Metals, Non-Metals, Groups and
• Metals are located left of the black line on
the periodic table.
• Metals become cations, they lose
electrons. Positive charge.
• Metals are maleable and ductile and they
are also conductors of heat and electricity.
• Located right of the black line on the
• Non-Metals gain electrons and become
• Not conductors, brittle (if solid), not ductile.
• Located along the line on the periodic
• Share properties of metals and non-
• Typically used in electronics.
• Group IA has a +1 charge, lose 1 electron.
Also known as the Alkali Metals.
• Soft and white and highly reactive.
• Group IIA has a +2 charge, lose 2
electrons. Also known as the Alkaline
Earth Metals. React easily with the
halogens to form salts.
• Group VIIA has a -1 charge. They gain
one electron. This group is known as the
halogens. Highly reactive, fluorine is one
of the most reactive elements in existence.
• Group VIIIA are known as the Noble
Gases. Full valence electron shell. Non-
reactive. Important for use in welding,
lighting, and space exploration.
• Oxidation is the losing of an electron in a
reaction. Original meaning was combining
• Reduction is the gaining of an electron in a
reaction. Original meaning was removing
• LEO says GER or OIL RIG
• Complete loss of electrons
• Shift of electrons away from an atom
• Gain of oxygen
• Increase in oxidation number
Characteristics of Reduction
• Complete gain of electrons
• Shift of electrons toward an atom
• Loss of oxygen
• Decrease in oxidation number
Rules for Assigning Oxidation #’s
• 1. Oxidation number of a monatomic ion
is equal to its charge. Ex: Br1-
is -1 and
• 2. Oxidation number of hydrogen in a
compound is +1, except in metal hydrides
like NaH then it is +1.
• Oxidation number of oxygen in
compounds is -2.
• 4. The oxidation number of an atom in an
uncombined elemental form is 0.
• 5. For any neutral compound the sum of
the oxidation numbers must equal zero.
• For a polyatomic ion, the sum of the
oxidation numbers must equal the ionic
charge of the ion.