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Former Soliers   Work By The Cwwpp 2008 08
Former Soliers   Work By The Cwwpp 2008 08
Former Soliers   Work By The Cwwpp 2008 08
Former Soliers   Work By The Cwwpp 2008 08
Former Soliers   Work By The Cwwpp 2008 08
Former Soliers   Work By The Cwwpp 2008 08
Former Soliers   Work By The Cwwpp 2008 08
Former Soliers   Work By The Cwwpp 2008 08
Former Soliers   Work By The Cwwpp 2008 08
Former Soliers   Work By The Cwwpp 2008 08
Former Soliers   Work By The Cwwpp 2008 08
Former Soliers   Work By The Cwwpp 2008 08
Former Soliers   Work By The Cwwpp 2008 08
Former Soliers   Work By The Cwwpp 2008 08
Former Soliers   Work By The Cwwpp 2008 08
Former Soliers   Work By The Cwwpp 2008 08
Former Soliers   Work By The Cwwpp 2008 08
Former Soliers   Work By The Cwwpp 2008 08
Former Soliers   Work By The Cwwpp 2008 08
Former Soliers   Work By The Cwwpp 2008 08
Former Soliers   Work By The Cwwpp 2008 08
Former Soliers   Work By The Cwwpp 2008 08
Former Soliers   Work By The Cwwpp 2008 08
Former Soliers   Work By The Cwwpp 2008 08
Former Soliers   Work By The Cwwpp 2008 08
Former Soliers   Work By The Cwwpp 2008 08
Former Soliers   Work By The Cwwpp 2008 08
Former Soliers   Work By The Cwwpp 2008 08
Former Soliers   Work By The Cwwpp 2008 08
Former Soliers   Work By The Cwwpp 2008 08
Former Soliers   Work By The Cwwpp 2008 08
Former Soliers   Work By The Cwwpp 2008 08
Former Soliers   Work By The Cwwpp 2008 08
Former Soliers   Work By The Cwwpp 2008 08
Former Soliers   Work By The Cwwpp 2008 08
Former Soliers   Work By The Cwwpp 2008 08
Former Soliers   Work By The Cwwpp 2008 08
Former Soliers   Work By The Cwwpp 2008 08
Former Soliers   Work By The Cwwpp 2008 08
Former Soliers   Work By The Cwwpp 2008 08
Former Soliers   Work By The Cwwpp 2008 08
Former Soliers   Work By The Cwwpp 2008 08
Former Soliers   Work By The Cwwpp 2008 08
Former Soliers   Work By The Cwwpp 2008 08
Former Soliers   Work By The Cwwpp 2008 08
Former Soliers   Work By The Cwwpp 2008 08
Former Soliers   Work By The Cwwpp 2008 08
Former Soliers   Work By The Cwwpp 2008 08
Former Soliers   Work By The Cwwpp 2008 08
Former Soliers   Work By The Cwwpp 2008 08
Former Soliers   Work By The Cwwpp 2008 08
Former Soliers   Work By The Cwwpp 2008 08
Former Soliers   Work By The Cwwpp 2008 08
Former Soliers   Work By The Cwwpp 2008 08
Former Soliers   Work By The Cwwpp 2008 08
Former Soliers   Work By The Cwwpp 2008 08
Former Soliers   Work By The Cwwpp 2008 08
Former Soliers   Work By The Cwwpp 2008 08
Former Soliers   Work By The Cwwpp 2008 08
Former Soliers   Work By The Cwwpp 2008 08
Former Soliers   Work By The Cwwpp 2008 08
Former Soliers   Work By The Cwwpp 2008 08
Former Soliers   Work By The Cwwpp 2008 08
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Former Soliers Work By The Cwwpp 2008 08

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Problems of former soldiers

Problems of former soldiers

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  • 1. Coalition for Work with Psychotrauma and Peace www.cwwpp.org [email_address]
  • 2. <ul><li>In Croatia </li></ul><ul><ul><li>M. Drzica 12 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>32000 Vukovar </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>+385-32-441975 (telephone and fax) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>E-Mail [email_address] </li></ul></ul><ul><li>In The Netherlands </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ds. S. Tjadenstraat C81 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>9663 RD Nieuwe Pekela </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>+31-5976-45790 (telephone) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>+31-5976-46319 </li></ul></ul>
  • 3. Registration <ul><li>► In The Netherlands as a non-profit non-governmental organization (“ stichting ”) equivalent to 501(c)(3) status in the USA. </li></ul><ul><li>► In Croatia as a foreign organization. </li></ul>
  • 4. THE MISSION OF THE CWWPP <ul><li>Education in the methods of psychological assistance, civil society, non-violent conflict transformation, human rights and related fields; </li></ul><ul><li>To give psychological and related medical assistance to groups and individuals as well as to give assistance in the areas indicated above; </li></ul><ul><li>To carry out activities related to the transformation, prevention and recovery from violent conflict; </li></ul><ul><li>To carry out research relevant to our work; </li></ul><ul><li>To carry out any other activities that will encourage and/or assist our work. </li></ul>
