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The Services Enabled Internet
 

The Services Enabled Internet

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    The Services Enabled Internet The Services Enabled Internet Presentation Transcript

    • The Services-Enabled Internet: Implications for Mobile Wireless Networks Randy H. Katz The United Microelectronics Corporation Distinguished Professor Computer Science Division, EECS Department University of California, Berkeley Berkeley, CA 94720-1776 USA [email_address] Some slides contributed by Prof. Eric Brewer and Dr. Steve McCanne Iceberg Ninja Endeavour S. S. 7 Sahara
    • Presentation Outline
      • Convergence, Divergence, Competition
      • The Unexpected Evolution of the Internet
      • Services-Enabled Networks
      • Implications for Mobile Wireless Networks
      • Summary and Conclusions
    • Presentation Outline
      • Convergence, Divergence, Competition
      • The Unexpected Evolution of the Internet
      • Services-Enabled Internet
      • Implications for Mobile Wireless Networks
      • Summary and Conclusions
    • Evolution of the Computer Red Herring, 10/99 Eniac, 1947 Telephone, 1876 Computer + Modem 1957 Early Wireless Phones, 1978 First Color TV Broadcast, 1953 HBO Launched, 1972 Interactive TV, 1990 Handheld Portable Phones, 1990 First PC Altair, 1974 IBM PC, 1981 Apple Mac, 1984 Apple Powerbook, 1990 IBM Thinkpad, 1992 HP Palmtop, 1991 Apple Newton, 1993 Pentium PC, 1993
    • Evolution of the Computer Red Herring, 10/99 Proliferation of diverse end devices and access networks Game Consoles Personal Digital Assistants Digital VCRs (TiVo, ReplayTV) Communicators Smart Telephones E-Toys (Furby, Aibo) Pentium PC, 1993 Atari Home Pong, 1972 Apple iMac, 1998 Pentium II PC, 1997 Palm VII PDA, 1999 Network Computer, 1996 Free PC, 1999 Sega Dreamcast, 1999 Internet-enabled Smart Phones, 1999
    • Information Appliances
      • Different design constraints based on intended use, enhances ease of use
        • Desktop PC
        • Mobile PC
        • Desktop “Smart” Phone
        • Mobile Telephone
        • Personal Digital Assistant
        • Set-top Box
        • Digital VCR
      • Implications:
        • Shift from computer design to consumer design
        • Heterogeneous “standards,” hybrid networking
        • Interactive networking, access on demand, QoS
    • Presentation Outline
      • Convergence, Divergence, and Competition
      • The Unexpected Evolution of the Internet
      • Services-Enabled Internet
      • Implications for Mobile Wireless Networks
      • Summary and Conclusions
    • Network “Cloud”
    • Regional Nets + Backbone Regional Net Regional Net Regional Net Regional Net Regional Net Regional Net Backbone LAN LAN LAN
    • Backbones + NAPs + ISPs ISP ISP ISP ISP Business ISP Consumer ISP LAN LAN LAN NAP NAP Backbones Dial-up
    • Core Networks + Access Networks Core Networks Covad @home ISP Cingular Sprint AOL LAN LAN LAN NAP Dial-up DSL Always on NAP Cable Head Ends Cell Cell Cell Satellite Fixed Wireless
    • Computers Inside the Core Covad @home ISP Cingular Sprint AOL LAN LAN LAN NAP Dial-up DSL Always on NAP Cable Head Ends Cell Cell Cell Satellite Fixed Wireless
    • New Internet Services Business Model Global Packet Network Internetworking (Connectivity) ISP CLEC Application-specific Overlay Networks (Multicast Tunnels, Mgmt Svrcs) Applications (Portals, E-Commerce, E-Tainment, Media) Application-specific Servers (Streaming Media, Transformation) ASP Internet Data Centers Appl Infrastructure Services (Distribution, Caching, Searching, Hosting) AIP ISV
    • Presentation Outline
      • Convergence, Divergence, Competition
      • The Unexpected Evolution of the Internet
      • Services-Enabled Internet
      • Implications for Mobile Wireless Networks
      • Summary and Conclusions
    • Services Within the Network: Content Distribution “ Internet Grid” Parallel Network Backbones Internet Exchange Points Co-Location Scalable Servers Web Caches
    • Services in the Internet: Napster, Gnutella, Freenet, …
      • Something more than illegally sharing RIP’d music and videos from CDs and DVDs …
      • Cooperative construction of directories
        • Peer-to-peer computing vs. client-server computing
        • No centralized index/performance hot spot/target for denial of service attack, etc.
        • BUT existing “chatty” implementations generate a lot of network traffic
      • Technologies will evolve for efficient sharing of information within communities
        • E.g., Lotus Notes, newsgroups, etc.
        • Linking library catalogs together
    • Services Within the Network: Streaming Media Clients Broadcasters Steve McCanne Content Broadcast Management Platform and Tools Edge Servers Load Balancing Thru Server Redirection; Content Broadcast Network Content Distribution Through Multicast Overlay Network Redirection Fabric Inter-ISP Redirection Peering
    • Enabled by Application-Specific Overlay Networks
      • E.g., solve the multicast management and peering problems by moving up the protocol stack
      Isolated multicast clouds Traditional unicast peering Steve McCanne multicast cloud multicast cloud multicast cloud multicast cloud multicast cloud
    • Application-Level Servers/Routers
