16 Tenses In English


                             CHAPTER I
                     PRESENT CONTINUOUS TENSE

1.1 THE USE O...
16 Tenses In English


       6. They are playing football in the field now.
       7. Tom and Ani are doing their homewor...
16 Tenses In English


EXERCISE 2 : Change the following sentences into (+), (-), and (?)

   1.   They are speaking Engli...
16 Tenses In English


                                    CHAPTER 2
                                    PAST TENSE

2.1. ...
16 Tenses In English


          3. Did they play football in the field yesteryear? Yes, they did/No, they
             di...
16 Tenses In English


                        3. PRESENT FUTURE TENSE

We often use will in this situation:

Offering to ...
16 Tenses In English


                               4. PRESENT TENSE

Present Tense is used to talk about something in g...
16 Tenses In English


                       5. PAST CONTINUOUS TENSE

      We use past continuous Tense to say that som...
16 Tenses In English


                       6. PRESENT PERFECT TENSE

We often use the present perfect Tense to give new...
16 Tenses In English


                          7. PAST PERFECT TENSE

We use the Past perfect to say that something had ...
16 Tenses In English


            8. PRESENT PERFECT CONTINUOUS TENSE


        S + have/has + been + verb 4…………etc

    ...
16 Tenses In English


               9. PAST PERFECT CONTINUOUS TENSE


        S + had been + verb 4…………when S + V2

   ...
16 Tenses In English


            10. PRESENT FUTURE CONTINUOUS TENSE


        S + will be + Verb 4 + O + at…………..o’cloc...
16 Tenses In English


               11. PRESENT FUTURE PERFECT TENSE


        S + will have + verb 3 + ……….by the end……...
16 Tenses In English




     12. PRESENT FUTURE PERFECT CONTINUOUS TENSE


        S + will have been + verb 4………since………...
16 Tenses In English




                          13. PAST FUTURE TENSE


        S + would + V1…IF + S + verb 2………….etc
...
16 Tenses In English




                14. PAST FUTURE CINTINUOUS TENSE


        S + would be + Verb 4……when S + verb 2...
16 Tenses In English




                   15. PAST FUTURE PERFECT TENSE


        S + would have + verb 3…..IF + S + had...
16 Tenses In English




        16. PAST FUTURE PERFECT CONTINUOUS TENSE


        S + would have + been + verb 4…..IF + ...
16 Tenses In English




                       17. Abbreviation (singkatan)

   1. I am                       = I’m
   2....
16 Tenses In English




          18. PASSIVE VOICE (IN POSITIVE FORM)
Penjelasan:
   1. Kalimat pasif ialah suatu kalima...
16 Tenses In English


   13. Past Future Tense: S + would be + V3…
   14. Past Future Continuous Tense: S + would be bein...
16 Tenses In English




             19. PASSIVE – VOICE IN NEGATIVE FORM

1. Present Future Tense
    S + Won’t be + V3…...
16 Tenses In English




8. Present Perfect Continuous Tense
    S + (hasn’t/haven’t) + been + being + V3…by…..
   Example...
16 Tenses In English


Note : Keterangan pelaku (by me, by us, by him, dst) dan keterangan waktu, bisa
       dipakai bila...
16 Tenses In English


   Example : Apakah saya diminta untuk menemani kamu ?
               By whom + …………………………. ? = By ...
16 Tenses In English


                 How long + …………………. ? = More than 3 year.

11. Simple Past Tense
     (Were/Was) +...
16 Tenses In English




                 21. CAUSATIVE Dengan HAVE Dan GET

Fungsi : I. Menyuruh sesorang untuk mengerjak...
16 Tenses In English


Eg : 1. He will get me to help him tomorrow

         2. He doesn’t get me to come to his house tod...
16 Tenses In English




                               THE 16 TENSES

Perhatikan perubahan yang terjadi dari Rumus umum k...
16 Tenses In English


         Jadi: S.O, bisa menjadi = me, you, him, her, us, them.
               One’s = bisa menjadi...
16 Tenses In English


           Apakah Budi mereparasikan mobilnya hari ini ?
         = ………………………………………………... ?
    3. ...
16 Tenses In English




                                  LIST OF TRANSITIVE – VERB

          Infinitive                ...
16 Tenses In English


21   to see           saw             seen         ~ing          melihat, bertemu, berkenalan
22   ...
16 Tenses In English


54   to devide        ~d              ~d          dividing     membagi
55   to nominate      ~d    ...
16 Tenses In English


87    to measure            ~d                  ~d                measuring     mengukur
88    to e...
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15803659 16 Tenses In English

