PROJECT INTEGRATION MANAGEMENT


Project Integration Processes
Process                           Project Phase            ...
•   Scope Statement
    •   WBS
    •   Responsibility charts/assignments
    •   Management Plans

M Project baseline ref...
PROJECT SCOPE MANAGEMENT


Scope Management Processes
Process                Project Group                Key Deliverables...
PROJECT TIME MANAGEMENT

Time Management Processes
Process               Project Phase                     Key Deliverable...
•   Straight line depreciation The same amount is deprecated (reduced) from the
        cost each year.
    •   Double-dec...
Develop Project Team        Execution       Team performance assessments
Manage Project Team         Execution       Chang...
Communication Management Plan defines how and when the various stakeholders
receive information, and communicate with each...
PROJECT RISK MANAGEMENT



                              Risk Management Processes
             Process                  P...
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Project Management

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Project Management

  1. 1. PROJECT INTEGRATION MANAGEMENT Project Integration Processes Process Project Phase Key Deliverables Develop Project Charter Initiating Project Charter Develop Project Management Plan Planning Project Management Plan Direct and Manage Project Execution Deliverables Execution Monitoring and Monitor and Control Project Work Change Requests Control Monitoring and Change Requests status Perform Integrated Change Control Control updates Close Project or Phase Closure Final product F A project charter • Formally authorizes the project. • Gives the objectives and business case • Identifies the Project Manager. • Generic enough not to change often. • Written by a Manager higher in authority than Project Manager. • Includes name, description, deliverables • A project does not start unless it has a Project charter. A The Inputs, Tools and Techniques, and Outputs of the Develop Project Management Plan process are given in the table below. Develop Project Management Plan process Inputs Tools & Techniques Outputs Project charter Expert judgment Project Management Plan Outputs from planning processes Enterprise environmental factors Organizational process assets O Project Management Plan is developed by Project Manager with inputs from the team, stakeholders and management. Project Management Plan development is iterative. A Project Management Plan is bought into, approved, realistic and formal. P A Project Management Plan includes - • Project Charter • Budget • Schedule • Resources
  2. 2. • Scope Statement • WBS • Responsibility charts/assignments • Management Plans M Project baseline refers to the original version of the project management plan. Once the project management plan is base lined, it may only be changed by raising a change request. r Progressive Elaboration involves the process of taking a project from concept to detailed design. d Kick-off meeting happens after the planning phase and before the project execution. It is typically used to communicate responsibilities of key stakeholders. i Direct and Manage Project Execution process includes performing the work defined in the PMP to achieve project goals. The Input, Tools and Techniques and Outputs of this process are given below. Direct and Manage Project Execution process Inputs Tools & Techniques Outputs Project management plan Expert judgment Deliverables Project management information Work performance Approved change requests system information Enterprise Environmental Change requests factors Organizational process Project management plan assets updates Project document updates P Monitor and Control project work process includes tracking and reviewing the progress of the project. The Input, Tools and Techniques and Outputs of this process are given below. Monitor and Control project work process Inputs Tools & Techniques Outputs Project management plan Expert judgment Change requests Performance reports Project management plan updates Enterprise environmental factors Project document updates Organizational process assets
  3. 3. PROJECT SCOPE MANAGEMENT Scope Management Processes Process Project Group Key Deliverables Collect Requirements planning Requirements document Define Scope planning project scope statement Create WBS planning WBS, WBS dictionary Verify Scope Monitoring and Controlling Acceptance deliverables Control Scope Monitoring and Controlling Change Requests The knowledge area of Scope Management includes the processes required to ensure that the project includes all the work, and only all the work required to complete the project successfully. It is primarily concerned with controlling what is and what is not in the scope. There are two types of project selection methods. These are • Benefits Measurement • Constrained Optimization Benefits Measurement project selection methods involve comparing the values of one project against another. Constrained Optimization Project selection methods are used for large projects. These are techniques based on mathematical models.
  4. 4. PROJECT TIME MANAGEMENT Time Management Processes Process Project Phase Key Deliverables Define Activities Planning Activity List, Milestone list Project Schedule network Sequence Activities Planning diagrams Estimate Activity Activity resource requirements, Planning Resources Resource breakdown structure Estimate Activity Planning Activity duration estimates Durations Develop Schedule Planning Project Schedule Monitoring and Work Performance measurements, Control Schedule Controlling Change Requests Bar charts (or Gantt charts) are used to display tasks and their dates in a graphical fashion. They are used to display information of the type task 1 is scheduled from date A to date B. Typically the date range is displayed in the X-axis and the tasks on the Y-axis. Bar charts do not show task dependencies. They are generally used to track progress and show to the team. PROJECT COST MANAGEMENT Project Cost Processes Process Project Phase Key Deliverables Estimate Costs Planning Activity Cost Estimates, Basis of estimates Determine Budget Planning Cost performance baseline Control Costs Monitoring and Controlling Work performance measurements W Alternative identification process identifies other solutions to an identified problem. W Value Analysis approach is used to find more affordable, less costly methods for accomplishing the same task. a The Estimate Costs process takes the following inputs - • Scope baseline • Project schedule • Human resource plan • Risk register • Enterprise environmental factors • Organizational process assets O Depreciation is technique used to compute the estimated value of any object after few years. There are three type of depreciation techniques. These are