  • 5. The CWWPP works using the Strategy of Complex Rehabilitation <ul><li>Good assessment of the situation, including multiple and in-depth discussion with all groups and individuals involved. </li></ul><ul><li>After discussion, training in areas needed and desired. </li></ul><ul><li>Involvement of the community in making plans for further action. </li></ul><ul><li>Encouragement of the formation of local interest groups and organizations. </li></ul><ul><li>Work on reconciliation at a speed appropriate to the community . </li></ul>
  • 6. <ul><li>Taking a long-term approach – much longer than that usually taken (thus, not 6 months but 5-10 years). </li></ul><ul><li>Continuous evaluation of programs, not just at the end of a program. </li></ul><ul><li>Continuous adjustment of programs appropriate to the findings of the evaluation. </li></ul><ul><li>Continuous research into the points brought up by the program. </li></ul>
  • 7. While these principles seem logical, they are not often applied in violent, post-violent and developing areas.
  • 8. The Region in Which the CWWPP Works
  • 9. &nbsp;
  • 10. &nbsp;
  • 11. History and Geography Before 1991 <ul><li>Culture 6,000 years old, including the Neolithic Vu čedol culture and the first calendar in Europe. </li></ul><ul><li>Northeast border of the Roman Empire. </li></ul><ul><li>Meeting point for many cultures: before 1991 more than 25 ethnic groups and more than 10 religious groups. </li></ul><ul><li>Important economic and cultural center . </li></ul>
  • 12. Vukovar, 1608
  • 13. Vukovar, About 1900
  • 14. Vineyards Originally Planted by the Romans
  • 15. Vu čedol
  • 16. The Vu čedol Orion – The Oldest Calendar in Europe and the Vu čedol Dove
  • 17. <ul><li>The Independent Croatian Republic (NDH) as was a part of the Axis Powers during the Second World War. There are still disputes among ethnic groups about the history of this period. </li></ul><ul><li>1945-1991: Independent Communism under Josip Broz Tito: Brotherhood-Unity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Greatest welfare within the Communist world </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>High level of freedom </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Relative freedom of speech </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Suppression of ethnic differences: the concept of being “Yugoslav”. This was not totally accepted, and such phenomena of the Croatian Spring of the 1970s took place. </li></ul></ul>
  • 18. The Most Recent War
  • 19. <ul><li>1990: Croatian elections in April and May. The old Yugoslav constitution gave equality to all ethnic groups. In the new Croatian constitution, ethnic Croats were superior. At this point, discrimination against minorities began. </li></ul><ul><li>1990-1991: Increasing polarization between Serbs and Croats. Villages and cities are barricaded. There is increasing ethnic violence. </li></ul><ul><li>2 May, 1991: The “Battle of Borovo Selo”, the first major engagement of the war. </li></ul><ul><li>August, 1991-November, 1991: The destruction of Vukovar and continuing polarization of ethnic groups in other places in Croatia. </li></ul>
  • 20. <ul><li>September, 1991: Osijek comes into Croat hands definitively. </li></ul><ul><li>November, 1991: Vukovar comes into Serb hands definitively. </li></ul><ul><li>January, 1992: International recognition of Croatia. </li></ul><ul><li>May, 1992: War starts in Bosnia-Herzegovina. </li></ul>
  • 21. <ul><li>May, 1995: Operation Flash in Western Slavonia. </li></ul><ul><li>August, 1995: Operation Storm in Western and Southern areas. </li></ul><ul><li>August-October, 1995: Joint Croat-Bosniak push in Bosnia-Herzegovina. </li></ul><ul><li>November, 1995: Dayton Accords for Bosnia-Herzegovina and Erdut Agreement for Eastern Slavonia. </li></ul><ul><li>January, 1996-January, 1998: United Nations Transitional Administration for Eastern Slavonia, Baranya and Western Sirmium (UNTAES). </li></ul><ul><li>March-July, 1999: NATO bombing of Serbia in conjunction with Kosovo. </li></ul>
