Writing And Implementing Standard Operating Procedures


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  • Writing And Implementing Standard Operating Procedures

    1. 1. Writing and Implementing Standard Operating Procedures Richard Stup Penn State Dairy Alliance (814) 652-6430 [email_address]
    2. 2. Top 10 reasons why I need SOPs? <ul><li>Because they help relief workers to do the job right. </li></ul><ul><li>Because some jobs are dangerous. </li></ul><ul><li>Because training is much easier with SOPs than without. </li></ul><ul><li>Because people need direction and order to be happy. </li></ul><ul><li>Because they help people to focus on specific activities that lead toward goal achievement. </li></ul><ul><li>Because you can’t really make changes until you have control of the system. </li></ul>
    3. 3. Top 11 reasons why I need SOPs? <ul><li>Because variation costs you big buck$. </li></ul><ul><li>Because they improve communication and teamwork among workers, management, and advisors. </li></ul><ul><li>Because many workers today have previous farm experience. </li></ul><ul><li>Because many workers today don’t have previous farm experience. </li></ul><ul><li>Because it’s tough to give good feedback when it’s not clear what you want. </li></ul>
    4. 4. The Performance Triangle Training/Coaching Feedback Standard Systems Great Performance
    5. 5. Program Learning Objectives <ul><li>Define the two types of variation and how SOP’s may be used to control special cause variation. </li></ul><ul><li>Write an SOP using an appropriate format, identify important steps and sub-steps, and choose a workable level of detail. </li></ul><ul><li>Develop a plan to generate buy-in from the dairy’s workers, managers, and advisors. </li></ul>
    6. 6. Part One Systems, Procedures, Steps, and Variation
    7. 7. Milking Equipment System
    8. 8. Old-fashioned Chocolate Cake Prep Time: 20 min. Start to Finish: 2 Hrs. 50 min. <ul><li>3/4 cup (1-1/2 sticks) butter or margarine, softened </li></ul><ul><li>1-2/3 cups sugar </li></ul><ul><li>3 eggs </li></ul><ul><li>1 teaspoon vanilla extract </li></ul><ul><li>2 cups all-purpose flour </li></ul><ul><li>2/3 cup HERSHEY'S Cocoa </li></ul><ul><li>1-1/4 teaspoons baking soda </li></ul><ul><li>1 teaspoon salt </li></ul><ul><li>1/4 teaspoon baking powder </li></ul><ul><li>1-1/3 cups water </li></ul><ul><li>1/2 cup finely crushed hard peppermint candy (optional) </li></ul><ul><li>1. Heat oven to 350°F. Grease and flour two 9-inch round baking pans or one 13x9x2-inch baking pan. </li></ul><ul><li>2. In large mixer bowl, combine butter, sugar, eggs and vanilla; beat on high speed of electric mixer 3 minutes. Stir together flour, cocoa, baking soda, salt and baking powder; add alternately with water to butter mixture, beating until blended. Add candy, if desired. Pour batter into prepared pans. </li></ul><ul><li>3. Bake 30 to 35 minutes or until wooden pick inserted in center comes out clean. Cool 10 minutes; remove from pans to wire racks.Cool completely. Frost as desired. 10-12 servings. </li></ul>
    9. 9. The Dairy Farm Consists Of Systems Feeding Milking Waste Management Herd Health & Reproduction
    10. 10. Systems Consist of Procedures Feeding Waste Management Herd Health Milking <ul><li>Preparing equipment </li></ul><ul><li>Moving cows </li></ul><ul><li>Milking </li></ul><ul><li>Clean-up </li></ul>
    11. 11. Systems Consist of Procedures <ul><li>Mixing & distributing feed </li></ul><ul><li>Measuring intake </li></ul><ul><li>Maintaining feeding area </li></ul><ul><li>Ordering supplies </li></ul>Waste Management Herd Health Milking Feeding
    12. 12. Procedures Consist of Steps <ul><li>Dry wipe dirt and debris from the first cow’s udder. </li></ul><ul><li>Predip all 4 teats with the green dip cup. </li></ul><ul><li>Strip 2 squirts of milk from each teat and observe for abnormal milk. </li></ul><ul><li>Repeat steps 1, 2 and 3 with the second and third cows on the same side. </li></ul><ul><li>Return to the first cow and thoroughly wipe with a clean towel. </li></ul><ul><li>Attach unit to first cow and adjust. </li></ul>Danger! Variation Zone
    13. 13. When can SOP’s help improve a system? <ul><li>When variation must be controlled </li></ul><ul><li>When safety risks are present </li></ul><ul><li>When numerous people perform the same procedure </li></ul><ul><li>When outside advisors’ input is needed </li></ul><ul><li>When management wants to create a “culture of improvement” </li></ul><ul><li>When objective feedback on performance is desired </li></ul><ul><li>When steps and decisions can be standardized </li></ul>
    14. 14. So what is the big problem with variation?
