Animal nutrition
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

Like this? Share it with your network

Share
  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
    Be the first to comment
No Downloads

Views

Total Views
2,707
On Slideshare
2,703
From Embeds
4
Number of Embeds
2

Actions

Shares
Downloads
172
Comments
0
Likes
3

Embeds 4

http://www.slideshare.net 2
https://www.linkedin.com 2

Report content

Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
    No notes for slide

Transcript

  • 1. Animal Nutrition
  • 2. Need for Nourishment
    • body processes require the use of energy
    • obtained from ingested food or stored fat
    • animal must have food to store energy in fat cells
  • 3. Need for Nourishment
    • animals spend most of their time in search of food
    • maintenance ration must be met first
  • 4. Need for Nourishment
    • wild animals eat a variety of foods to obtain proper nutrients
    • agricultural animals depend on the producer to provide balanced a ration
  • 5. Feedstuff
    • one component of a feed ration
    • not normally fed by itself
  • 6. Nutrients
    • water
    • protein
    • carbohydrates
  • 7. Nutrients
    • fats or lipids
    • vitamins
    • minerals
  • 8. Metabolism
    • all the chemical and physical processes that take place in the body
  • 9. Metabolism
    • anabolism - metabolism that builds tissue
    • catabolism - metabolism that breaks down materials
  • 10. Water
    • most abundant compound in the world
    • animals must have frequent intakes of water to remain alive
  • 11. Water
    • provides basis for all of the fluid of the animals body
    • bloodstream requires liquid for circulation
  • 12. Water
    • digestion requires moisture for breakdown of nutrients and movement of feed
    • needed to produce milk
  • 13. Water
    • provides cells with pressure to allow them to hold their shape
    • helps body to maintain constant temperature
  • 14. Water
    • flushes the animal’s body of waste and toxic materials
    • a loss of 20% of body water will result in death
  • 15. Water
    • animals generally need about three pounds of water for every pound of solid feed they consume
  • 16. Protein
    • largest and most costly part of the ration
    • composed of amino acids
  • 17. Amino Acids
    • building blocks of life
    • tissue development
    • muscle production
  • 18. Protein
    • enzymes are composed of protein
    • protein can be used to supply energy
  • 19. Protein
    • some animals need more protein than others
    • young animals
    • lactating (milk producing) animals
  • 20. Protein
    • twenty three types of amino acids
    • ten essential
    • thirteen nonessential
  • 21. Protein
    • crude protein content
    • total amount of protein in a feed
    • calculated by multiplying nitrogen content percentage times 6.25
  • 22. Protein
    • digestible protein
    • the protein in a feed that can be digested and used by the animal
    • usually about 50-80% of crude protein
  • 23. Protein
    • protein sources
    • animal
    • slaughterhouse by products
    • dried fish meal
  • 24. Protein
    • plant
    • superior to animal sources
    • cottonseed meal
    • soybean meal, linseed meal
    • peanut meal, corn meal
  • 25. Protein
    • balancing rations is based on the amino acid content
  • 26. Carbohydrates
    • main source of energy
    • compounds of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen
    • include sugars, starches and cellulose
  • 27. Carbohydrates
    • almost all come from plants
    • generally found in grain
    • wheat
    • oats
    • barley
  • 28. Carbohydrates
    • types of sugars
    • monosaccharides - simple sugars
    • glucose
    • fructose, galactose
  • 29. Carbohydrates
    • disaccharides - complex sugars
    • sucrose
    • lactose
  • 30. Fats
    • group of organic compounds known as lipids
    • found in plants and animals
    • provide and store energy
  • 31. Fats
    • essential fatty acids: necessary for production of some hormones and hormone like substances
  • 32. Fats
    • most important sources are the grains that contain oil
  • 33. Minerals
    • inorganic
    • have role in providing structural support for the animal
    • bones (calcium and phosphorous)
  • 34. Minerals
    • egg shells (calcium)
    • other essential needs provided by minerals
    • aid in construction of muscles, blood cells, internal organs and enzymes
  • 35. Minerals
    • mineral elements required
    • macro - 7
    • micro - 9
  • 36. Minerals
    • usually added to feed in their chemical form
    • often fed free choice
    • mineral ox or trough
    • salt block
  • 37. Vitamins
    • considered micronutrients
    • essential for the development of normal body processes
  • 38. Vitamins
    • health
    • growth
    • production
    • reproduction
  • 39. Vitamins
    • provides animal with ability to fight stress, disease, and to maintain good health
  • 40. Vitamin A
    • fat soluble
    • converted from carotene
  • 41. Vitamin D
    • fat soluble
    • depends on ultraviolet light for synthesis
    • can be made commercially from irradiated yeast
  • 42. Vitamin E
    • fat soluble
    • found in several forms of the organic compound tocopherol
  • 43. Vitamin K
    • fat soluble
    • utilized to form the enzyme prothrombin
    • synthesized in rumen and monogastric intestinal tract
  • 44. Vitamins
    • thiamine: coenzyme in energy metabolism
    • riboflavin: part of two coenzymes that function in energy and protein metabolism
  • 45. Vitamins
    • pantothenic acid: component of coenzyme A
    • niacin: involved in metabolism of far, carbs and proteins
  • 46. Vitamins
    • pyridoxine: coenzyme component
    • biotin: part of enzyme involved in fatty acid synthesis
  • 47. Vitamins
    • folic acid: needed in body cell metabolism
    • choline: component of fats and nerve tissues
    • needed at greater levels than other vitamins
  • 48. Vitamins
    • B12: coenzyme in several metabolic reactions
    • essential part of red blood cell maturation
  • 49. Vitamins
    • inositol: found in all feeds and synthesized in the intestine
    • para-aminobenzoic acid (PABA): function no well known
  • 50. Vitamins
    • C: essential in the formation of collagen
  • 51. Digestion
    • nutrients are converted to a form that the cells can use
    • nutrients are transported by digestive system
  • 52. Digestion
    • gastrointestinal tract
    • organs that make up the digestive system
    • also referred to as the alimentary canal
  • 53. Monogastric system
    • has only one compartment to the stomach
    • process goes through the:
    • mouth
    • esophagus
  • 54. Monogastric system
    • stomach
    • small intestine: duodenum, jejunum, ileum
  • 55. Monogastric system
    • large intestine: cecum, colon, rectum
  • 56. Monogastric system
    • humans
    • dogs
    • cats
    • horses
  • 57. Ruminant system
    • multicompartment stomach
    • ruminant animals are often called “cud chewers”
    • no upper front teeth in ruminant mouth
  • 58. Ruminant system
    • no enzymes in the saliva
    • examples of ruminant animals:
    • cows, sheep, goats
  • 59. Rumen Compartments
    • Reticulum
    • has appearance of a honeycomb
  • 60. Reticulum
    • traps dangerous objects and prevents them from proceeding through the rest of the tract.
    • Called hardware disease: cow eats wire, nails, staples
  • 61. Reticulum
    • stores, sorts, and moves feed back to the esophagus for regurgitation (throwing up)
  • 62. Rumen
    • functions as a storage vat
    • food is soaked, mixed, and fermented
  • 63. Rumen
    • some absorption of nutrients
    • some breakdown of feed through microbial action
  • 64. Omasum
    • grinds roughage
  • 65. Abomasum
    • only true stomach
    • functions similarly to a monogastric stomach