Metals, Non Metals And Oxidation
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Metals, Non Metals And Oxidation

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    Metals, Non Metals And Oxidation Metals, Non Metals And Oxidation Presentation Transcript

    • Periodic Table Metals, Non-Metals, Groups and Periods
    • Metals
      • Metals are located left of the black line on the periodic table.
      • Metals become cations, they lose electrons. Positive charge.
      • Metals are maleable and ductile and they are also conductors of heat and electricity.
    • Non-Metals
      • Located right of the black line on the periodic table.
      • Non-Metals gain electrons and become negatively charged.
      • Not conductors, brittle (if solid), not ductile.
    • Metaloids
      • Located along the line on the periodic table.
      • Share properties of metals and non-metals.
      • Typically used in electronics.
    • Groups
      • Group IA has a +1 charge, lose 1 electron. Also known as the Alkali Metals.
      • Soft and white and highly reactive.
      • Group IIA has a +2 charge, lose 2 electrons. Also known as the Alkaline Earth Metals. React easily with the halogens to form salts.
    • More Groups
      • Group VIIA has a -1 charge. They gain one electron. This group is known as the halogens. Highly reactive, fluorine is one of the most reactive elements in existence.
      • Group VIIIA are known as the Noble Gases. Full valence electron shell. Non-reactive. Important for use in welding, lighting, and space exploration.
    • Oxidation-Reduction
      • Oxidation is the losing of an electron in a reaction. Original meaning was combining with oxygen.
      • Reduction is the gaining of an electron in a reaction. Original meaning was removing oxygen.
      • LEO says GER or OIL RIG
    • Examples of Oxidation
    • Examples of Oxidation
    • Reduction
    • Oxidation Characteristics
      • Complete loss of electrons
      • Shift of electrons away from an atom
      • Gain of oxygen
      • Increase in oxidation number
    • Characteristics of Reduction
      • Complete gain of electrons
      • Shift of electrons toward an atom
      • Loss of oxygen
      • Decrease in oxidation number
    • Rules for Assigning Oxidation #’s
      • 1. Oxidation number of a monatomic ion is equal to its charge. Ex: Br 1- is -1 and Fe 3+ is +3.
      • 2. Oxidation number of hydrogen in a compound is +1, except in metal hydrides like NaH then it is +1.
      • Oxidation number of oxygen in compounds is -2.
    • continued
      • 4. The oxidation number of an atom in an uncombined elemental form is 0.
      • 5. For any neutral compound the sum of the oxidation numbers must equal zero.
      • For a polyatomic ion, the sum of the oxidation numbers must equal the ionic charge of the ion.
    • Trends in Atomic Radius
    • Octet Rule
      • Atoms, gain or lose electrons so they have 8 electrons in their outer shell.
      • Think in terms of the Noble Gases.
      • Electron configurations will be extremely important to understand here.
      • The s and p sublevels must be full!!!
    • Octet Rule
      • Na is in Group IA. It becomes Na + .
      • Na has 11 electrons, 1 valence electron. Valence electrons are in the outer most shell.
      • If Na + has one less electron, it now has 10. Which element has 10 e? Neon
    • Octet Rule
      • Magnesium has 12 electrons. It is in group IIA. Its oxidation number is +2.
      • Mg becomes Mg 2+
      • It loses 2 e- and now has 10 electrons, it has 8 valence electrons, just like neon.
      • Mg 2+ electron configuration is:
      • 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6
      • Neon’s configuration is 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6
    • Octet Rule
      • Fluorine becomes F -
      • Fluorine has 7 electrons in the valence shell. Gaining one electron gives it 8.
      • It now has 10 total e-, just like neon.
      • What is the electron configuration for this ion?
    • Octet Rule
      • The “A” Group numbers refer to the number of valence electrons.
      • Group IA has 1.
      • Group IIA has 2.
      • Group IIIA has 3.
      • All the way to group VIIIA which has 8.
      • You cannot go higher than VIIIA.
    • Oxidation Numbers
      • For each e- the atom loses, your number is +1. For example, Group IA is +1, Group IIA is +2.
      • For each e- the atom gains, your number is -1. For example, Group VIA is -2, Group VIIA is -1.
    • Oxidation Numbers
      • The oxidation numbers of a neutral compound must equal 0.
      • For example, Na + must combine with something that will have a -1 charge.
      • Na + + Cl -  NaCl
      • (+1) + (-1) =0
      • Mg 2+ + S 2-  MgS
      • (+2) + (-2) = 0