CoSearch:   A System for Co-located Collaborative Web Search Saleema Amershi, Meredith Ringel Morris
<ul><li>Search often considered to be a solitary activity </li></ul>Do People Search Collaboratively?
Do People Search Collaboratively? <ul><li>3.8 to 1 student-to-computer ratio in U.S. public schools </li></ul><ul><li>5000...
<ul><li>YES! </li></ul><ul><li>… but current search engines and web browsers do not support collaborative search. </li></u...
<ul><li>People </li></ul><ul><ul><li>2 Librarians </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3 Teachers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2 Devel...
Who Collaboratively Searches & Why? <ul><li>Youth, Teens & Students </li></ul><ul><li>Seniors & new immigrants </li></ul><...
<ul><li>Drivers  control input devices </li></ul><ul><li>Observers  make suggestions verbally or through gestures   </li><...
<ul><li>Difficulties contributing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Controlling drivers may ignore observer suggestions </li></ul></ul...
<ul><li>Pacing problems </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Scrolling too fast or too slow </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Navigating away fr...
<ul><li>Referential difficulties </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Difficulty referring to on-screen content if situated away from the...
<ul><li>Single-track strategies </li></ul><ul><ul><li>No division-of-labor </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Inefficient </li></u...
Limitations <ul><li>Difficulties contributing </li></ul><ul><li>Pacing problems </li></ul><ul><li>Referential difficulties...
Design Implications <ul><li>Facilitate co-located collaborative search </li></ul><ul><li>Enable distributed control and di...
<ul><li>CoSearch with multiple mice </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Refer to paper </li></ul></ul><ul><li>CoSearch with mobile phone...
<ul><li>Individual color-coded cursors </li></ul><ul><li>Also helps to </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Refer to on-screen content </...
Enabling Contributions
<ul><li>Color-coded Page Queue </li></ul>Page Queue
<ul><li>Color-coded Page Queue </li></ul><ul><li>Color-coded Query Queue  </li></ul><ul><li>Query by text messaging </li><...
Reading at Your Own Pace <ul><li>Viewing Web pages on mobile phones </li></ul><ul><li>Also enables division of labor </li>...
Status-quo Limitations CoSearch Features Difficulties contributing Individual color-coded cursors, Query Queue & query by ...
Evaluation Goals <ul><li>Assess how well CoSearch enables: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Distributed control </li></ul></ul><ul><u...
Participants <ul><li>3 person groups, 12 groups </li></ul><ul><ul><li>21 males, 15 females </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>12 -...
<ul><li>Within-subject </li></ul><ul><li>3 conditions: CoSearch, Shared, Parallel </li></ul><ul><li>2 tasks per condition ...
Results
<ul><li>Communication </li></ul><ul><ul><li>CoSearch and Shared better than Parallel (p<.01) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Collab...
<ul><li>Communication </li></ul><ul><ul><li>CoSearch and Shared better than Parallel (p<.01) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Collab...
<ul><li>Distribution of Control </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Submit search topics without having to yell at the person  on the ...
<ul><li>Overall  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>#1 Favorite: Parallel (15 participants) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>#2 Favorite: CoS...
<ul><li>Awareness </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Shared better than CoSearch and Parallel (p<.04) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Experi...
<ul><li>Usability </li></ul><ul><ul><li>People able to quickly learn CoSearch </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>More-experienced ...
Recap <ul><li>Interview Study to learn about status-quo co-located collaborative search practices (Shared & Parallel) </li...
Conclusion <ul><li>Shared-computing still prevalent in many scenarios. </li></ul><ul><li>CoSearch enhances the shared-comp...
  Thank you! Status-quo Limitations CoSearch Features Difficulties contributing Individual cursors, Query Queue & query by...
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CoSearch: A System for Co-located Collaborative Web Search

  1. 1. CoSearch: A System for Co-located Collaborative Web Search Saleema Amershi, Meredith Ringel Morris
  2. 2. <ul><li>Search often considered to be a solitary activity </li></ul>Do People Search Collaboratively?