  1. 1. 16 Tenses In English CHAPTER I PRESENT CONTINUOUS TENSE 1.1 THE USE OF PRESENT CONTINOUS TENSE We use The Present Continuous Tense when we talk about something which is happening at the time of speaking. Example : Please don’t make so much noise. I’m studying. We also use The Present Continuous Tense when we talk about something which is happening around the time of speaking, but not necessarily exactly at the time of speaking. Example : Silvia is learning English at the moment. We often use the Present Continuous when we talk about a period around the present. Example :You’re working hard today. Yes, I have a lot of to do We use the present continuous when we talk about the changing situation. Example : The population without jobs is increasing very fast. 1.2. THE ADVERBS OF TIME USED The adverbs of time used in Present Continous tense are “NOW, RIGHT NOW, TOMORROW,ETC 1.3. THE PATTERN OF PRESENT CONTINOUS TENSE The patterns of Present continous tense consist of : 1.3.A. Positive Pattern S + am/is/are + Verb 4…………………………………………….Now S + sedang + 4……………………………………..sekarang Examples : 1. I am studying English now. 2. We are going to Jakarta tomorrow (akan) 3. You are singing now. 4. He is making a cake now. 5. she is sewing a shirt now. Communicative English Course 1
  2. 2. 16 Tenses In English 6. They are playing football in the field now. 7. Tom and Ani are doing their homework tomorrow. 8. The students are doing sport now. 1.3.b The Negative Pattern S + am/is/are + Not + Verb 4…………………………………… Now S + tidak sedang + 4 …………………………………….sekarang Example : 1. I am not studying now 2. He is not sleeping now 3. My father is not watching television now. 4. we aren’t going to Jakarta Tomorrow. 1.3.c. The Interrogative Pattern Am/Is/Are + S + Verb 4…………………………………………..Now? Apakah + S + sedang + 4…………………………sekarang ? Examples : 1. Are you studying English now ? Yes, I am/ No, I am not 2. Is he eating fried rice now? Yes, he is/ No, he isn’t 3. Is your father working in the office now? Yes, He is/No, He isn’t 1.3.d. Qusetion-word Pattern QW + Am/Is/Are + S + Verb 4…………………………………...Now? QW + yang + S + 4……………………………………..sekarang? Examples : 1. what are you doing now ? studying 2. Where is he studying English now ? at school EXERCISE I : Translate these sentences into English. 1. Jack sedang tidur sekarang 2. Mary sedang mengerjakan tugas itu 3. Kami sedang menonton sebuah film di televisi 4. Mereka sedang bermain bola di halaman sekarang 5. Guru itu sedang menerangkan pelajaran itu. 6. Perusahaan itu sedang tumbuh dengan pesat sekarang. 7. Harga saham di bursa Efek Jakarta sedang naik sekarang 8. Pak Adi sedang mengajar bahasa Inggris di kampus sekarang 9. Polisi tersebut sedang mencari Ali sekarang. 10. Ana, Ani, dan Tom sedang berdiskusi sekarang. Communicative English Course 2
  3. 3. 16 Tenses In English EXERCISE 2 : Change the following sentences into (+), (-), and (?) 1. They are speaking English now. 2. We are not reading now. 3. Is your mother frying rice now? No, she isn’t. 4. What is your father looking at now ? a picture. 5. He is watching “Plan to kill” on TV now. 6. The teacher is not explaining tenses to the students now. 7. Is Maradona playing football in Argentina Now? EXERCISE 3 : Write questions by using question words based on the underlined words in the following sentences. 1. John is eating a plate of rice in the dining room now. 2. The cat is eating fried chicken in the kitchen now. 3. Tom and Jerry are quarrelling about food now. 4. My father is teaching Biology at school now. EXERCISE 4 : Answer the following questions with your own words. 1. Are you studying English now ? 2. Is your father reading a newspaper now? 3. Is your mother sewing a shirt now? 4. Are They singing a song at home now? 5. Is Mr.Adi teaching English at school now? 6. What is your mother doing now? 7. What is your brother doing now? EXERCISE 5 : Write sentences by using the following verbs Writing, speaking, sewing, growing, discussing, doing, hunting,eating, drinking, dancing, singing, making, building, teaching, explaining, talking, watching, shopping, sleeping, typing, driving, riding, training, working Communicative English Course 3
  4. 4. 16 Tenses In English CHAPTER 2 PAST TENSE 2.1. The Use of Simple Past Tense We use the past simple to talk about actions or situations in the past. 2.2. The Adverbs of time used The adverbs of time used in this tense are Yesterday, last….., a week ago, this morning , last night, yesterday morning, yesterweek, yestermonth, yesteryear, etc. 2.3. The Patterns of Simple Past Tense 2.3.1. The Positive Pattern S + Verb 2…………………………………………………… Yesterday S + 2………………………………………………….. Examples : 1. John saw a crocodile in the river yesterday. 2. We studied English here last week. 3. They played football in the field yesteryear 2.3.2. The Negative Pattern S + didn’t + Verb 1…………………………………… ……..Yesterday S + tidak + 1…………………………………kemarin Examples : 1. John didn’t see a crocodile in the river yesterday. 2. We didn’t study here last week. 3. They didn’t play football in the field yesteryear. 2.3.3. The Interrogative Pattern Did + S + Verb 1……………………………………………..Yesterday? Apakah + S + 1…………………………………………kemarin? Examples: 1. Did John see a crocodile in the river yesterday ? Yes, he did/No, he didn’t 2. Did you study here last week ? Yes, we did/ No, we didn’t Communicative English Course 4
