Casual links among variables are represented by unidirectional arrows. Their direction implies relationship from independent to dependent variable. The strength of these links are shown by the regression coefficients.
Simple associations among variables are represented by curve lines, the strength of these links are defined by correlation coefficients.
x1 ..... ..... xk y1 yp L α 1 α k ...... β 1 β p ...... Casual link Simple association
Example : Social status and social participation in a sample of 530 women was studied. It was assume that income , occupation and education explain social participation. Social participation was measured by church attendance , membership and friends seen .
Say spart = social participation
cattn = church attendance
memb = membership
friends = friends seen
Correlation matrix : income occup edu cattn memb friends
Thus one percent increase in income implies an estimated increase in social participation by about 0.11 percent. Similarly 1.58 percent increase in membership is measured by one percent increase in social participation.