteria Pritista Fungi Plantae Animelia