  5. 5. 16 Tenses In English 3. Did they play football in the field yesteryear? Yes, they did/No, they didn’t 2.3.4. The Question-word Pattern QW + did + S + Verb 1……………………………….………Yesterday? Qw + yang + S + 1…………………………………….? Examples: 1. What did John see in the river yesterday ? a crocodile 2. When did John see a crocodile in the river? yesterday QW + Verb 2……………………………….………Yesterday? S + did QW + 2……………………………..? Examples : 1. Who saw a crocodile in the river yesterday ? John did 2. What grew in the rice-field last year? A coconut tree did EXERCISE I : Translate these sentences into English ! 1. Kami menjual mobil kami kemarin 2. Apakah kamu pergi ke luar tadi malam ? 3. Dia tidak datang ke pesta itu minggu lalu 4. Apakah kamu tidur nyenyak tadi malam ? 5. Kami menjual rumah kami di Jakarta tahun lalu. 6. Manajer pemasaran tersebut melakukan penelitian minggu lalu. 7. Apakah perusahaan anda menjual kursi tahun lalu ? Ya. 8. Kapan anda menjalankan usaha anda di Jakarta ? tahun lalu 9. Siapa yang membuat kue itu kemarin ? ibu saya. 10. Apa yang jatuh di jalan kemarin ? Tas saya. EXERCISE II. Change the following sentences into (+), (-), ( ?), Present Continous Tense. 1. Communicative English Course 5
  6. 6. 16 Tenses In English 3. PRESENT FUTURE TENSE We often use will in this situation: Offering to do something: e.g. That bag looks heavy. I’ll help with it. Agreeing and refusing to do something: e.g. I’ve asked john to help me but he won’t Promising to do something. e.g. I will come to your house tonight. I promise. Asking someone to do something. Will you close the window,please! The pattern : S + will/shall + Verb 1…………………………………… Tomorrow S + won’t/shan’t + Verb 1…………………… ………… Tomorrow Will/Shall + S + Verb 1………………………………….. Tomorrow? QW + will/shall + S + Verb 1…………………….………Tomorrow? We often use will to be going to when we say what we have already decided to do, what we intend to do in the future. e.g. A:There’s a film on television tonight. Are you going to watch it? B: No, I am too tired. I am going to have an early night. The pattern : S + am/is/are + going to + Verb 1…………………………………… S +am/is/are + not + going to + Verb 1…………………… ………… Am/is/are + S + going to + Verb 1………………………………….. .? QW + am/is/are + S + going to + verb 1…………………………… ..? Communicative English Course 6
  7. 7. 16 Tenses In English 4. PRESENT TENSE Present Tense is used to talk about something in general. And it is also used to talk about something which is happened repeatedly or habituallly activities. e.g. + The earth goes round the sun - The earth doesn’t go round the sun ? Does the earth go round the sun ? + I get up at 8 o’clock every morning - I don’t get up at 8 o’clock every morning ? Do you get up at 8 o’clock very morning? The pattern : S + Verb 1 (s/es)…………………………………… Everyday/today S + don’t/doesn’t + Verb 1…………………… ……Everyday/today Do/Does + S + Verb 1………………………………Everyday/today? QW + Do/does + S + Verb 1…………………….…Everyday/today? We use the present simple when wse say how often we do things: e.g. How often do you go to the dentist ? Mary doesn’t often drink tea. Communicative English Course 7
  8. 8. 16 Tenses In English 5. PAST CONTINUOUS TENSE We use past continuous Tense to say that someone was in the middle of doing something at a certain time. The action or situation had already started before this time but hadn’t finished: This time last year I was living in Brazil We often use the past continuous Tense and the past simple together to say that something happened in the middle of something else: When I was working in the garden, I hurt my back. The pattern : S + was/were + verb 4………………….When + s + Verb 2…….…… S + was/were + not + Verb 4…………….When + s + Verb 2………… Was/were + S + verb 4…………………. When + s + Verb 2 ……. ….? QW + was/were + S + verb 4……………When + s + Verb 2 …………? e.g. + She was cooking rice when Tom came yesterday - She wasn’t cooking rice when Tom came yesterday ? Was she cooking rice when Tom came yesterday ? Communicative English Course 8
  9. 9. 16 Tenses In English 6. PRESENT PERFECT TENSE We often use the present perfect Tense to give new information or to announce recent happening: e.g. Do you know about Mary ? She’s gone to Jakarta. We can use the Present Perfect Tense with already to say that something has happened sooner than expected : e.g. Don’t forget to post this letter, will you? I’ve already posted it. We can use the Present Perfect Tense with just (= a short time ago) e.g. Would you like something to eat? ‘No, thanks. I’ve just had lunch’. We talk about a period of time that continuous up to the present, we use the present perfect. e.g. Dave: Have you travelled a lot, Nora? Nora: Yes, I have been to 47 different countries. We often use ever and never with the present perfect: e.g. have you ever eaten caviar? We have never had a car. We have to use present perfect Tense with This is the first time…, It the first time… e.g. This is the first time he has driven a car. (not drives) We often use the present perfect with yet. Yet shows that the speaker is expecting something to happen. Use yet only in questions and negative sentences: e.g. Has it stopped raining yet ? (not ‘did it stop’). The pattern: S + have/has + verb 3……………………….etc S + haven’t/hasn’t + Verb 3…………….….etc Have/has + S + verb 3………………….. ….etc? QW + have/has + S + verb 3………………..etc? Communicative English Course 9
