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Motivation Motivation Presentation Transcript

  • MOTIVATION CSH Pharma Group
  • Motivation The act or process of stimulating to action, providing an incentive or motive, especially for an act.
  • What Motivates you? View slide
  • What Motivates Employees to Stay
    • Career growth, learning,
    • development
    • Exciting work – challenge
    • Meaningful work
    • Great people
    • Part of a team
    • Good boss
    • Recognition
    • Fun
    • Autonomy
    View slide
    • Flexibility
    • Fair pay & benefits
    • Inspiring leadership
    • Pride organization/mission/product
    • quality
    • Work environment
    • Location
    • Job security
    • Family-friendly employer
    • Cutting edge technology
  • Theories of motivation
  • Theories of motivation fall into three categories:
    • Classical theory & scientific
    • management
    • Behavior theory
    • Contemporary motivation theories
    • Classical Theory of Motivation
    • Oldest theory of motivation (early 20th century)
    • – asserts that workers are motivated only by money
    • • suggested that employees would work harder if they
    • were paid more they were paid more
    • – and firms that found the most efficient methods of and
    • firms that found the most efficient methods of
    • production would do better than others
    • – this became known as scientific management
    • – led to a multitude of “time and motion ” studies to
    • discover the optimal way to perform a task
    • Behaviour Theory
    • says that ANY attention paid to employees increases productivity – productivity goes up if employees think management is paying attention! • experimental studies found that: – increasing/decreasing lighting had same effect – changing pay did not improve productivity
    • Contemporary Motivation Theories
    • • contemporary essentially means “modern”
    • • these theories focus on importance of
    • good human relations in motivating
    • employees
    • • several modern theories have
    • arisen
    • HR model: Theory X and Theory Y
    • Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs
    • two-factor theory
    • expectancy theory
    • equity theory
    • goal setting theory
    • Human Resources Model
    • McGregor studied managers’ attitudes
    • toward human resources
    • – discovered two broad types of attitudes
    • Summarized them as
    • – Theory X : people do not want to work and need
    • incentives to do so
    • • implies employees are basically lazy
    • – Theory Y : hypothesizes that people are self-motivated
    • and want to succeed
    • • says people do not need to be forced to excel
    • Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Model
    • says people have several levels of needs – physiological – security – social – esteem – self-actualization • Maslow said workers are motivated by their lowest level of unattained needs – e.g. once someone’s physiological needs are satisfied, they are motivated by their security needs
  • Maslow’s hierarchy of human needs.
  • • suggests that job satisfaction depends on two factors • hygiene factors hygiene relate to working conditions – good working conditions ensure that no dissatisfaction exists • motivating factors motivating relate to recognition, achievement, and responsibility – motivating factors enhance employee satisfaction
    • Two-Factor Theory
    • Expectancy Theory
    • says people work toward goals they have a reasonable expectation of achieving – cannot motivate people with rewards for goals they do not expect to attain • three types of issues affect expectations: - effort-performance issues - performance-reward issues - rewards-personal goals issues
    • Equity Theory
    • focuses on the concept of “ fairness” • employees look at how they are treated on two fronts: – inputs vs. outputs: am I getting as much out of this job as I put into it? – am I getting as much out of my job as those who perform similar tasks for this firm? • employees who see themselves as being treated unfairly often act to “tip the scales”
  • Goal Setting Theory • strives to discover the types of goals that best motivate employees • two characteristics of effective goals: – they are difficult but attainable – they are specific: a quantifiable target is set • e.g. “increase output by 10% ” rather than rather than “do your best” • goals are most effective if employees have a hand in defining them
  • Enhancing Job Satisfaction & Morale • have to have to use knowledge about motivation – what can agribusinesses do to keep morale high & keep employees satisfied? • 6 types of programs are commonly used: – reinforcement/ behaviour modification – management by objectives – participative management – team management – job enrichment & job redesign – modified work schedules
  • • involves a system of rewards and punishments to elicit desired behaviour • reinforcement is associating specific outcomes with specific outcomes with specific behaviours – can be can be “positive positive” or “negative negative” • firms can also punish employees for improper or undesirable behaviour Modification Theory
    • Reinforcement/Behaviour
  • • system of collaborative goal setting – extends from organization’s top to its bottom • involves managers & employees in setting goals and evaluating progress – employees feel more involved and empowered when they are part of decision making
    • Management By Objectives
    • Participative Management
    • management philosophy whereby workers have a voice in management of the firm – help define their own jobs – participate in traditional management decisions • this can be a key method for empowering workers – helps them feel more important to the firm
    • Team Management
    • Employees may be given responsibility for making narrow decisions – e.g. how to divide tasks co-workers workers • workers also part of bigger decisions production scheduling – work procedures – hiring of new people
    • Job Enrichment & Job Redesign
    • job enrichment adds motivating factors to existing job activities – e.g. provide more responsibility or decision making authority • job redesign allows employees to reshape some of their duties to provide a better “ fit” – three common ways to do this: • combining tasks • forming natural workgroups • establishing client relationships
    • Modified Work Schedules
    • many firms allow flexible work schedules to accommodate a changing workforce 4 main types of modified work schedules: – flextime – compressed workweek – telecommuting – work share programs • modified work schedules help employees balance their personal & professional lives
  • Great Motivators • Full appreciation for job well done • Be part of decisions • Open communications • Interesting & meaningful work • Good relationships at work
    • Appreciate the Employee
    • Stress the positives • Say “Thank You!” • Praise workers for going the extra mile • Reward Employees – “You get what you reward” • Train-Train-Train
    • Include In Decisions
    • Ask how you can use more of their talents • Ask what they would change • Ask for their ideas and how you can put the ideas into action
    • Communicate!
    • Tell them exactly what you want – Then let them do it! • How can I help you succeed? • Discuss organization and individual goals – Ask about their goals • Share information – Let them know what is happening • Refuse to gossip
    • Meaningful Work
    • 75% of employees think they have a direct impact on organization’s success • Tell them how their job is important • Cross-train
    • Good Relationships At Work
    • Get to know your employees • Be sure everyone shares information • Apply the same standards to everyone • Continually stress equal, fair treatment for all • Celebrate! – Have fun!
  • Guidelines
    • Emphasize successes – not failure
    • Deliver recognition/reward openly and publicize it
    • Tailor recognition to needs of individual
    • Immediate recognition
    • Be honest and personal when you recognize
    • performance
    • Ensure direct connection between reward and effort
    • Recognize those who recognize others
  • Rewards • Monetary – raise/bonus (merit/one time merit) • Administrative time off • Office party/brunch/luncheon • Certificates/mementos • Training opportunities
  • AND . . . Don’t Forget • Mentor employees • Coach employees • Discuss performance throughout the year