  • 22. Current Problems of the Region
  • 23. Some General Problems <ul><li>Transitions. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Socialism to capitalism. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Totalitarianism to democracy (both relative terms). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Welfare to poverty. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Relative unity to ethnic and religious division. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Weak religion to strong and ethnically and politically connected “religious” feeling. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Human rights and discrimination against minorities. </li></ul><ul><li>Segregation: schools, caf és, medical care, bureaucracy, etc.: written law vs. practice. </li></ul><ul><li>The economic situation. </li></ul><ul><li>Landmines. </li></ul><ul><li>Cultural Revisionism. </li></ul>
  • 24. Some Specific Problems <ul><li>Civil Society and its lack of development. </li></ul><ul><li>Democratization. </li></ul><ul><li>Non-Violent Conflict Transformation. </li></ul><ul><li>Mental and Physical Health. </li></ul><ul><li>Reconciliation. </li></ul><ul><li>Politics – local, national and international. </li></ul><ul><li>Local Media. </li></ul><ul><li>Interest by the “outside world”, in particular by (potential) donors and the “external” media. </li></ul><ul><li>The way that donors work. </li></ul>
  • 25. Civil Society, Democratization and Non-Violent Conflict Transformation <ul><li>Lack of development of civil society in previous regimes – it was either from the state or considered dangerous. </li></ul><ul><li>Attitudes that those who work in civil society groups, particularly foreigners, are spies. </li></ul><ul><li>Strong competition between groups. </li></ul><ul><li>The word “democratization” has become a joke, as even most donors and international organizations don’t know what it means. </li></ul><ul><li>Techniques of and attitudes toward non-violent conflict transformation unknown. </li></ul><ul><li>External visions of non-violent conflict transformation are not adapted to these cultures and are parachuted in. Thus, new visions are required. </li></ul>
  • 26. Mental and Physical Health with Regard to Former Soldiers <ul><li>These problems seem to be common in most similar areas . </li></ul><ul><li>The size and scope of the problem. </li></ul><ul><li>The high intensity of the trauma. </li></ul><ul><li>The lack of a sufficient number of professionals to deal with the problem. </li></ul><ul><li>The skills of professionals. </li></ul><ul><li>The problem of universal loss of various sorts. </li></ul><ul><li>The high level of mistreatment. </li></ul>
  • 27. <ul><li>Denial. </li></ul><ul><li>Blocked mourning. </li></ul><ul><li>The lack of experience with and lack of availability of talk therapy and other modalities in society. </li></ul><ul><li>Inexperience in expressing feelings and in inter-personal and group communication in general. </li></ul><ul><li>Coping mechanisms that are inadequate to deal with the problems presented. </li></ul><ul><li>The lack of a sense of individual responsibility. </li></ul><ul><li>The lack of initiative. </li></ul><ul><li>The problems of addiction. </li></ul><ul><li>Taboos. </li></ul>
  • 28. <ul><li>The specific context of males. </li></ul><ul><li>The role of fathers. </li></ul><ul><li>The transmission of trauma from the Second World War and earlier and later. </li></ul><ul><li>High levels of unemployment and the relationship of economics and trauma. </li></ul><ul><li>Return of people to their homes. </li></ul><ul><li>The multi-causality of the trauma. </li></ul><ul><li>Associated problems of physical health. </li></ul><ul><li>Identity. </li></ul><ul><li>The interaction between the problems. </li></ul>
  • 29. <ul><li>The levels on which the problems are manifest: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Individual </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Family </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Group </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Neighborhood </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Community </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Society </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Region </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wider Region </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Global </li></ul></ul>