  10. 10. 16 Tenses In English 7. PAST PERFECT TENSE We use the Past perfect to say that something had already happened before this time : Example : - When I arrived at the party, Tom had already gone home - When I got home, I found that someone had broken into my flat and had stolen my fur coat. - George didn’t want to come to the cinema with us because he had already seen the film twice. - It was my first time in an aeroplane. I was very nervous because I hadn’t flown before. The pattern: S + had + verb 3…………when/before S + V2 S + hadn’t + Verb 3……… when/before S + V2 Had + S + verb 3………… when/before S + V2 ? QW + had + S + verb 3……… when/before S + V2 ? Translate these sentences into English ! 1. Rumah itu sangat sunyi ketika saya tiba. Semua orang sudah pergi tidur. 2. Saya merasa sangat lelah ketika saya pulang, jadi saya langsung pergi tidur 3. Saya tidak lapar, saya baru saja makan siang. 4. To tidak bearada di rumah ketika saya tiba. Dia baru saja keluar. Communicative English Course 10
  11. 11. 16 Tenses In English 8. PRESENT PERFECT CONTINUOUS TENSE S + have/has + been + verb 4…………etc S + haven’t/hasn’t + been + verb 4……etc Have/has + S + been + verb 4……….etc ? QW + have/has + S + been + verb 4…etc ? Example : - Pelajar pelajar tengah menyanyi sejak pagi ini + The students have been singing since this morning - The students haven’t been singing since this morning ? Have the students been singing since this morning ? Translate these sentences into English ! 1. Hari sudah hujan selama dua jam 2. Berapa lama kamu sudah belajar bahasa inggris ? 3. Saya sudah menonton acara TV tersebut sejak dua jam 4. Dia (pr) sudah bermain tenis sejak dia berumur 8 tahun 5. Berapa lama kamu suah merokok ? 6. Mereka sudah bermain PS selama tiga jam Communicative English Course 11
  12. 12. 16 Tenses In English 9. PAST PERFECT CONTINUOUS TENSE S + had been + verb 4…………when S + V2 S + hadn’t been + Verb 4……… when S + V2 Had + S + been + verb 4………… when S + V2 ? QW + had + S + been + verb 4……… when S + V2 ? Example : - Mereka tengah mengerjakan PR ketika saya datang kemarin + They had been doing the homework when I came yesterday - They hadn’t been doing the homework when I came yesterday ? Had they been doing the homework when I came yesterday ? Translate these sentences into English ! 1. Mereka sudah bermain bola selama satu jam ketika ada petir yang menakutkan 2. Ken sudah merokok selama 30 tahun ketika akhirnya dia berhenti 3. Orkestra itu sudah bermain selama sepuluh menit ketika seorang laki laki berteriak 4. Saya sudah mengetik selama tiga puluh menit ketika listrik itu padam 5. Mereka sudah tidur selama 6 jam ketika kebakaran itu terjadi Communicative English Course 12
  13. 13. 16 Tenses In English 10. PRESENT FUTURE CONTINUOUS TENSE S + will be + Verb 4 + O + at…………..o’clock S + won’t be + Verb 4 + O + at………..o’clock Will + S + be + Verb 4 + O + at……….o’clock ? QW + will + S + be +Verb 4…………o’clock ? Example : - Kamu sedang akan pergi ke sekolah pukul 7 besok pagi + You will be going to school at seven o’clock tomorrow morning - You won’t be going to school at seven o’clock tomorrow morning ? Will you be going to school at seven o’clock tomorrow morning ? Translate these sentences into English ! 1. George sedang akan meninggalkan Indonesia pada pukul 9 besok pagi 2. Saya sedang akan menyelesaikan PR itu sore nanti 3. Dia (pr) sedang akan menonton acara di stadion tersebut nanti malam 4. Mereka sedang akan makan malam di restauran itu nanti malam 5. Para karyawan sedang akan menyelesaikan pekerjaan itu pukul 9 nanti malam Communicative English Course 13
  14. 14. 16 Tenses In English 11. PRESENT FUTURE PERFECT TENSE S + will have + verb 3 + ……….by the end…… S + won’t have + Verb 3 + ………..by the end…. Will + S + have + Verb 3 + ………by the end…. ? QW + will + S + have +Verb 3 +…………by the end… ? Example : - Kita sudah akan tiba di Jakarta besok sore. + We will have arrived in Jakarta tomorrow afternoon - We won’t have arrived in Jakarta tomorrow afternoon ? Will we have arrived in Jakarta tomorrow afternoon ? Translate these sentences into English ! 1. John sudah akan selesai mengerjakan pekerjaanya menjelang akhir minggu ini 2. Menjelang minggu depan saya akan selesai membaca buku ini 3. Menjelang bulan depan dia akan membayar hutangnya 4. Kami sudah akan mendapat rumah baru menjelang akhir tahun ini Communicative English Course 14