    15. 15. High Variation
    16. 16. Lower Variation
    17. 17. Common Cause Variation <ul><li>Common cause variation is the result of the myriad imperceptible changes that occur in the everyday operation of a process (Farnum, 1994). </li></ul><ul><li>Common causes of variation produce points on a control chart that over a long period all fall inside the control limits. Common causes of variation stay the same day to day, lot to lot (Deming, 2000). </li></ul>
    18. 18. Special Cause Variation <ul><li>Special cause variation is variation for which one can find definite causes. Ordinarily special cause variation will fall further from the mean than common causes. </li></ul><ul><li>A special cause of variation is something special. Not part of the system of common causes. It is detected by a point that falls outside the control limits (Deming, 2000). </li></ul>
    19. 19. Dealing With Variation <ul><li>Mistake 1 : To react to an outcome as if it came from a special cause, when actually it came from common causes of variation </li></ul><ul><li>Mistake 2 : To treat an outcome as if it came from common causes of variation, when actually it came from a special cause. </li></ul>
    20. 20. Increased Yield from Standardized Milking Routine* * Rasmussen, 1990. J. Dairy Science
    21. 21. Value of Increased Milk Yield Average increased milk yield X Milk price/lb Value of increased milk X 100 cows 811 lbs $.12 $97.32 $9732
    22. 22. Part 2 SOP Formats and Writing
    23. 23. SOP Formats <ul><li>Simple Steps </li></ul><ul><li>Hierarchical Steps </li></ul><ul><li>Graphic </li></ul><ul><li>Enhanced Graphic </li></ul><ul><li>Flowcharts </li></ul><ul><li>Flowchart/Stepwise Hybrid </li></ul>
    24. 24. Simple Steps <ul><li>Wipe dirt and debris from the first cow’s udder. </li></ul><ul><li>Pre-dip all 4 teats with the green dip cup. </li></ul><ul><li>Strip 2 squirts of milk from each teat and observe for abnormal milk. </li></ul><ul><li>Repeat steps 1,2,and 3 with the second and third cows on the same side. </li></ul><ul><li>Return to the first cow and thoroughly wipe with a clean towel. </li></ul><ul><li>Attach unit to the first cow and adjust. </li></ul><ul><li>(Continues) </li></ul>
    25. 25. Simple Steps <ul><li>Strengths </li></ul><ul><li>Easy to write </li></ul><ul><li>Easy to follow </li></ul><ul><li>Logical flow </li></ul><ul><li>Weaknesses </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of detail </li></ul><ul><li>Tends to get long if detail is included </li></ul><ul><li>Keeps all steps at same level </li></ul><ul><li>Does not handle decisions well </li></ul>
    26. 26. Hierarchical SOP <ul><li>Strip 2 squirts of milk from each teat and observe for abnormal milk. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Squirt milk onto black surface of strip cup. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Abnormal milk may appear watery, bloody, or have clots or flakes. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>If any abnormal milk is found refer to Parlor SOP #2 “Dealing With Cows Showing Abnormal Milk.” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Predip all 4 teats with the green dip cup. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Squeeze dip up from bottom reservoir so that teat chamber is 3/4 full. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Wipe dirt and debris from the first cow’s udder. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Use your gloved hand to remove dry dirt and bedding. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use a clean paper towel to dry the teats and udder if they are wet. </li></ul></ul>
    27. 27. Hierarchical Steps <ul><li>Strengths </li></ul><ul><li>Easy to write </li></ul><ul><li>Easy to follow </li></ul><ul><li>Logical flow </li></ul><ul><li>Handles details very well </li></ul><ul><li>Allows different levels of steps </li></ul><ul><li>Weaknesses </li></ul><ul><li>Does not handle decisions well </li></ul>
    28. 28. Graphic Format
    29. 29. Graphic Format <ul><li>Strengths </li></ul><ul><li>Easy to write </li></ul><ul><li>Easy to follow </li></ul><ul><li>Logical flow </li></ul><ul><li>Handles long procedures well </li></ul><ul><li>Weaknesses </li></ul><ul><li>Does not handle decisions well </li></ul>
    30. 30. The Enhanced Graphic Format
    31. 31. Dip <ul><li>1. Dip teats with dipping tool. Make sure that every teat is entirely covered with dip. </li></ul>
    32. 32. Strip <ul><li>2. Strip 3 squirts of milk from each teat. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Observe for clotting, flakes, or any other unusual appearance. </li></ul></ul>
    33. 33. Dry <ul><li>3. Clean and dry all teats using a clean paper towel for each cow. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Be sure to remove all dirt, especially around the end of the teat. </li></ul></ul>
    34. 34. Apply <ul><li>4. Attach milking unit and adjust. </li></ul>
    35. 35. Flowchart Format Abnormal milk detected. Perform CMT test for mastitis. Record, date, time, Cow ID, affected quarter/s, and severity on milker report Collect sterile samples from affected quarters, label, and store in refrigerator. No Yes Yes (Continues off page.) Is milk bloody or watery? Is mastitis present? Parlor SOP: Cows with Abnormal Milk
    36. 36. Flowchart <ul><li>Strengths </li></ul><ul><li>Easy to follow </li></ul><ul><li>Logical flow </li></ul><ul><li>Handles decisions very well </li></ul><ul><li>Weaknesses </li></ul><ul><li>More difficult to write </li></ul><ul><li>Does not handle details well </li></ul>
    37. 37. Standard Flowchart Symbols Decision Start/End Record or document Action Direction Arrows Yes No
    38. 38. Hybrid Flowchart/Steps Format
    39. 39. Which format should I use? Flowchart Yes Yes Flowchart No Yes Hierarchical or Graphic Yes No Simple Steps No No Best SOP format More than 10 steps? Many decisions?
