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09 Phrases
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09 Phrases

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    09 Phrases 09 Phrases Presentation Transcript

    • Phrase a group of two or more grammatically linked words without a subject and predicate NOT: teacher both students and BUT: both teacher and students NOT: street across the BUT: across the street NOT: the strange green BUT: the strange green creatures NOT: keen on BUT: keen on football
    • Kinds of Phrases Noun Phrase – comprises a noun and all its modifiers; functions as a subject, an object or a complement.
      • the red-striped tie
      • several beaches
      • these ripe mangoes
      • young and vibrant girls
      • the woman in high-heeled shoes
      • a long, white dress
      • her father
      • the first or second contestant
    • Kinds of Phrases Verb Phrase – comprises a main verb plus one or more helping verbs.
      • has been broken
      • was approved
      • will have been joined
      • am learning
      • can be returned
      • have known
      • could use
      • might say
    • Kinds of Phrases Prepositional Phrase – comprises a preposition and a noun, pronoun, or group of words used as a noun; functions as adjective or adverb.
      • Jam is the student with the highest grade . (adj)
      • Pedra put her bird in its cage . (adv)
      • The man from the shop (adj) is waiting at the corner . (adv)
      • The President of the Philippines (adj) resides in Malacañang . (adv)
    • Kinds of Phrases Adjective Phrase – a phrase with an adjective as its head; expands noun phrases or completes the verbs (acts as the complement).
      • The fans are really enthusiastic . (subjective complement; really-adv + enthusiastic-adj=adjectival phrase)
      • The kids are keen on football . (subjective complement; keen-adj + on football-prep phrase=adjectival phrase)
      • The unusually tall (unusually-adv + tall-adj=adjectival phrase) boy could hardly bend.
      • The long and winding (adjectival phrase) road leads me to your door.
    • Kinds of Phrases Adverb Phrase – a phrase with an adverb as its head; modifies a verb, an adjective or an adverb.
      • John opened the box extremely easily . (modifies the verb opened )
      • The boys will do the project quite soon . (modifies the verb do )
      • Mr. Lee was quite unexpectedly kind . (modifies the adjective kind )
      • Ram came very surprisingly quickly . (modifies the adverb quickly )
    • Kinds of Phrases Appositive Phrase – a phrase re-naming or amplifying a word that immediately precedes it.
      • My favorite uncle, a fine chess player in his own right, has won several national tournaments. (noun phrase as appositive defining uncle )
      • The best exercise, walking briskly, is also the cheapest. (gerund phrase as appositive defining exercise )
      • Jom's goal in life, to become an astronaut, is within his grasp this year, at last. (infinitive phrase as appositive defining goal )
    • Kinds of Phrases Absolute Phrase – comprises a noun or a pronoun and a participle as well as any related modifiers modifying the whole sentence; is set off from the rest of the sentence with a comma or a pair of commas (sometimes by a dash or a pair of dashes).
      • Their reputation as winners secured by victory, the L.A. Lakers charged into the semifinals.
      • [Having been] Stars all their adult lives, Venus and Serena seemed used to the attention. (When the participle of an absolute phrase is a form of to be , such as being or having been , the participle is often left out but understood.)
      • Coach Cris Tiu strolled onto the court, his arms akimbo and a large silver whistle clenched between his teeth . (descriptive prose describing the independent clause)
    • Kinds of Phrases Infinitive Phrase – comprises of an infinitive—the root of the verb preceded by to —and any modifiers or complements associated with it; acts as an adjective, an adverb, or a noun.
      • Mrs. Smith's plan to subsidize child care won wide acceptance among urban politicians. (adjective; modifies plan )
      • Congress wanted to raise taxes . (noun; object of the sentence)
      • To watch the woman tell her story is an eye-opening experience. (noun; subject of the sentence)
      • To know her is to love her . (noun; predicate nominative)
      • Jose went to college to study veterinary medicine . (adverb; tells why he went to college)
    • Kinds of Phrases Gerund Phrase – comprises of the - ing form of verb with modifiers and complements, especially prepositional phrase; functions as a noun.
      • Cramming for tests is not a good study habit. (gerund phrase as subject )
      • Rica enjoyed swimming in the lake after dark . (gerund phrase as object )
      • Joane is not really interested in studying archeology for the rest of her life .
      • (gerund phrase as object of the preposition “in” )
      • Making many acquaintances is cultivating future friendships . (gerund phrase as predicate nominative )
    • Kinds of Phrases Participial Phrase – comprises of the present (- ing) or past (-ed for regular and other forms for irregular verbs) participle of the verb combined with modifiers and complements; always functions as adjective.
      • The wooden steps, having been worn down by generations of students , needed to be replaced. (modifies steps )
      • Working around the clock, the firefighters finally put out the last of the California bush fires. (modifies firefighters )
      • The lake, frozen over since early December, is now safe for ice-skating. (modifies lake )