  15. 15. 16 Tenses In English 12. PRESENT FUTURE PERFECT CONTINUOUS TENSE S + will have been + verb 4………since………. S + won’t have been + verb 4…….since………. Will + S + have been + verb 4……since……….? QW + will + S + have been + verb 4….since…..? Example : - Mereka tengah akan belajar sejak pagi besok + They will have been studying since this morning - They won’t have been studying since this morning ? Will they have been studying since this morning ? Translate these sentences into English ! 1. Menjelang akhir tahun ini kami akan sudah mempelajari bahasa inggris selama tiga tahun 2. Menjelang hari natal saya akan sudah bekerja di kantor ini selama lima tahun 3. Menjelang liburan sekolah ini saya sudah mengikuti tes selama 5 kali 4. Menjelang hari raya idul fitri saya sudah akan dua kali pulang ke desa Communicative English Course 15
  16. 16. 16 Tenses In English 13. PAST FUTURE TENSE S + would + V1…IF + S + verb 2………….etc S + wouldn’t + verb 1….+ object…………..etc Would + S + verb 1 ….+ object ……….…..etc ? Example : 1. Saya akan datang ANDAIKATA kamu mengundang saya I would come if you invited me 2. Tom akan melakukan perjalanan JIKAdia punya uang Tom would travel if he had more money Exercise : Translate these sentences into English! 1. Jika saya jadi kamu, saya tidak akan membeli rumah itu 2. Saya akan keluar jika hari tidak hujan 3. Jika saya kaya, saya akan membeli sebuah villa 4. Jika saya dapat berbicara bahasa inggris, saya akan pergi keluar negeri 5. Saya tidak akan keberatan tinggal di Amerika jika cuacanya bagus Communicative English Course 16
  17. 17. 16 Tenses In English 14. PAST FUTURE CINTINUOUS TENSE S + would be + Verb 4……when S + verb 2……….etc S + wouldn’t + be + verb 4….when S + verb 2………etc Would + S + be + verb 4 ….. when S + verb 2……etc ? Example : - Sedianya mereka sedang akan pulang KETIKA kami datang + They would be going home when we came - They wouldn’t be going home when we came ? Would they be going home when we came ? Translate these sentences into English ! 1. Saya akan sedang menempuh ujian hari berikutnya pada waktu itu 2. Kami akan sedang membangun rumah itu pada waktu itu 3. Mereka sedang akan bermain babak kedua pada pertandingan sepakbola waktu itu. Communicative English Course 17
  18. 18. 16 Tenses In English 15. PAST FUTURE PERFECT TENSE S + would have + verb 3…..IF + S + had + verb 3……. S + wouldn’t have + verb 3 ……object………..etc Would + S + have + verb 3 …….object………..etc ? Example : - Ia sudah akan menjadi presiden ANDAIKATA partainya menang dalam pemilihan umum. - He would have become a presiden if his party had won in general election Exercise : Translate these sentences into English! 1. Jika saya telah mengetahui bahwa kamu sakit, saya akan menemuimu 2. Tom tidak akan mengikuti ujian itu jika dia mengetahui bahwa soalnya akan begitu sulit. 3. Jika saya berjumpa dengan mu, saya akan mengatakan hello 4. Jika saya telah mengumpulakan uang, saya akan menikahi mu 5. Saya akan mengirim surat ini jika kamu telah selesai membuatmya Communicative English Course 18
  19. 19. 16 Tenses In English 16. PAST FUTURE PERFECT CONTINUOUS TENSE S + would have + been + verb 4…..IF + S + had + verb 3……. S + wouldn’t have been + verb 4…….object…………etc Would + S + have been + verb 4.. …….object………..etc ? Example : - Sedianya rapat tengah akan dimulai sejak pagi ANDAIKATA walikota sudah datang tepat pada waktunya - The meeting would have been starting since this morning if Mayor had come on time. Exercise : Translate these sentences into English! 1. Sedianya concert itu tengah akan dimulai andaikata artis artis itu datang pada waktunya. 2. Sedianya saya tengah akan tidur andaikata mereka belum datang 3. Andaikata ayah saya telah selesai berbelanja, ibu saya akan memasak makanan itu Communicative English Course 19
  20. 20. 16 Tenses In English 17. Abbreviation (singkatan) 1. I am = I’m 2. You are = You’re 3. We are = We’re 4. They are = They’re 5. He is = He’s 6. She is = She’s 7. It is = It’s 8. Will not = won’t 9. Would not = Wouldn’t 10. Do not = Don’t 11. Does not = Doesn’t 12. Did not = Didn’t 13. Is not = Isn’t 14. Are not = Aren’t 15. Was not = Wasn’t 16. Were not = Weren’t 17. Have not = Haven’t 18. Has not = Hasn’t 19. Had not = Hadn’t 20. Can not = Can’t 21. Could not = Couldn’t 22. Must not = Mustn’t 23. Should not = Shouldn’t 24. Might not = Mightn’t 25. May not = Mayn’t Communicative English Course 20
  21. 21. 16 Tenses In English 18. PASSIVE VOICE (IN POSITIVE FORM) Penjelasan: 1. Kalimat pasif ialah suatu kalimat yang subjeknya dikenai oleh suatu perbuatan atau yang predikatnya berawalan di…/ ter… 2. Kata kerja yang digunakan harus kata kerja transitive, yaitu kata kerja yang bisa diikuti oleh suatu objek atau benda. 3. Rumus kalimat pasif dalam bahasa inggris adalah sebagai berikut: S + To be + V3…………………………………by… 4. To be berfungsi untuk menentukan Tenses dari suatu kalimat dan untuk membentuk awalan : di….atau: ter… 5. To be dapat dijabarkan dalam 16 Tenses (lihatlah 16 Tenses pada rumus kalimat aktif) Pelajarilah Rumus dibawah ini : 1. Present Future Tense: S + will be + V3…by… 2. Present Future Continuous Tense: S + will be + being + V3…by… 3. Present Future Perfect Tense: S + will have been + V3 4. Present Future Perfect Continuous Tense: S + will have been + being + V3…. 5. Simple Present Tense: S + am/is/are + V3… 6. Present Continuous Tense: S + am/is/are + being +V3… 7. Present Perfect Tense: S + have/has + been + V3 8. Present Perfect Continuous Tense: S + have been/has been +being +V3… 9. Past Perfect Tense: S + had been +V3… 10. Past Perfect Continuous Tense: S + had been + being + V3… 11. Simple Past Tense: S + Was/were + V3… 12. Past Continuous Tense: S + was/were + being + V3… Communicative English Course 21