  3. 3. Do People Search Collaboratively? <ul><li>3.8 to 1 student-to-computer ratio in U.S. public schools </li></ul><ul><li>5000 to 3 person-to-computer ratio in U.S. public libraries </li></ul><ul><li>10 to 1 student-to-computer ratio in developing world schools </li></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>YES! </li></ul><ul><li>… but current search engines and web browsers do not support collaborative search. </li></ul>Do People Search Collaboratively?
  5. 5. <ul><li>People </li></ul><ul><ul><li>2 Librarians </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3 Teachers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2 Developing world researchers </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Questions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Who collaboratively searches the Web? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Why do they collaboratively search? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How do they currently search in co-located settings? </li></ul></ul>Interview Study
  6. 6. Who Collaboratively Searches & Why? <ul><li>Youth, Teens & Students </li></ul><ul><li>Seniors & new immigrants </li></ul><ul><li>People in rural regions of the developing world </li></ul><ul><li>Small business employees </li></ul><ul><li>Pedagogical and social value </li></ul><ul><li>Unfamiliarity with technology </li></ul><ul><li>Resource constraints </li></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>Drivers control input devices </li></ul><ul><li>Observers make suggestions verbally or through gestures </li></ul>How Do They Collaboratively Search?
  8. 8. <ul><li>Difficulties contributing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Controlling drivers may ignore observer suggestions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Demanding observers may make it difficult for drivers to make contributions </li></ul></ul>Limitations
  9. 9. <ul><li>Pacing problems </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Scrolling too fast or too slow </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Navigating away from a page too quickly </li></ul></ul>Limitations
  10. 10. <ul><li>Referential difficulties </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Difficulty referring to on-screen content if situated away from the display </li></ul></ul>Limitations
  11. 11. <ul><li>Single-track strategies </li></ul><ul><ul><li>No division-of-labor </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Inefficient </li></ul></ul>Limitations
  12. 12. Limitations <ul><li>Difficulties contributing </li></ul><ul><li>Pacing problems </li></ul><ul><li>Referential difficulties </li></ul><ul><li>Single-track strategies </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of hands-on learning </li></ul><ul><li>Information loss </li></ul>
  13. 13. Design Implications <ul><li>Facilitate co-located collaborative search </li></ul><ul><li>Enable distributed control and division of labor </li></ul><ul><li>Encourage collaboration, communication and awareness </li></ul><ul><li>Leverage ubiquitous devices (mice and mobile phones) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Related work (Inkpen, 1999; Pawar et al ., 2007; Paek et al., 2004; Ballagas et al ., 2005; Mahaney and Pierce, 2003; Han et al ., 2000) </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. <ul><li>CoSearch with multiple mice </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Refer to paper </li></ul></ul><ul><li>CoSearch with mobile phones </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In this talk </li></ul></ul>CoSearch
  15. 15.
  16. 16. <ul><li>Individual color-coded cursors </li></ul><ul><li>Also helps to </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Refer to on-screen content </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Enable hands-on-learning </li></ul></ul>Distributing Control
  17. 17. Enabling Contributions
  18. 18. <ul><li>Color-coded Page Queue </li></ul>Page Queue
  19. 19. <ul><li>Color-coded Page Queue </li></ul><ul><li>Color-coded Query Queue </li></ul><ul><li>Query by text messaging </li></ul>Query Queue
  20. 20. Reading at Your Own Pace <ul><li>Viewing Web pages on mobile phones </li></ul><ul><li>Also enables division of labor </li></ul>
  21. 21. Status-quo Limitations CoSearch Features Difficulties contributing Individual color-coded cursors, Query Queue & query by text messaging, Page Queue Pacing Problems Viewing Web pages in mobile phones Referential difficulties Individual cursors controlled by mice or mobile phones Single-track strategies Viewing Web pages in mobile phones Lack of hands-on learning Individual input devices (mice and mobile phones) Information loss Notes regions, summaries
  22. 22. Evaluation Goals <ul><li>Assess how well CoSearch enables: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Distributed control </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Division of labor </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Group communication </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Awareness </li></ul></ul>
  23. 23. Participants <ul><li>3 person groups, 12 groups </li></ul><ul><ul><li>21 males, 15 females </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>12 - 76 years old </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Experienced and non-experienced searchers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Experienced and non-experienced mobile phone users </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Friends, siblings, children with parents, adults with grandparents </li></ul></ul>