  • 30. Local, National and International Politics; The Local Media <ul><li>Local politicians frequently express strong nationalism and support for nationalist groups and causes. They resist moves toward reconciliation. </li></ul><ul><li>National politicians are either directly nationalist or say one thing for domestic consumption and something else for the international world. </li></ul><ul><li>The international community has its own agenda formed in foreign capitals and not necessarily in conjunction with local needs. </li></ul>
  • 31. <ul><li>There are high levels of corruption and self-interest at every level. </li></ul><ul><li>This all leads to political resistance to most of what is progressive in programs of assistance from all levels. </li></ul><ul><li>In particular, there is resistance to programs of grassroots and taproot peacebuilding and to public input, particularly by members of minorities. </li></ul><ul><li>In general, local and frequently national media follow the lead of the politicians. </li></ul><ul><li>Furthermore, the media encourage conflict in many cases. </li></ul>
  • 32. Interest by the “Outside World”, in Particular by (Potential) Donors and the “External” Media <ul><li>Interest by the “outside world” is extremely short-term and determined by the media, which moves to the next crisis quickly. </li></ul><ul><li>Most situations require long-term work. </li></ul><ul><li>Work must be “sexy” and show highly visible results. </li></ul><ul><li>Top-down work rather than a bottom-up inclusive approach is valued, and grassroots/taproot work is put down. </li></ul><ul><li>Programs are parachuted in rather than being adapted to local needs. </li></ul><ul><li>Most programs are thus ineffective. </li></ul><ul><li>Further, funding is leaving the Balkans as, according to the powers that be, “the problems are solved”. </li></ul>
  • 33. The Specific Problems and Characteristics of Former Soldiers in General <ul><li>The importance of the group in society in general - this is the group that theoretically, at least, is the most productive (current age 31-58). </li></ul><ul><li>The political importance of this group. </li></ul><ul><li>Identity in general. </li></ul><ul><li>Identity as males, especially in the societies of the Western Balkans. </li></ul><ul><li>Taboos on expression of emotions; general problems of communication in males. </li></ul><ul><li>The degree to which former soldiers have seen and participated in acts of war. </li></ul><ul><li>The lack of adequate – or any – epidemiology. </li></ul>
  • 34. <ul><li>The lack of recognition of post-traumatic stress reactions within the societies. </li></ul><ul><li>The politicization of PTSD and of former soldiers in general. </li></ul><ul><li>The nature of PTSR in the Balkans. </li></ul><ul><li>The lack of understanding of PTSR by physicians and other professionals. </li></ul><ul><li>Other problems of professionals, including severe overloading. </li></ul>
  • 35. <ul><li>The lack of adequate facilities for the treatment of PTSR. </li></ul><ul><li>Economic problems. </li></ul><ul><li>Problems of re-integration into society. </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of recognition of the problem by the international community and others. </li></ul><ul><li>The problems of former child soldiers. </li></ul><ul><li>The problem of where soldiers fought. </li></ul><ul><li>The problem of perpetrators. </li></ul>
  • 36. <ul><li>Specific symptomatology of former soldiers. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Isolation and breakdown of communications with family and friends. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Depression. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lack of initiative. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Addiction to alcohol and prescription drugs and the lack of facilities to deal with this. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Expression of frustration in violence within the family and externally and in the form of suicide. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Physical problems in the form of injuries. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Physical diseases with psychological origins. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vicious circles within all of these. </li></ul></ul>
