Stu Ch04 Completing The Accounting CyclePresentation Transcript
C H A P T E R
Completing the Accounting Cycle 4
Learning Objective 1
Describe how accrual accounting allows for timely reporting and a better measure of a company's economic performance.
Why Use Accrual Accounting?
Define the Time Period Concept. Time Period
Most companies report to stockholders at fiscal year-end.
Other reports are issued more frequently, perhaps monthly or quarterly.
This frequency of reports forces accountants to use data based on judgments and estimates.
ABC Inc. Annual Report
Define Accrual Accounting
Revenue Recognition Revenues are recorded when two main criteria are met: What are they?
Define The Matching Principle
Define Cash-Basis Accounting
Example: Accrual- vs. Cash-Basis Accounting Crown Consulting Reported Income for 2006 During 2006, Crown Consulting billed its client for $48,000. On December 31, 2006, it had received $41,000, with the remaining $7,000 to be received in 2007. Total expenses during 2006 were $31,000 with $3,000 of these costs not yet paid at December 31. Determine net income under both methods.
Learning Objective 2
Explain the need for adjusting entries and make adjusting entries for unrecorded receivables, unrecorded liabilities, prepaid expenses, and unearned revenues.
What Are the Steps in the Accounting Cycle?
Why DO Adjusting Entries? WHY?
Adjusting Entries Tips
Each adjusting entry always involves at least one income statement account and one balance sheet account.
Adjusting entries never involve cash.
Define Each of These Common Adjusting Entries
What Is the 3-Step Process for Adjusting Entries?
Bullseye Management earns a rent revenue of $500 in 2006 but will not receive the payment until January 10, 2007. An adjustment will be needed. What is the adjusting entry? Example: Unrecorded Receivables Original entry none none Correct balances 500 500 Rent Receivable Rent Revenue
Original entry none none Correct balances 1,000 1,000 MoneyTree Inc. is assessed property taxes of $1,000 for 2006, but will not make this payment until January 5, 2007. An adjustment will be needed. What is the adjusting entry? Property Tax Expense Property Tax Payable Example: Unrecorded Liabilities
Example: Prepaid Expenses Rent Expense Prepaid Rent Original entry 3,600 3,600 Adjusting entry 1,800 1,800 Correct balances 1,800 1,800 Cash On July 1, 2006, I Think I Can Inc. pays $3,600 for one year’s rent in advance (covering July 1, 2006, to June 30, 2007). On December 31, 2006, an adjustment will be needed. What is the adjusting entry ?
Example: Unearned Revenues On July 1, 2006, Clean As A Whistle Co. received $3,600 for one year’s rent in advance (covering July 1, 2006, to June 30, 2007). On December 31, 2006, an adjustment will be needed. What is the adjusting entry? Original entry 3,600 3,600 Adjusting entry 1,800 1,800 Correct balances 1,800 1,800 Unearned Rent Rent Revenue Cash
Learning Objective 3
Explain the preparation of the financial statements, the explanatory notes, and the audit report.
Review The Steps in the Accounting Cycle
Preparing Financial Statements
Prepared directly from the data in the adjusted ledger accounts.
Explanatory notes clarify the methods and assumptions.
The auditor reviews the statements with GAAP.
Describe the Preparation of Financial Statements
What Are The Notes and Why Have Them?
Tell Me About The Audit
Using a Work Sheet
What Is a Work Sheet ?
How Does It Work?
Learning Objective 4
Complete the closing process in the accounting cycle.
Closing Entries Describe Which Accounts Are Used For Each Entry Step 1. Close all revenue accounts by debiting them. Sales Revenue. . . . . . . . . 15,000 Retained Earnings . . . . 15,000 Step 2. Close all expense accounts by crediting them. Retained Earnings. . . . . . . 13,600 Cost of Goods Sold. . . . 12,800 Insurance Expense. . . . 500 Supplies Expense. . . . . 300
Closing Dividends Discuss the Dividends Account
Declaration of Dividends : Payment of Dividends : Closing Entry for Dividends : Make All Three Dividends Entries for $200
Dividends Bal. xxx Retained Earnings Beg. Bal. xxx The Closing Process Revenues Revenues Bal. xxx Expenses Bal. xxx Since the revenues account is a nominal account, it is closed at the end of the period to Retained Earnings. xxx Revenues
The Closing Process Expenses Dividends Bal. xxx Retained Earnings Beg. Bal. xxx Revenues Expenses Bal. xxx The expenses account is also a nominal account and is debited to Retained Earnings to close it. xxx Expenses Revenues Bal. xxx xxx
The Closing Process Dividends Dividends Bal. xxx Retained Earnings Beg. Bal. xxx Expenses Revenues xxx Revenues Bal. xxx The dividends account, which is also nominal, is credited to close out the balance. xxx Dividends Expenses Bal. xxx xxx
The Closing Process Dividends Bal. xxx Retained Earnings Beg. Bal. xxx xxx Dividends Expenses Revenues xxx Revenues Bal. xxx Expenses Bal. xxx xxx End. Bal. xxx Net income for the period is determined by these two entries. Retained Earnings is a real account and always carries a balance.
Optimal last step.
Information taken from the General Ledger after all closing entries are posted.
Lists all real account balances at the end of the closing process.
Assures that total debits equal total credits prior to the beginning of the new accounting period.
Only real accounts will have a balance at this time.
Post-Closing Trial Balance
Example: Post-Closing Trial Balance Three Monkeys Inc. Post-Closing Trial Balance December 31, 2006 Debits Credits Cash $ 8,200 Accounts Receivable 4,000 Inventory 3,000 Supplies 1,000 Accounts Payable $ 5,000 Capital Stock 10,000 Retained Earnings ______ 1,200 Totals $16,200 $16,200
Learning Objective 6
Understand how all the steps in the accounting cycle fit together.
Summary of the Accounting Cycle
Result from the accounting cycle.
Provide useful information to investors, creditors, and other users.
Are included in the annual reports provided to stockholders.
Can be analyzed and compared to statements of similar firms to detect strengths and weaknesses.
Learning Objective 7 Expanded Material
Make adjusting entries for prepaid expenses and unearned revenues when the original cash amounts are recorded as expenses and revenues.
Original entry 3,600 3,600 Adjusting entry 1,800 1,800 Correct balances 1,800 1,800 Example: Prepaid Expenses Rent Expense Prepaid Rent Cash On July 1, 2006, Time Flies Company pays $3,600 for one year’s rent in advance (covering July 1, 2006, to June 30, 2007). On December 31, 2006, an adjustment will be needed. What is the adjusting entry using the expense approach?
Original entry 3,600 3,600 Adjusting entry 1,800 1,800 Correct balances 1,800 1,800 Example: Prepaid Expenses On July 1, 2006, Pot Of Gold Inc. pays the Rainbow Company $3,600 for one year’s rent in advance (covering July 1, 2006, to June 30, 2007). On December 31, 2006, an adjustment will be needed. Use the revenue approach. Unearned Rent Rent Revenue Cash
END CHAPTER 4 "Things which matter most must never be at the mercy of things which matter least."