  5. 5. • Straight line depreciation The same amount is deprecated (reduced) from the cost each year. • Double-declining balance - In the first year there is a higher deduction in the value - twice the amount of straight line. Each year after that the deduction is 40% less than the previous year. • Sum of year depreciation - Lets say the life of an object is five years. The total of one to five is fifteen. In first year we deduce 5/15 from the cost, in second year we deduce 4/15, and so on. w Analogous Estimating is an estimating technique with the following characteristics - • Estimates are based on past projects (historical information) • It is less accurate when compared to bottom-up estimation • It is a top-down approach • It takes less time when compared to bottom-up estimation • It is a form of an expert judgment PROJECT QUALITY MANAGEMENT Quality Management Processes Process Project Phase Key Deliverables Quality Management Plan, Plan Quality Planning Quality Metrics Perform Quality Assurance Execution Change Requests Perform Quality Control Monitoring and Controlling Quality control measurements Q Grade refers to category or rank given to entities having same functional use but different technical characteristics. As an example, for different grades of hotels, the customers expectations are different. Poor grade may be acceptable, but poor quality is not. n The aim of quality is to ensure "Conformance to requirements" and "fitness for use". n Quality Policy defines the company goals and how to adhere to them. This acts as an input to Quality Planning for a project. Quality Policy is part of Organizational Process assets. PROJECT HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT HR Management Processes Process Project Phase Key Deliverables Develop Human Resource Plan Planning Human Resource Plan Acquire Project Team Execution Project Staff assignments
  6. 6. Develop Project Team Execution Team performance assessments Manage Project Team Execution Change requests C Responsibility Assignment Matrix (RAM) defines who does what. The Staffing Management Plan defines when will people get added and removed from the project. A Project Manager may yield authority over the project team in one of the following ways - • Referent - project team knows the PM • Formal Power - Power due to Project Managers position • Technical Power - Project Manager has strong technical skills in the projects domain. • Coercive Power - The project team is afraid of the power the Project Manager holds. h Conflicts in the team are caused due to the following reasons in decreasing order of occurrences. • Schedules • Project Priorities • Resources • Technical Opinions So the most common cause of conflicts in projects are issues related to schedules. S Conflicts are best resolved by those in the team. PROJECT COMMUNICATION MANAGEMENT class="basic" Communication Management Processes Process Process Group Key Deliverables Identify Stakeholders Initiating Stakeholders register Communication Management Plan Communications Planning Plan Organization process Distribute Information Executing assets updates Manage Stakeholders Executing Change requests Expectations Monitoring and Report Performance Performance Reports Controlling
  7. 7. Communication Management Plan defines how and when the various stakeholders receive information, and communicate with each other. r Memos, emails are examples of non-formal communication. r The total number of communication channels between n stakeholders is n(n-1)/2. So if there are ten stakeholders in a project, there are 45 channels of communication. t The Identify Stakeholders process involves identifying all persons and organizations that may impact the outcome of project. Project stakeholders may include customers, project team, project sponsor and other persons involved in the project. During stakeholder analysis the power and interest of the stakeholders is plotted with Interest on X-axis and Power on Y-axis. PROJECT PROCUREMENT MANAGEMENT Procurement Management involves getting work done by people outside the project team. Project Procurement Management includes administering contracts and change control process to manage contracts or purchase orders. Procurement Management Processes Process Project Phase Key Deliverables Plan Procurements Planning Procurement Management Plan Selected Sellers, Procurement contract Conduct Procurements Execution award Administer Monitoring and Change requests Procurements Controlling Close Procurements Closure Closed procurements A contract is a formal agreement. It is a legal document biding to both seller and buyer. Changes to contract must be in writing and formally controlled. Most Governments back all contracts by providing a court system.
  8. 8. PROJECT RISK MANAGEMENT Risk Management Processes Process Project Phase Key Deliverables Plan Risk Management Planning Risk Management Plan Identify Risks Planning Risk register Perform Qualitative Risk Planning Risk register updates Analysis Perform Quantitative Risk Planning Risk register updates Analysis Risk related contract Plan Risk Responses Planning decisions Monitoring and Monitor and Control Risks Risk register updates Controlling R A project risk is a potential source of deviation from the project plan. Project risks can have a negative or positive impact on the project. Project risks that are negative are called threats. Project risks that are positive are called opportunities. t Responses to threat include -- • Reducing the probability of risk • Developing contingency plans • Passively accepting consequences. • Transferring risk Insurance is an example of transferring risk. I Non-critical risks should be documented. They should be revisited and reviewed regularly. r Risks are identified in all phases. r Work-around refers to how to handle risks that have occurred but are not part of risk response plan. This happens in risk monitoring and control phase. r Delphi technique is most commonly used to obtain expert opinions on technical issues. It can be used to get inputs on Scope, Estimates or Risks. Some characteristics of the Delphi technique are - • The experts identities are anonymous. They are not in the same room. • The PM tries to build a consensus among the experts.

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