  22. 22. 16 Tenses In English 13. Past Future Tense: S + would be + V3… 14. Past Future Continuous Tense: S + would be being +V3… 15. Past Future Perfect Tense: S + would have been + V3… 16. Past Future Perfect Continuous Tense: S + would have been + being + V3… Penjelasan : 1. Kata kerja yang dipakai dalam kalimat pasif ialah V3 (bukan V1, V2, V4) 2. Tenses dalam kalimat pasifditentukan aleh bentuk To be nya 3. TO BE bisa terdiri dari: a. Satu kata saja (am/is/are/was/were) lihat nomor 5 dan 11. b. Dua kata(will be,have been, has been, had been, would be) lihat nomor1, 7, 9, 13. (am being-is being-are being-was being-were being) no. 6 dan no. 12. c. Tiga kata (will be being, will have been, have been being, has been being, had been being, would be being and would have been) lihat nomor 2, 3, 8, 10, 14 dan 15. d. Empat kata (will have been being dan would have been being ) no. 4 dan 16. 4. Being dalam kalimat pasif menunjukan: Continuous. Communicative English Course 22
  23. 23. 16 Tenses In English 19. PASSIVE – VOICE IN NEGATIVE FORM 1. Present Future Tense S + Won’t be + V3……….(by him)……… = S tak akan di………………… Example : Engkau tak akan dimarahi olehnya. 2. Present Future Continuous Tense S + Won’t be + being + V3…(by them)…. = S tidak sedang akan di………. Example : Rapat tidak sedang akan dimulai oleh mereka pukul 9 besok pagi. 3. Present Future Perfect Tense S + Won’t have been + V3….(by her) = S belum akan di………… Example : Nasi belum akan dimasak olehnya sore ini 4. Present Future Perfect Continuous Tense S + Won’t have been + V3….(by the Bank)……… Example : Rumah itu belum lagi akan disita oleh Bank pada akhir tahun ini. 5. Simple Present Tense S + (am not/isn’t/aren’t) + V3….(by the Judge) Example : Pengacau-pengacau itu tidak dikenakan hukuman oleh Hakim. 6. Present Continuous Tense S + (am not/isn’t/aren’t) + being + V3… (by……) Example : Mobil saya tidak sedang direparasi sekarang 7. Present Perfect Tense S + (hasn’t/haven’t) + been + V3….(by ……..) Example : Saya belum diajak dalam percakapan bahasa Inggris oleh kawan- kawan saya. Communicative English Course 23
  24. 24. 16 Tenses In English 8. Present Perfect Continuous Tense S + (hasn’t/haven’t) + been + being + V3…by….. Example : Korupsi masih belum diberantas oleh pemerintah sejak bertahun-tahun yang lalu. 9. Past Perfect Tense S + hadn’t been + V3…by….. Example : Tomy belum dituduh sebagai penghianat, sebelum Jaksa Agung terbunuh. 10. Past Perfect Continuous Tense S + hadn’t been + being + V3…(by……….) Example : Buchary masih belum dicalonkan Walikota, ketika otonomi dilimpahkan ke-propinsi. 11. Simple Past Tense S + (wasn’t/weren’t) + V3…(by……….) Example : Tindakan keras tidak dilakukan oleh pemerintah terhadap para koruptor. 12. Past Continuous Tense S + (wasn’t/weren’t) + V3…(by……….) Example : Pasien tidak sedang dioperasi ketika ia meninggal kemarin. • No. 13 s/d No. 16, hanya menambahkan kata Not, pada kata bantu yang pertama. Lihat pada 16 Tenses kalimat pasip bentuk berita. Communicative English Course 24
  25. 25. 16 Tenses In English Note : Keterangan pelaku (by me, by us, by him, dst) dan keterangan waktu, bisa dipakai bila diperlukan. Tergantung kepada : kondisi dan situasi dari tiap kalimat yang diucapkan. 20. PASSIVE VOICE IN INTERROGATIVE 1. Present Future Tense Will + S + be + V3…(by..) few years from now ? = Yes/No,……… Example : Apakah Bahasa Inggris akan dipakai di Pontianak ? When + ……………………………… ? = Few years from now. 2. Present Future Continuous Tense Will + S + have been + V3…………… ? = Yes/No,………………... Example : Apakah rapat sedang akan diadakan pukul 9 besok ? What time + ………………... ? = At 9 o’clock. 3. Present Future Perfect Tense Will + S + have been + V3……………? = Yes/No,………………... Example : Apakah pekerjaanmu sudah akan diselesaikan sore ini ? What + …………………….. ? = Your job. 4. Present Future Perfect Continuous Tense Will + S + have been + being + V3………… ? = Yes/No,………………. Example : Apakah norma-norma hukum tengah akan diberlakukan sesudah negara bangkrut ? Why + …………………………... ? = Because none is hones in government. 5. Simple Present Tense (Am /Is/Are) + S + V3……………. ? = Yes/No,……………… Communicative English Course 25
  26. 26. 16 Tenses In English Example : Apakah saya diminta untuk menemani kamu ? By whom + …………………………. ? = By our director. 6. Present Continuous Tense (Am/Is/Are ) + S + being + V3………. ? = Yes/No,………………... Example : Apakah penari-penari itu sedang dijemput sekarang ? Where + ……………………. ? = At the airport. 7. Present Perfect Tense (Has/Have) + S + been + V3 ………… ? = Yes/No,………………... Example : Sudahkah tiket-tiket itu dibeli olehmu ? How many tickets + ……….. ? = 5 tickets 8. Present Perfect Continuous Tense (Has/Have) + S + been + being + V3………. ? = Yes/No,……………… Example : Apakah Budi tengah diopname di rumah sakit ? How long + …………………. ? = For 3 days. 9. Past Perfect Tense Had + S + been + V3………. ? = Yes/No,……………… Example : Apakah perampok-perampok itu sudah tertembak dikakinya sebelum mereka menyerahkan diri ? Who + ………………… ? = The robbers. 10. Past Perfect Continuous Tense Had + S + been + being + V3……………. ? = Yes/No,……………… Example : Apakah ia tengah diperbantukan sebelum kepada Departemen Pendidikan sebelum ia menjadi Menteri ? Communicative English Course 26
