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Atoms, Elements, And Periodic Table 2010
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Atoms, Elements, And Periodic Table 2010

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  • 1. Atoms, Elements, and the Periodic Table
  • 2. Atoms
    • Atoms are the building blocks of matter
    • The modern atomic model describes an atom as consisting of:
    • Nucleus that contains:
    • Protons, neutrons , and electrons outside of the nucleus
  • 3. Sub atomic Particles
    • Protons
    • Found in the nucleus
    • Have a positive charge (+)
    • Each element in the periodic table has its own specific number of protons
  • 4. Subatomic Particles (cont.)
    • Neutrons
    • Found in the nucleus
    • Have no charge (neutral)
  • 5. Subatomic Particles (cont.)
    • Electrons
    • Found orbiting around the nucleus in electron clouds
    • The exact location of electrons cannot be determined
    • Electrons have a negative charge (-)
    • In a neutral atom, the number of electrons= the number of protons
  • 6. Atomic Number
    • Atomic number is:
    • The number of protons in an element
    • Every atom of a specific element has the same number of protons
    • Example: Hydrogen has 1 proton
    • Carbon has 6 protons
  • 7. Isotopes
    • Isotopes of an element are:
    • Elements having the same number of protons , but different numbers neutrons
    • Examples: Carbon 12 , 6 protons+ 6 neutrons
    • Carbon 13 , 6 protons+ 7 neutrons
    • Carbon 14 , 6 protons + 8 neutrons
  • 8. Mass Number
    • Mass number is:
    • The number of protons + neutrons in the nucleus of an atom
  • 9. The Periodic Table
    • In 1869, Dmitri Mendeleev developed the first periodic table based on atomic mass :
    • (atomic mass= #protons+#neutrons in the nucleus of the atom)
    • In 1913, Thomas Moseley developed the modern periodic table based on atomic number
    • (atomic number= #protons in the nucleus of the atom)
  • 10. The Periodic Table (cont.)
    • Periodic means:
    • Repeating according to a pattern
    • The modern periodic table is arranged in columns and rows
    • Columns go up and down (think of columns on a building)
    • Rows go from left to right
  • 11. The Periodic Table (cont.) Groups or Families
    • Columns are called:
    • Groups or Families
    • There are 18 groups or families in the periodic table
    • Elements in the same group or family have the same number of valence electrons
    • Valence electrons are the number of electrons in the outer most energy level
    • Group 1 has 1 valence electron
  • 12. The Periodic Table (cont.) Groups or Families
    • Group 1 has 1 valence electron
    • 2 2
    • 13 3
    • 14 4
    • 15 5
    • 16 6
    • 17 7
    • 18 8
    • *Groups 3-12 do not follow this pattern
  • 13. The Periodic Table (cont.) Periods
    • Periods are the portion of the periodic table that go from left to right (think of when you write a sentence, you put a period at the end of the sentence.
    • There are 7 periods in the periodic table.
    • All elements in the same period , have the same number of energy levels .
    • Energy levels are where the electrons are located
  • 14. The Periodic Table (cont.)