    40. 40. Level of Detail: Criteria for Including a Step or Sub step <ul><li>Is the step essential to completing the activity? </li></ul><ul><li>Are there safe and unsafe says of completing the step? </li></ul><ul><li>Will variation in how the step is completed affect animal health or well-being? </li></ul><ul><li>Will variation in how the step is completed affect performance results? </li></ul><ul><li>Will variation in how the step is completed significantly affect efficiency? </li></ul><ul><li>Is there another significant reason why the step must be completed in a particular way? </li></ul>
    41. 41. Activity <ul><li>Divide up into teams of two. </li></ul><ul><li>Select a procedure and draft a simple steps or hierarchical steps SOP. </li></ul><ul><li>Select a procedure and draft an SOP in flowchart format. </li></ul>
    42. 42. Part 3 SOP Implementation and Improvement
    43. 43. Overcoming Resistance <ul><li>Attitude: “We’ve done it just find the old way up to now!” </li></ul><ul><li>Problem: Fear of change </li></ul><ul><li>Solution: Explain need for change and listen to concerns. Overcome with communication. </li></ul>
    44. 44. Overcoming Resistance <ul><li>Attitude: “This is n o benefit to me, just extra work !” </li></ul><ul><li>Problem: WII-FM (What’s In It For Me) </li></ul><ul><li>Solution: Share mission and values of the business. Explain how improvement benefits everyone. </li></ul>
    45. 45. Overcoming Resistance <ul><li>Attitude: “ The boss wants to micro-manage everything we do.” </li></ul><ul><li>Problem: Lack of empowerment. </li></ul><ul><li>Solution: Encourage people to take an active role in shaping change and improving quality. </li></ul>
    46. 46. Seven Steps to Successful SOPs <ul><li>Plan for results </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Design SOPs with definite results in mind. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Improves communication and cooperation with stakeholders </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Leads to appropriate monitors </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Write a first draft </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Gives a basis for discussion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reduces excessive speculation about how to begin </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Internal review </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Access ideas </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Build commitment and buy-in </li></ul></ul>
    47. 47. Seven Steps to Successful SOPs <ul><li>External Review </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Access ideas and expertise </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Build commitment and buy-in </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Testing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Let someone unfamiliar with the job try to follow the procedure </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Post </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In workplace and employee information </li></ul></ul>
    48. 48. Seven Steps to Successful SOPs <ul><li>Train </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Define the learning objective </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Explain and demonstrate both why and how each step is done </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Give opportunity for learner to practice </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Observe and make key corrections </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Provide appropriate feedback </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Be patient, follow up as needed with coaching </li></ul></ul>
    49. 49. The Simple S-T-P Problem Solving Model <ul><li>S = Situation (problem) </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Clearly define the problem </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Seek to clarify all points of view </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>T = Target (ideal) </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Clearly define the target </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Clarify all aspects of the ideal situation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>P = Plan </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Don’t rush to plan until S and T are thoroughly defined and understood by all parties. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Each part must be developed in order. </li></ul>
    50. 50. Procedural Drift <ul><li>Caused by a lack of buy-in or lack of feedback </li></ul><ul><li>Critical to get buy-in from staff and encourage everyone to take “ownership” of procedures </li></ul><ul><li>Critical to set up a monitoring system and keep it going </li></ul><ul><li>Important to assign responsibility for collecting information and providing feedback </li></ul>
    51. 51. In Conclusion <ul><li>Plan SOPs for specific results </li></ul><ul><li>Use an inclusive process, everyone really needs to buy in to them </li></ul><ul><li>Monitor performance and provide feedback to everyone </li></ul><ul><li>Create a “culture of continuous improvement” </li></ul>