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  • 1. INTERNET RESEARCH
    • The Internet is a tremendous source of information.
    • It is easy to find information on almost any subject.
    • But anyone can post information , so you need to evaluate what you find on the Internet to determine
      • Whether it is true and accurate
      • Whether it is reliable and current
  • 2. WIKIPEDIA… Bad or Good?
    • Wikipedia is not a good academic research resource. It is a free-content encyclopedia that is being written collaboratively by contributors from all around the world. The site is a wiki, "meaning that anyone with access to a ... computer can edit, correct, or improve information." Without editorial oversight, the quality of the content on this site varies dramatically. NOTE: Wikipedia is taking steps to correct this and may be of value to academic research in the future. Wikipedia can be of value for personal research or to gather background information when beginning your research.
  • 3. Things you should know about Search Engines
    • Search engine sites (google, yahoo) build a database of information about Web sites.
    • A program called a SPIDER crawls the WWW and gathers information to put in the search engine’s database.
    • When you enter keywords and phrases to obtain links to sites containing your search criteria – the results are coming from this database – NOT the live web.
    • When using a search engine, you should know
      • How it decides the order in which the hits are presented
      • How it finds its information
      • How often it is updated
  • 4. Who’s paying to give you those search results?
    • Even the most academic subjects result in sponsored sites in your search results.
    • Sponsored sites are sites that an advertiser pays to have listed in the search results.
    • They are unlikely to provide balanced and impartial information.
  • 5. Sponsored Sites Sponsored sites are usually identified and are almost always at the top of a search results list.
  • 6. The secret “hidden” web!
    • The "visible web" is what you can find using general web search engines . It's also what you see in almost all subject directories . The "invisible web" is what you cannot find using these types of tools.
  • 7. Subject Directories
    • Subject directories are organized by subject categories.
    • Subject experts handpick and evaluate the Web sites.
    • Subject directories are easy to use and provide a more guided approach than keyword searches.
    • Popular subject directories include
      • Librarian’s Index at www.lii.org – HIGHLY RECOMMENDED!
      • Encyclopedia Britannica at www.britannica.com
      • Galaxy at www.galaxy.com
  • 8. Subject Index Examples
    • Digital Librarian
    • Union Institute A-Z Database List
    • New York Public Library Databases Online
    • GeniusFind
    • InfoMine
    • Gateway
    • MedBioWord:Science & Medical Journals & Databases
    • Turbo 10
    • IncyWincySearch
    • Gary Price's Direct Search
  • 9.  
  • 10. Searching databases- INSPIRE.NET
    • What exactly is INSPIRE? INSPIRE is Indiana's Virtual Library on the Internet. INSPIRE is a collection of commercial databases and other information resources.
    • What kind of information is available on INSPIRE? Anything that you might find in a magazine or journal plus Websites, pamphlets, images, almanacs, library catalogs, and more.
    • To use go to: http://www.inspire.net
  • 11. type in topic
  • 12.  
  • 13.  
  • 14. How can you tell if a website is good?
    • You should be checking 5 things to determine if a website will be valuable to your research:
      • Accuracy
      • Authority
      • Objectivity
      • Currency
      • Coverage
  • 15. Accuracy
    • On a Good Page:
    • You can find the author (A webmaster is not an author, unless otherwise stated.)
    • The document was written for informational purposes.
    • The author is qualified to write about the topic.
    • There is a way to contact the author.
    • On a Bad Page:
    • You can’t figure out who wrote it.
    • The document was produced to inflame or incite.
    • The person writing the document does not have authority in the field .
    • If there is an author, there is no way to contact them.
  • 16. Authority
    • On a Good Page:
    • The author is separate from the webmaster.
    • The institution that published the page is reputable.
    • There are credentials listed for the author(s).
    • The domain of the site is credible and from a country that has authority over the matter.
    • On a Bad Page:
    • The webmaster is the only name listed, if any are listed at all.
    • The institution that published the page is not reputable.
    • If there is an author at all, no credentials are listed.
    • The page is published by an institution who has no authority in the matter being discussed.
  • 17. Objectivity
    • On a Bad Page:
    • The site has a slanted point of view or opinion.
