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  • 1. Animal Nutrition
  • 2. Need for Nourishment
    • body processes require the use of energy
    • obtained from ingested food or stored fat
    • animal must have food to store energy in fat cells
  • 3. Need for Nourishment
    • animals spend most of their time in search of food
    • maintenance ration must be met first
  • 4. Need for Nourishment
    • wild animals eat a variety of foods to obtain proper nutrients
    • agricultural animals depend on the producer to provide balanced a ration
  • 5. Feedstuff
    • one component of a feed ration
    • not normally fed by itself
  • 6. Nutrients
    • water
    • protein
    • carbohydrates
  • 7. Nutrients
    • fats or lipids
    • vitamins
    • minerals
  • 8. Metabolism
    • all the chemical and physical processes that take place in the body
  • 9. Metabolism
    • anabolism - metabolism that builds tissue
    • catabolism - metabolism that breaks down materials
  • 10. Water
    • most abundant compound in the world
    • animals must have frequent intakes of water to remain alive
  • 11. Water
    • provides basis for all of the fluid of the animals body
    • bloodstream requires liquid for circulation
  • 12. Water
    • digestion requires moisture for breakdown of nutrients and movement of feed
    • needed to produce milk
  • 13. Water
    • provides cells with pressure to allow them to hold their shape
    • helps body to maintain constant temperature
  • 14. Water
    • flushes the animal’s body of waste and toxic materials
    • a loss of 20% of body water will result in death
  • 15. Water
    • animals generally need about three pounds of water for every pound of solid feed they consume
  • 16. Protein
    • largest and most costly part of the ration
    • composed of amino acids
  • 17. Amino Acids
    • building blocks of life
    • tissue development
    • muscle production
  • 18. Protein
    • enzymes are composed of protein
    • protein can be used to supply energy
  • 19. Protein
    • some animals need more protein than others
    • young animals
    • lactating (milk producing) animals
  • 20. Protein
    • twenty three types of amino acids
    • ten essential
    • thirteen nonessential
  • 21. Protein
    • crude protein content
    • total amount of protein in a feed
    • calculated by multiplying nitrogen content percentage times 6.25
  • 22. Protein
    • digestible protein
    • the protein in a feed that can be digested and used by the animal
    • usually about 50-80% of crude protein
  • 23. Protein
    • protein sources
    • animal
    • slaughterhouse by products
    • dried fish meal
  • 24. Protein
    • plant
    • superior to animal sources
    • cottonseed meal
    • soybean meal, linseed meal
    • peanut meal, corn meal
  • 25. Protein
    • balancing rations is based on the amino acid content
  • 26. Carbohydrates
    • main source of energy
    • compounds of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen
    • include sugars, starches and cellulose
  • 27. Carbohydrates
    • almost all come from plants
    • generally found in grain
    • wheat
    • oats
    • barley
  • 28. Carbohydrates
    • types of sugars
    • monosaccharides - simple sugars
    • glucose
    • fructose, galactose
  • 29. Carbohydrates
    • disaccharides - complex sugars
    • sucrose
    • lactose
  • 30. Fats
    • group of organic compounds known as lipids
    • found in plants and animals
    • provide and store energy
  • 31. Fats
    • essential fatty acids: necessary for production of some hormones and hormone like substances
  • 32. Fats
    • most important sources are the grains that contain oil
  • 33. Minerals
    • inorganic
    • have role in providing structural support for the animal
    • bones (calcium and phosphorous)
  • 34. Minerals
    • egg shells (calcium)
    • other essential needs provided by minerals
    • aid in construction of muscles, blood cells, internal organs and enzymes
  • 35. Minerals
    • mineral elements required
    • macro - 7
    • micro - 9
  • 36. Minerals
    • usually added to feed in their chemical form
    • often fed free choice
    • mineral ox or trough
    • salt block
  • 37. Vitamins
    • considered micronutrients
    • essential for the development of normal body processes
  • 38. Vitamins
    • health
    • growth
    • production
    • reproduction
  • 39. Vitamins
    • provides animal with ability to fight stress, disease, and to maintain good health
  • 40. Vitamin A
    • fat soluble
    • converted from carotene
  • 41. Vitamin D
    • fat soluble
    • depends on ultraviolet light for synthesis
    • can be made commercially from irradiated yeast
  • 42. Vitamin E
    • fat soluble
    • found in several forms of the organic compound tocopherol
  • 43. Vitamin K
    • fat soluble
    • utilized to form the enzyme prothrombin
    • synthesized in rumen and monogastric intestinal tract
  • 44. Vitamins
    • thiamine: coenzyme in energy metabolism
    • riboflavin: part of two coenzymes that function in energy and protein metabolism
  • 45. Vitamins
    • pantothenic acid: component of coenzyme A
    • niacin: involved in metabolism of far, carbs and proteins
  • 46. Vitamins
    • pyridoxine: coenzyme component
    • biotin: part of enzyme involved in fatty acid synthesis
  • 47. Vitamins
    • folic acid: needed in body cell metabolism
    • choline: component of fats and nerve tissues
    • needed at greater levels than other vitamins
  • 48. Vitamins
    • B12: coenzyme in several metabolic reactions
    • essential part of red blood cell maturation
  • 49. Vitamins
    • inositol: found in all feeds and synthesized in the intestine
    • para-aminobenzoic acid (PABA): function no well known
  • 50. Vitamins
    • C: essential in the formation of collagen
  • 51. Digestion
    • nutrients are converted to a form that the cells can use
    • nutrients are transported by digestive system
  • 52. Digestion
    • gastrointestinal tract
    • organs that make up the digestive system
    • also referred to as the alimentary canal
  • 53. Monogastric system
    • has only one compartment to the stomach
    • process goes through the:
    • mouth
    • esophagus
  • 54. Monogastric system
    • stomach
    • small intestine: duodenum, jejunum, ileum
  • 55. Monogastric system
    • large intestine: cecum, colon, rectum
  • 56. Monogastric system
    • humans
    • dogs
    • cats
    • horses
  • 57. Ruminant system
    • multicompartment stomach
    • ruminant animals are often called “cud chewers”
    • no upper front teeth in ruminant mouth
  • 58. Ruminant system
    • no enzymes in the saliva
    • examples of ruminant animals:
    • cows, sheep, goats
  • 59. Rumen Compartments
    • Reticulum
    • has appearance of a honeycomb
  • 60. Reticulum
    • traps dangerous objects and prevents them from proceeding through the rest of the tract.
    • Called hardware disease: cow eats wire, nails, staples
  • 61. Reticulum
    • stores, sorts, and moves feed back to the esophagus for regurgitation (throwing up)
  • 62. Rumen
    • functions as a storage vat
    • food is soaked, mixed, and fermented
  • 63. Rumen
    • some absorption of nutrients
    • some breakdown of feed through microbial action
  • 64. Omasum
    • grinds roughage
  • 65. Abomasum
    • only true stomach
    • functions similarly to a monogastric stomach