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Towards The Semantic Web
Towards The Semantic Web
Towards The Semantic Web
Towards The Semantic Web
Towards The Semantic Web
Towards The Semantic Web
Towards The Semantic Web
Towards The Semantic Web
Towards The Semantic Web
Towards The Semantic Web
Towards The Semantic Web
Towards The Semantic Web
Towards The Semantic Web
Towards The Semantic Web
Towards The Semantic Web
Towards The Semantic Web
Towards The Semantic Web
Towards The Semantic Web
Towards The Semantic Web
Towards The Semantic Web
Towards The Semantic Web
Towards The Semantic Web
Towards The Semantic Web
Towards The Semantic Web
Towards The Semantic Web
Towards The Semantic Web
Towards The Semantic Web
Towards The Semantic Web
Towards The Semantic Web
Towards The Semantic Web
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Towards The Semantic Web

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  • Transcript

    • 1. TAP R.V.Guha, IBM Research Rob McCool, Stanford KSL
    • 2. TAP: Context
      • Islands of XML from disparate web services
      • Example : Tori Amos
      • Up to consumer to put these chunks together
      • Situation analogous to pre-web hypertext systems and RDBMS today
    • 3. TAP Goal
      • Create a coherent semantic web from disparate chunks
      • Effectively make the web a giant distributed DB
      • Why --- Bringing the Internet to programs
    • 4. TAP: What We Do
      • Inspired by DNS and early web --- simple contracts, everything decentralized
      • Protocols to publish & navigate
        • a small simple set of publishing & access guidelines that knit together schematically unified whole create
      • Bootstrapping: Create comprehensive chunks of the semantic web in a few areas
      • Applications: Semantic Search, Internet Wet Lab
    • 5. TAP Protocol : GetData
      • Simple API to navigate this web
      • DNS : GetHostByName(<host>) => ip addr.
      • TAP: GetData(<resource>, <property>) => value
        • GetData(<Tori Amos>, birthplace) => <Newton, NC>
        • GetData(<Newton, NC>, temperature) => 57 F
        • GetData(<Newton, NC>, locatedIn) => <North Carolina>
      • Publisher exposes data as a graph via GetData
      • Consumer uses GetData to navigate graph
      • Key tech. issues : Caching, Directories, Names
    • 6. The Name Problem
      • We don’t get nice sub-graphs
      • like these, with easy to use
      • assembly instructions
      Date Of Birth “ 8/22/63” Musician Crucify Under The Pink North Carolina USA Located in City Music Album instanceof instanceof Located in 62 F temperature Author EMI Atlantic publisher birthplace publisher instanceof instanceof Author Geo Almanac Weather channel CDNow People Magazine Newton, NC Newton, NC Newton, NC Tori Amos Tori Amos
    • 7. We get a mess like this Date Of Birth “ 8/22/63” Musician Crucify Under The Pink North Carolina USA Located in City Music Album instanceof instanceof Located in 62 F temperature Author EMI Atlantic publisher birthplace publisher instanceof instanceof Author Geo Almanac Weather channel CDNow People Magazine NTNC Newton,_NorthCar USNC0491 0,9855,109071,00 328723677
    • 8. The Name Problem
      • Names are crucial in information exchange
        • 2 parties cannot exchange information about an object without agreeing on how they are going to refer to it
      • The Problem : too many names to keep track off!
        • No URN for <Newton, NC> or <Tori Amos>
        • Different sites have different names for the same thing!
        • URN efforts to date largely failures
        • Traditional Approach : Name-Mapping tables
    • 9. Date Of Birth “ 8/22/63” Musician Crucify Under The Pink North Carolina USA Located in City Music Album instanceof instanceof Located in 62 F temperature Author EMI Atlantic publisher birthplace publisher instanceof instanceof Author Geo Almanac Weather channel CDNow People Magazine NTNC Newton,_NorthCar USNC0491 0,9855,109071,00 328723677 Calling program 328723677 <-> 0,9855,1… USNC0491 <-> NTNC <-> . . . NTNC Newton,_Nor… 0,9855, … 328723677 USNC0491
    • 10. TAP Naming
      • Reference by descriptions
        • E.g., “A Musician whose firstName is ’Tori’ and whose lastName is ‘Amos’ and whose …”
        • Names are degenerate descriptions
          • Amzn:B000002UB2, CDNOW: 328723677
        • Description based name negotiation
      • Core Insight
        • Don’t require globally unique names for everything if we can describe things using a starting vocabulary
        • Need a description language, starting vocabulary and negotiation mechanism
        • Bootstrapping some shared meaning into more shared meaning
    • 11. The vision: descriptions choreograph the integration Date Of Birth “ 8/22/63” Musician Crucify Under The Pink North Carolina USA Located in City Music Album instanceof instanceof Located in 62 F temperature Author EMI Atlantic publisher birthplace publisher instanceof instanceof Author Geo Almanac Weather channel CDNow People Magazine NTNC Newton,_NorthCar USNC0491 0,9855,109071,00 328723677 Calling program D1 D1 D1, D2 D2 D1 = description of Newton, NC D2 = description of Tori Amos
    • 12. Description based References
      • The core protocol : GetData
        • GetData(Resource Description, arc-label)
        • GetData(<Tori Amos>, birthplace)
        • GetData(RDF Description of Tori Amos, birthplace)
      • A form of loose coupling:
        • Handling Ambiguity, Failure to denote, …
      • The core contract:
        • Expose your data as a Graph
        • Map incoming descriptions to nodes in your graph
      • In return, your data is now integrated into the global semantic web
    • 13. Infrastructure: Kernel Vocabulary
      • Provides vocabulary for descriptions