    • The information is scarce.
    • Opinions are expressed in an inflammatory way.
    • The site is a mask for advertising.
    • The organizations that link to the website are not reputable.
    • On a Good Page:
    • The site doesn’t provide a slanted view or opinion.
    • The information is very detailed.
    • If there are opinions expressed, they are expressed in such a way as to not be inflammatory.
    • The site is not a mask for advertising.
    • Other people and organizations who link to the site are respectable.
  • 18. Currency
    • On a Good Page:
    • It was produced recently.
    • It was updated recently.
    • The links are current.
    • There are few or no dead links.
    • The information on the page is up to date.
    • On a Bad Page:
    • The page was not produced recently.
    • The page was not updated recently.
    • The links are not current.
    • Many links are dead.
    • The information on the page is outdated.
  • 19. Coverage
    • On a Good Page:
    • The links make sense on the page.
    • There is a balance between the text and the images.
    • The information presented is properly cited.
    • The page does not require special software to get to the information.
    • You don’t have to pay for the information.
    • There are options to view the page as text only or without frames if hard to read.
    • On a Bad Page:
    • The links do not match the content of the page.
    • There are more images than text.
    • The information is not cited.
    • The page requires special software to view.
    • You have to pay for the information.
    • You can only view the page as it is presented to you, even if that makes it hard to read.
  • 20. Putting it all together
    • Accuracy. If your page lists the author and institution that published the page and provides a way of contacting him/her and . . .
    • Authority. If your page lists the author credentials and its domain is preferred (.edu, .gov, or .k12), and. . .
    • Objectivity. If your page provides accurate information with limited advertising and it is objective in presenting the information, and . . .
    • Currency. If your page is current and updated regularly (as stated on the page) and the links (if any) are also up-to-date, and . . .
    • Coverage. If you can view the information properly--not limited to fees, browser technology, or software requirement, then . . .
    • You may have a web page that could be of value to your research!
  • 21. Assessment Tools: The Internet Detective
    • The Internet Detective is an online tutorial for evaluating the quality of any information you find online.
    • It gives specific information regarding the evaluation of electronic resources.
    • Visit the Internet Detective at
    • http://www.vts.intute.ac.uk/detective/
  • 22. Complete the table below to discover the value of the web sites provided. Be ready to defend your answers in our discussion. Authority : What does the URL say about the author? Did you find an author/organization responsible for the web site? What was the author’s purpose in posting this web site? Does this author/organization have the expertise to publish this information? What are the affiliations associated with this web site? Content : What information is provided on the front page or home page? Did you find errors in the text or graphics of the web site? Is there a strong bias represented? Does the web site present facts, opinions, or propaganda? Value: Is this site easy to navigate? Is the information properly cited? Is the information recent enough to be relevant for your research? My Vote:  There is information here that will be useful to my research topic.  This site is sufficiently current to be useful. Is the information recent enough to be relevant for my topic? Please support your answer. True / False: This page is well-balanced, is easy to navigate, and the information is properly cited. VALUE My Vote:  This site has appropriate content for my project  I need to keep researching. Does this information represent: Fact: Opinion: Propaganda: Is there a strong bias represented? Are the text and graphics free of errors?
    • What information is provided on the home page and links?? Circle those that apply:
    • Links to reputable sources
    • Detailed information
    • An absence of advertising
    CONTENT My Vote:  This site has good authority for my project  I need to keep researching. What organizations are affiliated with this site? What is the author’s expertise? What is the author’s purpose? Information? Persuasion? Entertainment Is there an author? What information is provided by the URL? (education, commercial, etc.) AUTHORITY
  • 23. Copyright Rules
    • It is easy to copy information from a Web site, but it may be illegal to do so.
    • Internet sites and publications have the same legal protection as books, newspapers, movies, and so forth.
    • You may need permission from the site author to use any information found on that site or else you may violate copyright law.
      • Most sites include a copyright notice you should read and follow.
  • 24. Citing Internet Sources
    • Any Internet resource used in a report or document must be cited.
    • If you do not credit a source, then you are claiming someone else’s words or ideas as your own, which is plagiarism .
