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Atoms, Elements, and the Periodic Table
Atoms <ul><li>Atoms are the  building blocks  of matter </li></ul><ul><li>The  modern atomic model   describes an atom as ...
Sub atomic Particles <ul><li>Protons </li></ul><ul><li>Found in the  nucleus </li></ul><ul><li>Have a  positive charge (+)...
Subatomic Particles (cont.) <ul><li>Neutrons </li></ul><ul><li>Found in the  nucleus </li></ul><ul><li>Have  no charge (ne...
Subatomic Particles (cont.) <ul><li>Electrons </li></ul><ul><li>Found orbiting around the nucleus in  electron clouds </li...
Atomic Number  <ul><li>Atomic number is: </li></ul><ul><li>The  number of protons   in an element </li></ul><ul><li>Every ...
Isotopes <ul><li>Isotopes of an element  are: </li></ul><ul><li>Elements having the same number of  protons ,  but differe...
Mass Number  <ul><li>Mass number is: </li></ul><ul><li>The  number of protons   +  neutrons  in the  nucleus  of an atom <...
The Periodic Table  <ul><li>In 1869,  Dmitri Mendeleev   developed the first periodic table based on  atomic mass : </li><...
The Periodic Table (cont.)  <ul><li>Periodic  means: </li></ul><ul><li>Repeating according to a pattern </li></ul><ul><li>...
The Periodic Table (cont.)   Groups or Families  <ul><li>Columns are called: </li></ul><ul><li>Groups  or   Families </li>...
The Periodic Table (cont.)   Groups or Families  <ul><li>Group 1 has  1  valence electron </li></ul><ul><li>2  2 </li></ul...
The Periodic Table (cont.)   Periods  <ul><li>Periods   are the portion of the periodic table that go from  left to right ...
The Periodic Table (cont.)
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Atoms, Elements, And Periodic Table 2010

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Transcript of "Atoms, Elements, And Periodic Table 2010"

  1. 1. Atoms, Elements, and the Periodic Table
  2. 2. Atoms <ul><li>Atoms are the building blocks of matter </li></ul><ul><li>The modern atomic model describes an atom as consisting of: </li></ul><ul><li>Nucleus that contains: </li></ul><ul><li>Protons, neutrons , and electrons outside of the nucleus </li></ul>
  3. 3. Sub atomic Particles <ul><li>Protons </li></ul><ul><li>Found in the nucleus </li></ul><ul><li>Have a positive charge (+) </li></ul><ul><li>Each element in the periodic table has its own specific number of protons </li></ul>
  4. 4. Subatomic Particles (cont.) <ul><li>Neutrons </li></ul><ul><li>Found in the nucleus </li></ul><ul><li>Have no charge (neutral) </li></ul>
  5. 5. Subatomic Particles (cont.) <ul><li>Electrons </li></ul><ul><li>Found orbiting around the nucleus in electron clouds </li></ul><ul><li>The exact location of electrons cannot be determined </li></ul><ul><li>Electrons have a negative charge (-) </li></ul><ul><li>In a neutral atom, the number of electrons= the number of protons </li></ul>
  6. 6. Atomic Number <ul><li>Atomic number is: </li></ul><ul><li>The number of protons in an element </li></ul><ul><li>Every atom of a specific element has the same number of protons </li></ul><ul><li>Example: Hydrogen has 1 proton </li></ul><ul><li>Carbon has 6 protons </li></ul>
  7. 7. Isotopes <ul><li>Isotopes of an element are: </li></ul><ul><li>Elements having the same number of protons , but different numbers neutrons </li></ul><ul><li>Examples: Carbon 12 , 6 protons+ 6 neutrons </li></ul><ul><li>Carbon 13 , 6 protons+ 7 neutrons </li></ul><ul><li>Carbon 14 , 6 protons + 8 neutrons </li></ul>
  8. 8. Mass Number <ul><li>Mass number is: </li></ul><ul><li>The number of protons + neutrons in the nucleus of an atom </li></ul>
  9. 9. The Periodic Table <ul><li>In 1869, Dmitri Mendeleev developed the first periodic table based on atomic mass : </li></ul><ul><li>(atomic mass= #protons+#neutrons in the nucleus of the atom) </li></ul><ul><li>In 1913, Thomas Moseley developed the modern periodic table based on atomic number </li></ul><ul><li>(atomic number= #protons in the nucleus of the atom) </li></ul>
  10. 10. The Periodic Table (cont.) <ul><li>Periodic means: </li></ul><ul><li>Repeating according to a pattern </li></ul><ul><li>The modern periodic table is arranged in columns and rows </li></ul><ul><li>Columns go up and down (think of columns on a building) </li></ul><ul><li>Rows go from left to right </li></ul>
  11. 11. The Periodic Table (cont.) Groups or Families <ul><li>Columns are called: </li></ul><ul><li>Groups or Families </li></ul><ul><li>There are 18 groups or families in the periodic table </li></ul><ul><li>Elements in the same group or family have the same number of valence electrons </li></ul><ul><li>Valence electrons are the number of electrons in the outer most energy level </li></ul><ul><li>Group 1 has 1 valence electron </li></ul>
  12. 12. The Periodic Table (cont.) Groups or Families <ul><li>Group 1 has 1 valence electron </li></ul><ul><li>2 2 </li></ul><ul><li>13 3 </li></ul><ul><li>14 4 </li></ul><ul><li>15 5 </li></ul><ul><li>16 6 </li></ul><ul><li>17 7 </li></ul><ul><li>18 8 </li></ul><ul><li>*Groups 3-12 do not follow this pattern </li></ul>
  13. 13. The Periodic Table (cont.) Periods <ul><li>Periods are the portion of the periodic table that go from left to right (think of when you write a sentence, you put a period at the end of the sentence. </li></ul><ul><li>There are 7 periods in the periodic table. </li></ul><ul><li>All elements in the same period , have the same number of energy levels . </li></ul><ul><li>Energy levels are where the electrons are located </li></ul>
  14. 14. The Periodic Table (cont.)
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