Metals, Non Metals And Oxidation

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Metals, Non Metals And Oxidation

  1. 1. Periodic Table Metals, Non-Metals, Groups and Periods
  2. 2. Metals • Metals are located left of the black line on the periodic table. • Metals become cations, they lose electrons. Positive charge. • Metals are maleable and ductile and they are also conductors of heat and electricity.
  3. 3. Non-Metals • Located right of the black line on the periodic table. • Non-Metals gain electrons and become negatively charged. • Not conductors, brittle (if solid), not ductile.
  4. 4. Metaloids • Located along the line on the periodic table. • Share properties of metals and non- metals. • Typically used in electronics.
  5. 5. Groups • Group IA has a +1 charge, lose 1 electron. Also known as the Alkali Metals. • Soft and white and highly reactive. • Group IIA has a +2 charge, lose 2 electrons. Also known as the Alkaline Earth Metals. React easily with the halogens to form salts.
  6. 6. More Groups • Group VIIA has a -1 charge. They gain one electron. This group is known as the halogens. Highly reactive, fluorine is one of the most reactive elements in existence. • Group VIIIA are known as the Noble Gases. Full valence electron shell. Non- reactive. Important for use in welding, lighting, and space exploration.
  7. 7. Oxidation-Reduction • Oxidation is the losing of an electron in a reaction. Original meaning was combining with oxygen. • Reduction is the gaining of an electron in a reaction. Original meaning was removing oxygen. • LEO says GER or OIL RIG
  8. 8. Examples of Oxidation
  9. 9. Examples of Oxidation
  10. 10. Reduction
  11. 11. Oxidation Characteristics • Complete loss of electrons • Shift of electrons away from an atom • Gain of oxygen • Increase in oxidation number
  12. 12. Characteristics of Reduction • Complete gain of electrons • Shift of electrons toward an atom • Loss of oxygen • Decrease in oxidation number
  13. 13. Rules for Assigning Oxidation #’s • 1. Oxidation number of a monatomic ion is equal to its charge. Ex: Br1- is -1 and Fe3+ is +3. • 2. Oxidation number of hydrogen in a compound is +1, except in metal hydrides like NaH then it is +1. • Oxidation number of oxygen in compounds is -2.
  14. 14. continuted • 4. The oxidation number of an atom in an uncombined elemental form is 0. • 5. For any neutral compound the sum of the oxidation numbers must equal zero. • For a polyatomic ion, the sum of the oxidation numbers must equal the ionic charge of the ion.

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