  27. 27. 16 Tenses In English How long + …………………. ? = More than 3 year. 11. Simple Past Tense (Were/Was) + S + V3 …………. ? = Yes/No,……………… Example : Apakah masalah Tomy dibicarakan di DPR ? What + ………………………. ? = Tomy’s problem. 12. Past Continuous Tense (Were/Was) + S + being + V3………… ? = Yes/No,……………… Example : Apakah proyek perumahan sedang direncanakan di kota ini ketika saya ada di luar negeri tahun lalu ? By whom + ………………… ? = By the mayor. 13. Past Future Tense : Hanya mengubah : Will dengan Would dan keterangan waktu 14. Past Future Continuous Tense : sama di atas (kalimat dikarang sendiri) 15. Past Future Perfect Tense : sama di atas (kalimat dikarang sendri) 16. Past Future Perfect Continuous Tense : sama di atas (kalimat dikarang sendiri) Communicative English Course 27
  28. 28. 16 Tenses In English 21. CAUSATIVE Dengan HAVE Dan GET Fungsi : I. Menyuruh sesorang untuk mengerjakan sesuatu. II. Menyuruh agar sesuatu dikerjakan oleh orang lain. Bandingkanlah kalimat-kalimat berikut: 1. Tono mengecat rumahnya hari ini. 2. Rumah Tono dicat sendiri olehnya. 3. Tono menyuruh tukang cat mengecatkan rumahnya. 4. Tono mengecatkan rumahnya. Rumus-Rumus Causative: A. S + to have + someone + V1 + … etc Eg: 1. He has a mechanic repair his car today 2. He will have a mechanic repair his car tomorrow 3. He is having a mechanic ………etc now B. S + to have + something + Eg: 1. I had my tooth pulled out yesterday 2. Ali has had his hair cut since yesterday Note : Perubahan Tenses hanya terjadi pada kata kerja to have. (have (has) – had – had – having) C. S + to get + someone + to + V1 + … etc Communicative English Course 28
  29. 29. 16 Tenses In English Eg : 1. He will get me to help him tomorrow 2. He doesn’t get me to come to his house today 3. He has get me to bring a dictionary D. S + to get + somthing + to + V3 + … etc Eg : 1. The girl gets her face made up (dihias) 2. I won’t get my hair cut short. 3. Budi is getting his tooth pulled out now Catatan penting : Something = (sth) = sesuatu benda Someone = (so) = seseorang (object): me, him, … One’s (kepunyaan) = my…, your…, her…, our…, their… Eg = example = contoh. (Eg = example gratia) Communicative English Course 29
  30. 30. 16 Tenses In English THE 16 TENSES Perhatikan perubahan yang terjadi dari Rumus umum ke – TENSES TERTENTU: S + TO HAVE + SOME ONE + V1 + …DST 1. S + will + have + S.O + V1 + … 2. S + will + have had + S.O + V1 + … 3. S + have (has) + S.O + V1 + … 4. S + had + S.O + V1 + … 5. S + have + had + S.O + V1 + … has 6. S + had + had + S.O + V1 + … 7. S + will be + having + S.O + V1 + … 8. S + will + have been + having + S.O + V1 + … 9. S + (am, is, are) + V4 + S.O + V1 + … 10. S + (was, were) + V4 + S.O + V1 + … 11. S + (have been/has been) + having + S.O + V1 + … 12. S + had been + having + S.O + V1 + … 13. S + would + have + S.O + V1 + … 14. S + would be + having + S.O + V1 + … 15. S + would + have had + S.O + V1 + … 16. S + would + have been + having + S.O + … RENUNGKAN: 1. to have, adalah bentuk : Infinitive (=kata kerja pokok) yang berubah menurut Tenses tertentu. (dilahat 16 Tenses diatas). 2. S.O = Some One = adalah Object, dan bukan Subjek. Communicative English Course 30
  31. 31. 16 Tenses In English Jadi: S.O, bisa menjadi = me, you, him, her, us, them. One’s = bisa menjadi : my, your, his, her, our, dsb S = (Subjek), seperti: I, You, He, She, We They, It, dan benda-benda lainnya. (T.V, Radio, Weather, the wind). 3. V1, dalam rumus diatas tidak berubah dalam segala bentuk kalimat dan bentuk Tenses apapun. V1, tetap V1, tidak ada perubahan. 4. V1 V2 V3 V4 have had had having PATTERN EXERCISE: TASK : Make free statements according to the PATTERNS (rumus) below: A. 1. S + didin’t have + me + V1 + … etc Eg : ………………………………………… 2. Do +S + have + Us + V1 ………….? Does Eg : ………………………………………… 3. QW + will + S + have + someone + V1 + … ? Eg : When ………………………………………….. 4. Who + has + someone +V1 + …… ? Eg : Who has ……………………………… 5. Have + someone + V1 + …… ! = suruhlah ……! Eg : …………………………………… B. 1. S + won’t have + one’s house + V3 + … etc Saya tidak akan mengecatkan rumahku. = ………………………………………… Do +S + have + something + V3 …… today ? 2. Does Communicative English Course 31
  32. 32. 16 Tenses In English Apakah Budi mereparasikan mobilnya hari ini ? = ………………………………………………... ? 3. QW + did + S + have + something + V3 + … yesterday Dimana Evi mencabutkan giginya kemarin = ……………………………………………. 4. Who + will have + One’s + sth + V3 + …… ? Siapa yang akan berpoto ? = Who will have one’s picture taken ? One’s picture = seseorang yang belum diketahui. Communicative English Course 32