    • You must give credit to any information you use in a paper or publication that is not your original thought.
  • 25. What is plagiarism?
    • Main Entry: pla·gia·rize
    • 1 : to steal and pass off (the ideas or words of another) as one's own : use (another's production) without crediting the source
    • 2 : to commit literary theft : present as new and original an idea or product derived from an existing source
    • From Merriam-Webster’s Online Dictionary http://www.m-w.com
  • 26.
    • In other words, to copy someone else’s work without giving him credit.
    • Plagiarism is not always intentional. You can do it by accident, but it is still against the law. If you ever have a question about whether something is plagiarized, please ask!
  • 27. How can I avoid plagiarism?
    • Identify any information that would not be considered common knowledge
    • Unless in direct quotes, make sure you paraphrase what the original author said
    • Use a quote if you can’t think of a way to paraphrase the information
    • always, Always, ALWAYS cite the source of any information in your paper which is not considered common knowledge. If you are unsure if something is common knowledge, cite it!
  • 28. What is considered common knowledge?
    • Things that are found in a number of places, and are likely to be known by a large number of people.
    • Examples:
      • The sky is blue
      • Grass is usually green
      • George Washington was the 1 st president of the United States
  • 29. What does paraphrase mean?
    • Main Entry: 1 para·phrase 1 : a restatement of a text, passage, or work giving the meaning in another form
    • From Merriam-Webster’s Online Dictionary http://www.m-w.com
  • 30. What does it mean to put something in my own words?
    • When you paraphrase something, it is different than putting it in your own words. When you put something in your own words, you are making a statement about the information you have found, rather than just restating the information. Usually there is an opinion of some sort in something “In your own words”
  • 31. What is a quote?
    • Main Entry: 1 quote 1 a : to speak or write (a passage) from another usually with credit acknowledgment b : to repeat a passage from, especially in substantiation or illustration
    • From Merriam-Webster’s Online Dictionary http://www.m-w.com
  • 32. What is a citation?
    • A citation is how you indicate where your information came from.
    • There are three citation styles that are in frequent use at the high school and college level. They are:
        • MLA (Modern Language Association)
        • APA (American Psychological Association)
        • CMS (Chicago Manual of Style)
    • Each style has a way to do in-text citations, a way to do a bibliography, and a way to do footnotes and endnotes.
  • 33. Examples of Citations using MLA
    • Parenthetical or in-text:
    • In Sons from Afar, Cynthia Voigt wrote, “James entered English class after lunch the way he thought medieval criminals must have entered a church, crying out Sanctuary, Sanctuary.” (Voigt 101)
    • Works Cited:
    • Voigt, Cynthia. Sons from Afar. New York: Fawcett Juniper, 1987.
    • You may also be asked to use footnotes or endnotes. If you are asked to do either of these, your teacher or the library will give you a handout explaining how they are used.
  • 34. When should I cite my sources?
    • Whenever you use information that is not common knowledge
    • Whenever you use information that you did not know before doing the research
    • Whenever you quote another person’s ideas or word, whether they are written or spoken
    • Whenever you paraphrase another person’s written or spoken words or ideas
  • 35. MLA Examples
    • Book with 1 author
    • Last Name, First Name. Title of Book Underlined . Place of Publication: Publisher, Year of Publication.
    • Book with 2 or 3 authors
    • Last Name, First Name, First Name Last Name, and First Name Last Name. Title of Book Underlined or Italicized . Place of Publication: Publisher, Year of Publication.
    • Book with more than 3 authors
    • Last Name, First Name, et al. Title of Book Underlined . Place of Publication: Publisher, Year of Publication.
    • Book with Corporate Author
    • Organization Name. Title of Book Underlined . Place of Publication: Publisher, Year of Publication.
    • Book with no author
    • Title of Book Underlined . Place of Publication: Publisher, Year of Publication.
    • Edited Anthology (Encyclopedia)
    • Last Name, First Name. "Title of Article." Title of Edited Anthology Underlined. Ed. Editors First Editors Last. Place of Publication: Publisher, Year of Publication. Page #s.
    • Pamphlet
    • Last Name, First Name. Title of Pamphlet Underlined . Place of Publication: Publisher, Year of Publication.
