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Telemedicine And Telecare Basics

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  • 1. bibliographic study TELEMEDICINE and TELECARE basics Andrei Mihai CR ĂCIUN
  • 2. contents
    • Telemedicine / Telehealth / Telecare
    • Development of telemedicine
    • Overview: developed countries vs. underdeveloped countries
    • Purpose , benefits and limitations of telemedicine
    • Case study
    • Conclusions and further work
  • 3. purpose of the study?
    • Why can I find different definitions of telemedicine
    • What are the origins and development of telemedicine
    • How is telemedicine used in rich countries vs. poor countries
    • What is the future of telemedicine?
  • 4. telemedicine / telehealth / telecare
    • telemedicine:
        • t ele – .gr “ far” , “at a distance”
          • medicine delivered at a distance
        • The use of information and communication technologies to transfer medical information for the delivery of clinical and educational services
        • Telemedicine offers you attendance ! ?
  • 5. telemedicine / telehealth / telecare
    • telehealth:
        • The use of information and communication technologies to transfer healthcare information for the delivery of clinical, administrative and educational services
          • Introduced as a field in mid 1990’s
          • Transfer data and medical informations
            • Learning courses
            • Public medical info channels
            • Consultations (psychiatric i.e.)
  • 6. telemedicine / telehealth / telecare
    • telecare:
        • The use of information and communication technologies to transfer medical information for the diagnosis and therapy of patiens in their place of domicile
    • For a specific group of patiens with long-term chronic conditions
        • Mental health
        • Disability
        • With reduce freedom of movement
  • 7. why so many definitions?
    • Telemedicine: use of information and communication technologies to transfer medical information for the delivery of clinical and educational services
    • Telehealth: use of information and communication technologies to transfer healthcare information for the delivery of clinical, administrative and educational services
    • Telcare: use of information and communication technologies to transfer medical information for the delivery of clinical services to patiens
  • 8. development of telemedicine
    • Was not invented as a well-defined discipline with specialized instrumentation and protocols
    • Nowadays there are four phases of telemedicine, that are officially identified:
      • Telegraphy and telephony (1840s-1920s)
      • Radio (1920s, main tech until ‘50)
      • Television/space technologies (1950s-onwards, main tech until ‘ 8 0)
      • Digital technologies (1990s-onwards)
  • 9. overview: developed vs. undeveloped countries
    • “ Whatever the political persuasion of its government, culture or beliefs, every developed nation is facing difficulties with the delivery of healthcare to its citizens”
      • Increasing age of the population
      • Increasing cost of medical technology
      • Patient expectations
      • Economic and social change
  • 10. overview: developed vs. undeveloped countries
    • It’s all about money?
    • Specialists
    • Cost-benefit equation
    • Access
  • 11. overview: developed vs. undeveloped countries
    • Finance, organization, culture and/or distance often does not allow authorities to provide even basic healthcare
      • Communicable diseases and deaths from childbirth: more than 80% of the 51 mil deaths worldwide (1993)
      • Life expectancy
        • in developed world is about 78 years
        • In underdeveloped world is about 43 years
  • 12. purpose , benefits and limitations of telemedicine
    • The purpose and categorization of telemedicine / telecare have changed as technology has developed
      • 1. Tele-consultation
        • Support clinical decision making, about 35% usage of telemedicine networks
        • Real-time
        • Store-and-forward
  • 13. purpose , benefits and limitations of telemedicine
      • 2. Tele-education
        • Clinical education from tele-consultation
        • Clinical education via the Internet
        • Academic study via the Internet
        • Public education via the Internet
      • Depends on who is the recipient and what is the purpose of the transmission
  • 14. purpose , benefits and limitations of telemedicine
      • 3. Tele-monitoring
        • The use of a telecommunications link to gather routine or repeated data on a patient’s condition
        • The patient may be in a hospital, at home, on an aircraft or wearing an ambulatory device
          • CTI – computer telephone integrated
          • Special watches
  • 15. purpose , benefits and limitations of telemedicine
      • 4. Tele-surgery
        • The assistance given by specialists to surgeons carrying out a surgical procedure at a remote location
          • A/V connection
          • Tele-presence surgery
  • 16. history
    • Telegraphy was used during the American Civil War to report casualty lists and continued with the radiotelegraph invented by Marconi (1897)
    • 1920s-1930s, were introduced several radio-medical services
  • 17. history 1955 Nebraska Psychiatric Institute Norfolk State Hospital First tele-psychiatry 19 70s Alaska Satellite Biomedical Demonstration Program village health Data collection, tele-education
  • 18. nowadays
  • 19. nowadays radio streamer satellite channel telephone, GSM , internet Internet barebone medium & standard converter (MODEM) Ethernet to telemedicine set-up
  • 20. nowadays
  • 21. nowadays
  • 22. nowadays
  • 23. conclusions and further work
    • Moving telemedicine intro mainstream
      • cost effective
    • Policy and strategies
      • unfortunatly, politicians have to delay evolution / revolution 
    • Telecare
      • Home telemedicine will rule
    • What is the role of Internet?
    • We have to enhance healthcare in undeveloped countries
  • 24. conclusions and further work
  • 25. To do:
    • Dig through archives, get newer info
    • Set a field of interest
    • Seek a problem / opportunity
      • Start solving it
      • Answear the following facts:
    • How can I make that better
    • How can I create something better
    • Why do we need something better?
  • 26. references
    • 1. A.C. Norris : Essentials of Telemedicine and Telcare, Univ. of Auckland, New Zealand , 2005
    • 2. Isao Nakajima: Worldwide trends in universal service funds and telemedicine, Springer Science LLC 2009
    • 3. Sodin Pu școci: Florin Șerbănescu: Telemedicina, concepte, principii, aplicații,2004
    • 4. Marian Stoica: Telemedicina și E-sănătate, ASE București, 2002
    • 5. Institutul Clinic Fundeni, NASA: the aerospace program: telemedicine pilot project, 2002
  • 27. Thankyou for your attention. Any questions?