  24. 24. <ul><li>Within-subject </li></ul><ul><li>3 conditions: CoSearch, Shared, Parallel </li></ul><ul><li>2 tasks per condition </li></ul><ul><ul><li>One fixed (e.g., “Which state is the birthplace of the most U.S. Vice Presidents?”) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>One group-selected (e.g., planning a trip or group activity) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Questionnaires, log data, observations </li></ul>Study Design
  25. 25. Results
  26. 26. <ul><li>Communication </li></ul><ul><ul><li>CoSearch and Shared better than Parallel (p<.01) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Collaboration </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>CoSearch and Shared better than Parallel (p<.01) </li></ul></ul></ul>Communication & Collaboration
  27. 27. <ul><li>Communication </li></ul><ul><ul><li>CoSearch and Shared better than Parallel (p<.01) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Collaboration </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>CoSearch and Shared better than Parallel (p<.01) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Frustration </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Observers more frustrated in Shared than drivers (p<.03) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Experienced searchers more frustrated in Shared than less experienced (p<.01) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No differences in CoSearch </li></ul></ul>Reduced Frustration
  28. 28. <ul><li>Distribution of Control </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Submit search topics without having to yell at the person on the computer” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>” Have more of a say in what’s going on on screen” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Go at my own pace” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Division of Labor </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ We could search many offshoots of the same topic at once” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Input more ideas on how to find the answer” </li></ul></ul>Control & Division of Labor
  29. 29. <ul><li>Overall </li></ul><ul><ul><li>#1 Favorite: Parallel (15 participants) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>#2 Favorite: CoSearch (11 participants) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>#3 Favorite: Shared (7 participants) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>CoSearch better than Parallel for communication collaboration </li></ul><ul><li>CoSearch intended for resource-constrained environments where Parallel is not feasible </li></ul><ul><li>CoSearch better than Shared for distribution of control, division of labor, and reduced frustration </li></ul>Overall
  30. 30. <ul><li>Awareness </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Shared better than CoSearch and Parallel (p<.04) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Experienced SMS users more aware of group in CoSearch than less experienced users (p<.02) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Feelings of being ignored </li></ul><ul><ul><li>More so in CoSearch and Parallel than Shared (p<.01) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Only 55.3% of observer queries were executed by drivers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Only 10.88% of observer Web pages viewed by group </li></ul></ul>Problems with CoSearch
  31. 31. <ul><li>Usability </li></ul><ul><ul><li>People able to quickly learn CoSearch </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>More-experienced searchers found it easier than less experienced (p<.03) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Technological Limitations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lag in WiFi and Bluetooth </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Small screens and keypads </li></ul></ul>CoSearch Usability
  32. 32. Recap <ul><li>Interview Study to learn about status-quo co-located collaborative search practices (Shared & Parallel) </li></ul><ul><li>Developed CoSearch to address limitations of current practices </li></ul><ul><li>Evaluated CoSearch against current practices </li></ul><ul><ul><li>CoSearch better than Parallel for communication and collaboration </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>CoSearch better than Shared for reducing frustrations and increasing control and division of labor </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Still room for improvement in CoSearch </li></ul></ul>
  33. 33. Conclusion <ul><li>Shared-computing still prevalent in many scenarios. </li></ul><ul><li>CoSearch enhances the shared-computing experience by leveraging additional devices in the environment. </li></ul>
  34. 34. Thank you! Status-quo Limitations CoSearch Features Difficulties contributing Individual cursors, Query Queue & query by text messaging, Page Queue Pacing Problems Viewing Web pages in mobile phones Referential difficulties Cursors controlled by mice or mobile phones Single-track strategies Viewing Web pages in mobile phones Lack of hands-on learning Individual input devices (mice and phones) Information loss Notes regions, summaries
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