      • Purpose is to provide the infrastructure for constructing descriptions with which programs can refer to things
      • “ A Musician whose firstName is ’Tori’ and whose lastName is ‘Amos’ and whose
      • It doesn’t reside anywhere : it’s a specification
    • 14. Applications
      • Good infrastructures have waves of applications
        • WWW : home pages, portals, ecommerce, …
        • DNS : email, telnet, ftp, gopher, … WWW
      • Semantic Search
        • Adding Semantics to Search
        • Crawl, grab, index model of search doesn’t work for dynamic web sites or web applications
        • Semantic based Search Augmentation enables search to cover time sensitive data
      • Internet Wet Lab
    • 15. Semantic Web Application: Semantic Search
    • 16. Search Augmentation Example
    • 17. How the Semantic Infrastructure gets used in Semantic Search Search Front End “ Yo Yo Ma” Musician whose genre is ClassicalMusic, First name is … Who has - concert dates? - discography? - auctions? - bio? For musician whose EBay CDNow AllMusic TicketMaster KB UDDI++ Concert Dates for Musician whose … Bio for … Discography for … Auctions for … Caching & Buffering
    • 18. TAP KBs for Semantic Search
      • Large Knowledge Base of specific musicians, cities, athletes, …
        • Currently covers about 20% of search terms
        • Built in a largely automated fashion
          • Scrapers for free data sources
          • Simple noun phrase analysis of news articles
            • AP, Reuters, …
      • Scrapers for important sites to bootstrap
      • KB also helps bootstrap the semantic web
    • 19. KB Coverage Today
      • Music
        • Musicians, instr., styles
      • Movies
        • Movies, actors, tv-shows
      • Authors
        • Top authors, classic books,
      • Sports
        • Athletes, sports, sports teams, equipment
      • Autos
        • Auto models, motorcycles, .
      • Companies
        • Fortune 500
      • Home Appliances
        • Types, brands
      • Toys
        • Types, brands
      • Baby products
        • Types, brands
      • Places
        • Countries, cities, tourist attractions, …
      • Consumer electronics
        • Audio/Video, Communication
        • Game : consoles, titles, …
      • Health
        • Diseases, Drugs, …
    • 20. Semantic Site Search
      • Semantic Search useful not just for internet wide search, but also for site search
      • Same principles as internet-wide search
      • KBs created for searching related individual sites can be shared between sites
      • These KBs feed into global semantic web
      • Example: Semantic Search for www.w3.org
    • 21. TAP Appl: Internet Wet Lab
      • In many sciences, more data will be produced in the next 2 years than exists today
      • Increasingly, research consists of writing programs that mine this data
      • Data is isolated as islands in different labs
      • Data from one lab not easily available to programs in another lab
      • We want to use TAP to create a single virtual net-wide “database” containing all this experimental data
      • Example : Clinical Trial Data
    • 22. TAP Organization
      • TAP is a multi-organization research effort
        • IBM, Stanford KSL, Stanford Logic Group, CMU West, …
      • KBs, source-code, etc. freely available (via BSD license)
      • A number of new projects starting up … places, entertainment, …
      • We invite you to join
      • URL: http://tap.stanford.edu/
    • 23. TAP: Summary
      • Small set of guidelines that create a coherent semantic web out of disparate web services
      • Potential solution to naming problem
        • Relevant to all web services
      • Semantics Search & Internet Wet Lab as driving applications
      • TAP is a research project
        • Lot of fundamental work remains to be done
        • Everything freely available. We want you to join!
    • 24. Questions
    • 25. Date Of Birth “ 8/22/63” Musician Crucify Under The Pink Newton, NC North Carolina USA US State Located in Tori Amos City Music Album Country instanceof instanceof instanceof Located in 62 F temperature Author EMI Atlantic publisher Weather channel Bg KB People Magazine CDNow Geo Almanac birthplace publisher instanceof instanceof instanceof Author
    • 26. Date Of Birth “ 8/22/63” Musician Crucify Under The Pink North Carolina USA Located in City Music Album instanceof instanceof Located in 62 F temperature Author EMI Atlantic publisher birthplace publisher instanceof instanceof Author Geo Almanac Weather channel CDNow People Magazine Newton, NC Newton, NC Newton, NC Tori Amos Tori Amos
    • 27. TAP : Summary
      • Focus is shifting from just storing and retrieving data to exchanging data. XML provides syntax. We need semantics
      • We need infrastructure layer for semantics
      • Applications drive infrastructures. The driving application for this layer is Semantics based Search & News Augmentation.
    • 28. What is an Internet Infrastructure Layer?
      • There is a data structure, pieces of which are in different places on the net
      • DNS: Hash table of host names to ip addresses accessed via GetHostByName
      • WWW : Directed graph of documents accessed via HTTP GET/POST
      • Infrastructure layer provides a set of standards & APIs to unify the different pieces so that a client can pretend it is all local
    • 29. Application 2 : RTA for news articles
    • 30. RTA for News Articles Search/ Syndication Front End News article SportsTeam_TexasRangers, AthleteRodriguez_Alex … Whose - team schedule? - posters? - auctions? - bio? EBay AOL Shopping AllPosters MLB.com Knowledge Base Directory Team Schedule for team whose title … Poster for … Videos for … Auctions for … Text analysis

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