  33. 33. 16 Tenses In English LIST OF TRANSITIVE – VERB Infinitive Past Present No (Kata Dasar) Past Tense Participle Participle The Meaning in Indonesian: V1 V2 V3 V4 1 to do did done ~ing mengerjkan, melakukan. 2 to have had had having mempunyai 3 to tell told told ~ing mengatakan, menceritakan, menyuruh. 4 to own owned owned ~ing memiliki 5 to read read read ~ing membaca 6 to write wrote written writing menulis 7 to listen listened ~ed ~ing mendengarkan 8 to speak spoke spoken ~ing berbicara, pandai berbahasa 9 to say said said ~ing berkata, mengatakan 10 to ask asked ~ed ~ing bertanya, meminta, menyuruh 11 to answer answered ~ed ~ing menjawab 12 to borrow borrowed ~ed ~ing meminjam (dari) 13 to lend lent lent ~ing meminjamkan (kepada) 14 to give gave given giving memberi (kan) 15 to send sent sent ~ing mengirim, menyuruh 16 to repeat repeated ~ed ~ing mengulang 17 to buy bought bought ~ing membeli 18 to sell sold sold ~ing menjual 19 to present presented ~ed ~ing menyajikan (cerita, materi) 20 to wait (for) waited ~ed ~ing menunggu Communicative English Course 33
  34. 34. 16 Tenses In English 21 to see saw seen ~ing melihat, bertemu, berkenalan 22 to visit visited ~ed ~ing mengunjungi 23 to invite invited ~ed inviting mengundang, mengajak 24 to reject rejected ~ed ~ing menolak 25 to refuse refused ~ed refusing menolak (tawaran, ajakan) 26 to inprove improved ~ed improving memperbaiki, meningkatkan 27 to avoid avoided ~ed ~ing menghindari (kan) 28 to deny denied denied ~ing menyangkal, mambantah 29 to arrange arranged ~ed arranging menyusun, mengatur, merencanakan 30 to plan planned ~ned ~ing merencanakan 31 to make made made making membuat, menyebabkan 32 to build buit built ~ing membangun, mendirikan 33 to burry burried burried ~ing menguburkan 34 to scold scolded ~ed ~ing memarahi 35 to rebuke rebuked ~d rebuking memarahi 36 to bribe bribed ~d bribing menyuap, menyogok 37 to attack attacked ~ed ~ing menyerang 38 to defend defended ~ed ~ing mempertahankan 39 to enforce enforced ~d enforcing memaksa, memberlakukan 40 to learn learnt learnt ~ing belajar 41 to study studied studied ~ing mempelajari 42 to copy copied copied ~ing menyalin 43 to compose composed ~d composing menyusun, mengarang 44 to review reviewed ~ed ~ing mengulang kembali 45 to interview intervived ~ed ~ing mewawancarai 46 to repair repaired ~ed ~ing mereparasi 47 to know knew known ~ing mengetahui, tahu, kenal 48 to understand understood understood ~ing mengerti 49 to take took taken taking mengambil, mengantarkan 50 to eat ate eaten ~ing makan 51 to drink drank drunk ~ing minum 52 to substitute ~d ~d subtituting mengganti 53 to succeed ~ed ~d ~ing berhasil, menggantikan Communicative English Course 34
  35. 35. 16 Tenses In English 54 to devide ~d ~d dividing membagi 55 to nominate ~d ~d nominating mencalonkan 56 to cook ~ed ~ed ~ing memasak 57 to receive ~d ~d receiving menerima 58 to believe ~d ~d believing percaya 59 to agree ~d ~d ~ing setuju 60 to disagree ~d ~d ~ing tidak setuju 61 to propose ~d ~d proposing mengusulkan 62 to oppose ~d ~d opposing menentang, melawan 63 to predict ~ed ~ed ~ing meramalkan 64 to let ~ed ~ed ~ting membiarkan, mengijinkan 65 to put ~ed ~ed ~ting meletakkan 66 to cut ~ed ~ed ~ting memotong 67 to continue ~d ~d ~ing meneruskan, melanjutkan 68 to draw drew drawn ~ing menggambar, menarik 69 to think thought thought ~ing berpikir, berpendapat 70 to express ~ed ~ed ~ing menyatakan, mengutarakan 71 to prove ~d ~d proving membuktikan 72 to remember ~ed ~ed ~ing ingat 73 to remind ~ed ~ed ~ing mengingatkan 74 to warn ~ed ~ed ~ing memperingatkan 75 to memorize ~d ~d memorizing mengingat-ingat, menghafal 76 to forget forgot forgotten ~ting melupakan 77 to admire ~d ~d admiring mengagumi, memuji 78 to praise ~d ~d praising memuji 79 to insult ~ed ~ed ~ing menghina 80 to submit ~ted ~ted ~ting menyerahkan 81 to report ~ed ~ed ~ing melaporkan 82 to open ~ed ~ed ~ing membuka 83 to shut ~ed ~ed ~ting menutup 84 to close ~d ~d closing menutup 85 to mark ~ed ~ed ~ing manandai, memberi tanda 86 to weigh ~ed ~ed ~ing menimbang Communicative English Course 35
  36. 36. 16 Tenses In English 87 to measure ~d ~d measuring mengukur 88 to evaluate ~d ~d evaluating mengevaluasi 89 to taste ~d ~d tasting mencicipi, merasa (dengan lidah) 90 to hold held held ~ing memegang, mengadakan 91 to touch ~ed ~ed ~ing menyentuh, meraba 92 to teach taught taught ~ing mengajar 93 to return ~ed ~ed ~ing mengembalikan 94 to reply replied replied ~ing menjawab 95 to pay ~ed ~ed ~ing membayar 96 to calculate ~d ~d calculating menghitung 97 to throw threw thrown ~ing melempar 98 to hit ~ed ~ed ~ting memukul 99 to beat ~ed ~ed ~ing memukul 100 to bite bit beaten ~ing menggigit 101 to hide hid hid hiding bersembunyi 102 to serve ~d ~d serving melayani, menghidangkan 103 to explain ~ed ~ed ~ing menerangkan 104 to interpret ~ed ~ed ~ing menafsirkan 105 to predict ~ed ~ed ~ing meramalkan 106 to activate ~d ~d activating mengaktifkan, menggiatkan 107 to motivate ~d ~d motivating memotivasi, menggerakan Note : tanda ~ (tilde), ialah tanda yang berarti Kata Dasar (Infinitive) Contoh : to work ……~ ed = worked // ~ ing = working, dst. “to” pada Infinitive, tidak dipakai sebagai predikat dalam suatu kalimat (Lihat Rumus) Communicative English Course 36

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