Structure And Function Of Macromolecules1


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Structure and Function of Macromolecules
Mr. Hunter
Hyde Park Academy

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Structure And Function Of Macromolecules1

  1. 1. Structure and Function of Macromolecules <ul><li>Macromolecules are polymers built from monomers </li></ul><ul><li>A polymer is a long chained molecule composed of repeating subunits (monomers) </li></ul><ul><li>Starch is a polymer composed of glucose molecules </li></ul><ul><li>Proteins are polymers composed of amino acids </li></ul><ul><li>E. Larger polymers are formed by the combining of monomers via a process called dehydration or condensation reactions. </li></ul><ul><li>Within this process two monomers are joined by the removal of water. </li></ul><ul><li>The formation of starch results from the following: C6 H12 O6 + C6 H12O6----- C12H22O11 + H20 </li></ul><ul><li>Hydrolysis occurs when water is added top split large molecules. Which is the reverse of the above reaction. </li></ul>
  2. 2. Carbohydrates serve as fuel and building material <ul><li>Carbohydrates include both simple sugars such as glucose, fructose and galactose , etc. </li></ul><ul><li>They also include polymers such as starch made from these and other subunits. </li></ul><ul><li>All carbohydrates exist in a 1 carbon:2 hydrogen: 1 oxygen ratio or CH2O 1:2:1 </li></ul><ul><li>Monosaccharides are the monomers of carbohydrates. Examples include glucose, and ribose (C5 H10 O5) </li></ul><ul><li>Polysaccharides are the polymers of monosaccharides. Examples are starch, cellulose and glycogen </li></ul>
  3. 3. Functions of Carbohydrates <ul><li>The two functions of polysaccharides and energy storage and structural support . </li></ul><ul><li>Energy Storage Polysaccharides are starch and glycogen. Starch : storage polysaccharide found in plants (ex. Potatoes). Glycogen: storage polysaccharide found in animals, vertebrate muscle, and liver cells. </li></ul><ul><li>Structural support Polysaccharides are Cellulose and Chitin. Cellulose is a major component of plant cell walls. Chitin is found in the exoskeleton of anthropods, such s lobsters and insects and the cell wall of fungi. It gives bugs their distinct “crunch” </li></ul>
  4. 4. Lipids are a Diverse Group of Hydrophobic Molecules <ul><li>Lipids are hydrophobic-meaning that they do not dissolve in water (nonpolar). </li></ul><ul><li>They are not polymers. They are assembled from a variety of components. Examples of lipids include waxes, oils, fats, and steroids. </li></ul><ul><li>Fats (also called triglycerides) are made up of a glycerol molecule and three fatty acid molecules. </li></ul><ul><li>Fatty acids include hydrocarbon chains of variable lengths. These chains are nonpolar and therefore hydrophobic. </li></ul><ul><li>Saturated fatty acids: </li></ul><ul><li>Have no double bonds between carbon atoms </li></ul><ul><li>Tend to pack solidly at room temperature </li></ul><ul><li>Are linked to cardiovascular disease </li></ul><ul><li>Are commonly produced in animals </li></ul><ul><li>Ex- butter and lard </li></ul>
  5. 5. Lipids a Diverse Group of Hydrophobic Molecules <ul><li>Unsaturated fatty acids: </li></ul><ul><li>Have some double bonding between carbon atoms </li></ul><ul><li>Tend to be liquid at room temperature </li></ul><ul><li>Are commonly produced by plants </li></ul><ul><li>Examples are corn and olive oil. </li></ul><ul><li>Functions: Energy storage. Fats can store twice as many calories/gram as carbohydrates. </li></ul><ul><li>Fats provide a protective coating of vital organs and insulation. Fat is stored in adipose cells </li></ul><ul><li>Phospholipids make up the cell membrane: </li></ul><ul><li>Have a glycerol backbone (head), which is hydrophilic </li></ul><ul><li>Have two fatty acid tails, which are nonpolar </li></ul><ul><li>Are arranged in a bilayer in forming the cell membrane, with the polar heads pointing toward the watery cytosol and the nonpolar tails sandwiched in between </li></ul>
  6. 6. Sterioids <ul><li>Steroids are made of four rings that are fused together. </li></ul><ul><li>Cholesterol is a steroid. It is a common component of cell membranes </li></ul><ul><li>Estrogen and testosterone are steroid hormones. </li></ul><ul><li>Proteins are polymers made of amino acid monomers. </li></ul><ul><li>Amino acids contain a central carbon bonded to a carboxyl group , an amino group , a hydrogen atom and an R group (variable group or side chain) </li></ul><ul><li>Peptide bonds link amino acids together. These bonds are formed via. dehydration synthesis </li></ul><ul><li>The function of a protein depend on the order and number of amino acids. </li></ul><ul><li>There are four levels of protein structure </li></ul>
  7. 7. Protein Structure <ul><li>Primary structure is the sequence in which amino acids are joined </li></ul><ul><li>Secondary structure refers to one of two three-dimensional shapes that are the result of hydrogen bonding </li></ul><ul><li>Alpha helix is a coiled shape </li></ul><ul><li>Beta pleated sheet is an accordion shape </li></ul><ul><li>Tertiary structure results in a complex globular shape, due to the interaction between R-groups, such as hydrophobic interactions, van der Waals interactions, hydrogen bonds and disulfide bridges. </li></ul><ul><li>Globular proteins such as enzymes are held in position by these R-group interactions </li></ul><ul><li>Quaternary structure refers to the association of two or more polypeptide chains into one large protein. Hemoglobin is a globular protein with a quaternary structure, as it is composed of four chains. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Protein Shape and Function <ul><li>Protein shape is crucial to its function. </li></ul><ul><li>When a protein does not fold properly its function changes. </li></ul><ul><li>Chaperonins are protein molecules that assist in the proper folding of proteins within cells. They provide an isolating environment in which a polypeptide chain may attain full conformation. </li></ul><ul><li>Denaturation occurs when a protein loses its shape and its ability to function due to heat, a change in pH or other disturbance. What common example of a denatured protein can be a part of your breakfast? </li></ul><ul><li>DNA is a macromolecule composed of nucleotides </li></ul>
  9. 9. Nucleotide <ul><li>Three Parts: </li></ul><ul><li>Phosphate Group </li></ul><ul><li>Five Carbon Sugar Molecule </li></ul><ul><li>Nitrogen Containing Base </li></ul>
  10. 10. Nucleotides Continued <ul><li>The 5 carbon sugar in the nucleotide molecule of DNA is called deoxyribose </li></ul><ul><li>Sugar molecules and phosphate groups are the same for nucleotide molecules in DNA </li></ul><ul><li>The nitrogen bases may be of 4 different kinds </li></ul><ul><li>2 Double Ring Purine bases: </li></ul><ul><li>2 Single Ring Pyrimidine bases </li></ul>
  11. 11. Macromolecules <ul><li>By what process are macromolecules formed? </li></ul><ul><li>By what process are they broken down into monomer subunits? </li></ul><ul><li>What molecule is removed in a condensation reaction? </li></ul><ul><li>What is the ratio found in carbohydrate molecules? </li></ul><ul><li>What are the monomers of large polysaccharide molecules? </li></ul><ul><li>Which storage polysaccharide is found in plants? And which one is found in animals? </li></ul><ul><li>What are four examples of lipids? </li></ul><ul><li>What are the differences between saturated fatty acids and unsaturated fatty acids? </li></ul><ul><li>What are the subunits of proteins? </li></ul><ul><li>What are the bonds that link amino acids together? </li></ul>