    • Journal Article
    • Last Name, First Name. "Title of Journal Article." Title of Journal Underlined . Vol.Issue # (Year): Page #s.
    • Magazine or Newspaper
    • Last Name, First Name. "Title of Article." Title of Newspaper or Magazine Underlined. Day Abbreviation of Month unless May, June or July Year: Page #s.
  • 36. MLA Examples
    • Interview Conducted by the Researcher
    • Last Name, First Name. Type of Interview (personal, telephone, email etc). Day Abbreviation of Month unless May, June or July Year.
    • Television or Radio Program
    • "Title of Episode or Segment." Title of program Underlined. Title of Series. Name of Network. Call Letters and city of local station (if any). Day Abbreviation of Month unless May, June or July Year of broadcast.
    • A Film or Video Recording
    • Title Underlined . Director. Distributor. Year of Release.
    • Periodical from database
    • Last Name, First Name. &quot;Title of Article.&quot; Title of Periodical Underlined . Vol.Issue # (Year): Page #s. Name of Database (such as TopicSearch) . Subscription service name (such as EBSCO). Subscribing Library and location (Example: New Lebanon Jr/Sr High School, New Lebanon, NY). Day Abbreviation of Month unless May, June or July Year of access <http://www.URL.com>.
    • Online Newspaper
    • Last Name, First Name. &quot;Title of Specific Article.&quot; Name of Periodical the Page is Part of Underlined . Day Abbreviation of Month unless May, June or July Year of Posting/Revision. Day Abbreviation of Month unless May, June or July Year You accessed the site. <http://www.URL.com>.
    • Online Magazine
    • Last Name, First Name. &quot;Title of Specific Web Article.&quot; Name of Publication the Page is Part of Underlined . Day Month Year of Posting/Revision. Name of institution/organization affiliated (if any). Day Abbreviation of Month unless May, June or July Year You accessed the site. <http://www.URL.com>.
    • Online Journal
    • Last Name, First Name. &quot;Title of Specific Web Article.&quot; Name of Publication the Page is Part of Underlined . Vol.Issue # (Year): Page #s. Name of institution/organization affiliated (if any). Day Abbreviation of Month unless May, June or July Year you accessed the site. <http://www.URL.com>.
    • Web Page
    • Last Name, First Name. Name of Web Page Underlined . Day Abbreviation of Month unless May, June or July Year of Posting/Revision.Name of institution/organization affiliated (if any). Day Abbreviation of Month unless May, June or July Year You accessed the site <http://www.URL.com>.
  • 37. Improving your search with BOOLEAN
    • The Internet is a vast computer database. As such, its contents must be searched according to the rules of computer database searching. Much database searching is based on the principles of Boolean logic. Boolean logic refers to the logical relationship among search terms, and is named for the British-born Irish mathematician George Boole.
    • Boolean logic consists of three logical operators: OR; AND; NOT
    • Examples:
      • Query:     I need information about cats.
      • Boolean logic:     OR
      • Search:     cats OR felines
    • To learn more about Boolean operators go to:
      • http://www.internettutorials.net/boolean.html
  • 38. Don’t forget about your best resource!
    • Your LIBRARY
    • and your
    • LIBRARIAN
  • 39.  
  • 40. The GOOGLE Game
    • Better than Boolean!
    • Use quotes to limit your hits to only words you require- “Subaru Outback”
    • Use minus signs to exclude words from search results
    • Using site operators to limit a search to certain credible sites – such as educational or government sites- site:edu, site:org, site:gov
  • 41. LET’S TRY IT
    • Search google for the – greenhouse effect
      • Did you get over 2,890,000 hits?
      • Have fun reading all that!
    • Now try – greenhouse effect site:org
      • Results should be 571,000
      • WOW that really narrowed it down!
    • Try adding –wikipedia (is wikipedia gone from the top of the list?
    571,000
  • 42. How can you tell if a site is good?
    • Use one of the web evaluation tools from above to determine if the sites listed below are good or bad websites?
    • http://www.petroldirect.com/
    • http://www.idchip.com/s1/idchip.htm