Phrase a group of two or more grammatically linked words without a subject and predicate NOT: teacher both students and BUT: both teacher and students NOT: street across the BUT: across the street NOT: the strange green BUT: the strange green creatures NOT: keen on BUT: keen on football
Kinds of Phrases Noun Phrase – comprises a noun and all its modifiers; functions as a subject, an object or a complement.
the red-striped tie
these ripe mangoes
young and vibrant girls
the woman in high-heeled shoes
a long, white dress
the first or second contestant
Kinds of Phrases Verb Phrase – comprises a main verb plus one or more helping verbs.
has been broken
will have been joined
can be returned
Kinds of Phrases Prepositional Phrase – comprises a preposition and a noun, pronoun, or group of words used as a noun; functions as adjective or adverb.
Jam is the student with the highest grade . (adj)
Pedra put her bird in its cage . (adv)
The man from the shop (adj) is waiting at the corner . (adv)
The President of the Philippines (adj) resides in Malacañang . (adv)
Kinds of Phrases Adjective Phrase – a phrase with an adjective as its head; expands noun phrases or completes the verbs (acts as the complement).
The fans are really enthusiastic . (subjective complement; really-adv + enthusiastic-adj=adjectival phrase)
The kids are keen on football . (subjective complement; keen-adj + on football-prep phrase=adjectival phrase)
The unusually tall (unusually-adv + tall-adj=adjectival phrase) boy could hardly bend.
The long and winding (adjectival phrase) road leads me to your door.
Kinds of Phrases Adverb Phrase – a phrase with an adverb as its head; modifies a verb, an adjective or an adverb.
John opened the box extremely easily . (modifies the verb opened )
The boys will do the project quite soon . (modifies the verb do )
Mr. Lee was quite unexpectedly kind . (modifies the adjective kind )
Ram came very surprisingly quickly . (modifies the adverb quickly )
Kinds of Phrases Appositive Phrase – a phrase re-naming or amplifying a word that immediately precedes it.
My favorite uncle, a fine chess player in his own right, has won several national tournaments. (noun phrase as appositive defining uncle )
The best exercise, walking briskly, is also the cheapest. (gerund phrase as appositive defining exercise )
Jom's goal in life, to become an astronaut, is within his grasp this year, at last. (infinitive phrase as appositive defining goal )
Kinds of Phrases Absolute Phrase – comprises a noun or a pronoun and a participle as well as any related modifiers modifying the whole sentence; is set off from the rest of the sentence with a comma or a pair of commas (sometimes by a dash or a pair of dashes).
Their reputation as winners secured by victory, the L.A. Lakers charged into the semifinals.
[Having been] Stars all their adult lives, Venus and Serena seemed used to the attention. (When the participle of an absolute phrase is a form of to be , such as being or having been , the participle is often left out but understood.)
Coach Cris Tiu strolled onto the court, his arms akimbo and a large silver whistle clenched between his teeth . (descriptive prose describing the independent clause)
Kinds of Phrases Infinitive Phrase – comprises of an infinitive—the root of the verb preceded by to —and any modifiers or complements associated with it; acts as an adjective, an adverb, or a noun.
Mrs. Smith's plan to subsidize child care won wide acceptance among urban politicians. (adjective; modifies plan )
Congress wanted to raise taxes . (noun; object of the sentence)
To watch the woman tell her story is an eye-opening experience. (noun; subject of the sentence)
To know her is to love her . (noun; predicate nominative)
Jose went to college to study veterinary medicine . (adverb; tells why he went to college)
Kinds of Phrases Gerund Phrase – comprises of the - ing form of verb with modifiers and complements, especially prepositional phrase; functions as a noun.
Cramming for tests is not a good study habit. (gerund phrase as subject )
Rica enjoyed swimming in the lake after dark . (gerund phrase as object )
Joane is not really interested in studying archeology for the rest of her life .
(gerund phrase as object of the preposition “in” )
Making many acquaintances is cultivating future friendships . (gerund phrase as predicate nominative )
Kinds of Phrases Participial Phrase – comprises of the present (- ing) or past (-ed for regular and other forms for irregular verbs) participle of the verb combined with modifiers and complements; always functions as adjective.
The wooden steps, having been worn down by generations of students , needed to be replaced. (modifies steps )
Working around the clock, the firefighters finally put out the last of the California bush fires. (modifies firefighters )
The lake, frozen over since early December, is now safe for ice-skating. (modifies lake )