09 Phrases


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09 Phrases

  1. 1. Phrase a group of two or more grammatically linked words without a subject and predicate NOT: teacher both students and BUT: both teacher and students NOT: street across the BUT: across the street NOT: the strange green BUT: the strange green creatures NOT: keen on BUT: keen on football
  2. 2. Kinds of Phrases Noun Phrase – comprises a noun and all its modifiers; functions as a subject, an object or a complement. <ul><li>the red-striped tie </li></ul><ul><li>several beaches </li></ul><ul><li>these ripe mangoes </li></ul><ul><li>young and vibrant girls </li></ul><ul><li>the woman in high-heeled shoes </li></ul><ul><li>a long, white dress </li></ul><ul><li>her father </li></ul><ul><li>the first or second contestant </li></ul>
  3. 3. Kinds of Phrases Verb Phrase – comprises a main verb plus one or more helping verbs. <ul><li>has been broken </li></ul><ul><li>was approved </li></ul><ul><li>will have been joined </li></ul><ul><li>am learning </li></ul><ul><li>can be returned </li></ul><ul><li>have known </li></ul><ul><li>could use </li></ul><ul><li>might say </li></ul>
  4. 4. Kinds of Phrases Prepositional Phrase – comprises a preposition and a noun, pronoun, or group of words used as a noun; functions as adjective or adverb. <ul><li>Jam is the student with the highest grade . (adj) </li></ul><ul><li>Pedra put her bird in its cage . (adv) </li></ul><ul><li>The man from the shop (adj) is waiting at the corner . (adv) </li></ul><ul><li>The President of the Philippines (adj) resides in Malacañang . (adv) </li></ul>
  5. 5. Kinds of Phrases Adjective Phrase – a phrase with an adjective as its head; expands noun phrases or completes the verbs (acts as the complement). <ul><li>The fans are really enthusiastic . (subjective complement; really-adv + enthusiastic-adj=adjectival phrase) </li></ul><ul><li>The kids are keen on football . (subjective complement; keen-adj + on football-prep phrase=adjectival phrase) </li></ul><ul><li>The unusually tall (unusually-adv + tall-adj=adjectival phrase) boy could hardly bend. </li></ul><ul><li>The long and winding (adjectival phrase) road leads me to your door. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Kinds of Phrases Adverb Phrase – a phrase with an adverb as its head; modifies a verb, an adjective or an adverb. <ul><li>John opened the box extremely easily . (modifies the verb opened ) </li></ul><ul><li>The boys will do the project quite soon . (modifies the verb do ) </li></ul><ul><li>Mr. Lee was quite unexpectedly kind . (modifies the adjective kind ) </li></ul><ul><li>Ram came very surprisingly quickly . (modifies the adverb quickly ) </li></ul>
  7. 7. Kinds of Phrases Appositive Phrase – a phrase re-naming or amplifying a word that immediately precedes it. <ul><li>My favorite uncle, a fine chess player in his own right, has won several national tournaments. (noun phrase as appositive defining uncle ) </li></ul><ul><li>The best exercise, walking briskly, is also the cheapest. (gerund phrase as appositive defining exercise ) </li></ul><ul><li>Jom's goal in life, to become an astronaut, is within his grasp this year, at last. (infinitive phrase as appositive defining goal ) </li></ul>
  8. 8. Kinds of Phrases Absolute Phrase – comprises a noun or a pronoun and a participle as well as any related modifiers modifying the whole sentence; is set off from the rest of the sentence with a comma or a pair of commas (sometimes by a dash or a pair of dashes). <ul><li>Their reputation as winners secured by victory, the L.A. Lakers charged into the semifinals. </li></ul><ul><li>[Having been] Stars all their adult lives, Venus and Serena seemed used to the attention. (When the participle of an absolute phrase is a form of to be , such as being or having been , the participle is often left out but understood.) </li></ul><ul><li>Coach Cris Tiu strolled onto the court, his arms akimbo and a large silver whistle clenched between his teeth . (descriptive prose describing the independent clause) </li></ul>
  9. 9. Kinds of Phrases Infinitive Phrase – comprises of an infinitive—the root of the verb preceded by to —and any modifiers or complements associated with it; acts as an adjective, an adverb, or a noun. <ul><li>Mrs. Smith's plan to subsidize child care won wide acceptance among urban politicians. (adjective; modifies plan ) </li></ul><ul><li>Congress wanted to raise taxes . (noun; object of the sentence) </li></ul><ul><li>To watch the woman tell her story is an eye-opening experience. (noun; subject of the sentence) </li></ul><ul><li>To know her is to love her . (noun; predicate nominative) </li></ul><ul><li>Jose went to college to study veterinary medicine . (adverb; tells why he went to college) </li></ul>
  10. 10. Kinds of Phrases Gerund Phrase – comprises of the - ing form of verb with modifiers and complements, especially prepositional phrase; functions as a noun. <ul><li>Cramming for tests is not a good study habit. (gerund phrase as subject ) </li></ul><ul><li>Rica enjoyed swimming in the lake after dark . (gerund phrase as object ) </li></ul><ul><li>Joane is not really interested in studying archeology for the rest of her life .
  11. 11. (gerund phrase as object of the preposition “in” ) </li></ul><ul><li>Making many acquaintances is cultivating future friendships . (gerund phrase as predicate nominative ) </li></ul>
  12. 12. Kinds of Phrases Participial Phrase – comprises of the present (- ing) or past (-ed for regular and other forms for irregular verbs) participle of the verb combined with modifiers and complements; always functions as adjective. <ul><li>The wooden steps, having been worn down by generations of students , needed to be replaced. (modifies steps ) </li></ul><ul><li>Working around the clock, the firefighters finally put out the last of the California bush fires. (modifies firefighters ) </li></ul><ul><li>The lake, frozen over since early December, is now safe for ice-skating. (modifies lake ) </li></ul>