  • 37. The Problems of Soldiers of Croat Ethnicity <ul><li>The hypocritical attitude of the government – on the one side exploiting them for political purposes and on the other neglect of their actual needs. </li></ul><ul><li>Recognition for the purposes of pensions – the medicalization and the politicization of PTSD. </li></ul>
  • 38. The Problems of Former Soldiers of Serb Ethnicity <ul><li>Fear of being accused of war crimes and crimes against humanity. </li></ul><ul><li>Not eligible for Croatian pensions. </li></ul><ul><li>Fear of gathering in one place for fear of being arrested. </li></ul>
  • 39. The Problems of Former Soldiers of Other Ethnicities <ul><li>In a highly ambiguous position. </li></ul><ul><li>Viewed with suspicion by both sides. </li></ul><ul><li>Difficult to obtain pensions, other benefits. </li></ul>
  • 40. The Work of the CWWPP
  • 41. Types of Programs <ul><li>Direct assistance </li></ul><ul><li>Education </li></ul><ul><li>Being a Presence and Standing up for a Point of View </li></ul><ul><li>Writing and Publicity </li></ul><ul><li>For the Future: Research </li></ul>
  • 42. Direct Assistance <ul><li>Counseling by professionals and particularly by lay counselors to individuals, families and groups. </li></ul><ul><li>Service given without regard to ethnicity, religion or group affiliation. </li></ul><ul><li>Beneficiary groups include former soldiers, youth, victims of domestic violence, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Service given without charge. </li></ul><ul><li>Inadequate capacity by ourselves or other NGOs. </li></ul><ul><li>This service should be given by state institutions rather than ourselves. </li></ul>
  • 43. Education Local Education – the Core Course <ul><li>Directed at (potential) field workers. </li></ul><ul><li>Aims </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Increase in capacity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Increase in professionalism </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Adapted to specific groups. </li></ul><ul><li>Approximately 120 hours at 2 hours/week. </li></ul><ul><li>Highly participatory. </li></ul><ul><li>3-16 participants per group. </li></ul><ul><li>Tested at the end of the course. </li></ul><ul><li>Certificate issued by the CWWPP. </li></ul>
  • 44. <ul><li>The Core Course Includes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Communication </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Work with groups </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Psychology </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Introduction to counseling </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Civil Society </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nonviolent Conflict Transformation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Introduction to Human Rights. </li></ul></ul>
  • 45. Conclusions and Perspectives
  • 46. <ul><li>The problems that we are seeing are not confined to Croatia and the Western Balkans and are worldwide. </li></ul><ul><li>Everywhere, the problems of former soldiers are being politicized, to the detriment of the former soldiers. </li></ul><ul><li>Former soldiers should be seen as victims. In many cases, they are seen only as perpetrators. </li></ul><ul><li>Many peacebuilders shy away from working with former soldiers because of disliking of the military and because of the support that former soldiers frequently give to right wing politics. </li></ul><ul><li>We believe that it is extremely important to work with former soldiers on all sides because of their position in society and because of their potential to carry out much further violence. </li></ul>
  • 47. Some Views of Vukovar
  • 48. CWWPP Staff
  • 49. A Partisan World War II memorial and its replacement by a modern fascist hero, the current “father of the nation” Franjo Tudjman
  • 50. Memorial at the Mass Grave at Ov čara
  • 51. &nbsp;
  • 52. &nbsp;
  • 53. &nbsp;
  • 54. &nbsp;
  • 55. &nbsp;
  • 56. &nbsp;
  • 57. &nbsp;
  • 58. &nbsp;
  • 59. &nbsp;
  • 60. &nbsp;
  • 61. No One is Normal Here
  • 62. &nbsp;
  • 63. Coalition for Work with Psychotrauma and Peace www.cwwpp.org [email_address]

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