      • Solve the multicast management and peering problems by moving up the protocol stack
      Steve McCanne
    • Presentation Outline
      • Convergence, Divergence, Competition
      • The Unexpected Evolution of the Internet
      • Services-Enabled Internet
      • Implications for Mobile Wireless Networks
      • Summary and Conclusions
    • The iMode Story
      • 21 million+ Internet-capable cellular phone subscribers
      • NTTDoCoMo has become the world’s largest ISP!
      • Most frequent used applications:
        • Voice conversations
        • Text messages
        • Animated cartoons
        • Specialized ringing tones
      • Japanese teenagers, especially females, driving the competitive development of new services!
        • Services have the half-life of “fashion”
    • Huge Expense of New Telecomms Infrastructures
      • Auctions for 3G spectrum: 150 billion ECU; Capital outlays may match spectrum expenses, all before first revenue
      • Build it, but will they come?
        • Compelling services make the difference
      • Alternative business model
        • Collaborative deployment of wireless infrastructure
        • Competitive provisioning of services
      • Better way to build a network? …
        • Partition frequencies based on subscriber density
        • Eliminate duplicate antenna sites
        • Leverage common backhaul networks
    • Business Unusual: Coopetition Access Network Internet PSTN Network Backhaul Network Access Network Backhaul Network Virtual Operator “leases” frequencies from a Real Operator, on-demand, based on the density of its subscribers Subscriber-Less Cell Site Operators
    • The Case for Horizontal Architectures
      • “ The new rules for success will be to provide one part of the puzzle and to cooperate with other suppliers to create the complete solutions that customers require. ... [V]ertical integration breaks down when innovation speeds up. The big telecoms firms that will win back investor confidence soonest will be those with the courage to rip apart their monolithic structure along functional layers, to swap size for speed and to embrace rather than fear disruptive technologies.”
      • The Economist Magazine , 16 December 2000
    • Application Services in the Mobile Wireless Network
      • Enabling more user-centered/adaptive apps
        • User preference management services
        • Application coordination services
        • Context-awareness services
        • Content-localization services
        • Mobility-model extraction services
        • Content adaptation to access network performance
        • Content adaptation to access client capabilities
        • Storage migration in response to user mobility
      • Special about mobile wireless?
        • Exploitation of location and mobility
        • Resource constrained nature of wireless environment
    • Infrastructure Services in the Mobile Wireless Network
      • Forming dynamic confederations
        • Discovering confederates, establishing trust
      • Open service/resource allocation model
        • Service creation, establishment, placement;
        • Exchange resources, capabilities, status;
        • Allocate based on economic methods;
        • Manage trust among participants;
      • Service brokering
        • Dynamically construct overlays on component services provided by underlying service providers
        • Redirect to alternative service instances
    • A New Kind of Services-Enabled Internet
      • Push services towards edges: caches, content distribution, localization
      • Construct service networks from third parties or confederations: greater support among mobile operators than conventional ISPs
      • Manage redirection, not routes: key to service-level peering
      • New applications-specific protocols
      • Twilight of the end-to-end argument?
        • Trusted service providers/network intermediaries
        • Service providers create own application-specific overlays, e.g., cache and streaming media content distribution
    • The Case for Edge Services
      • Wide-area bandwidth “unlimited and for free”
      • Increasing b/w over access networks
      • Faster, more predictable response time
      • Scale, resistance to crippling denial of service attacks
      • Integrate localized content, exploit local context
      • Near client, inside access provider, not server
      • Examples:
        • Caching: exploits response time, b/w efficiency, high local b/w
        • Filtering: form of local content transformation
        • Internet TV: b/w efficiency, high local b/w, predictable response
        • Transformation: adapt content for end user/diverse access devices
        • Software Rental: exploits high local b/w
        • Games, chat rooms, ….
    • Presentation Outline
      • Convergence, Divergence, Competition
      • The Unexpected Evolution of the Internet
      • Services-Enabled Internet
      • Implications for Mobile Wireless Networks
      • Summary and Conclusions
    • The Service-Enabled Internet/ Post-PC Era
      • Not about specific Information Appliances
      • Services spanning access networks, to achieve high performance/manage end device diversity
      • Builds on the New Internet
        • Opening up of the connectivity “cloud”
        • Embedding computing in the communications fabric
      • Pervasive support for “intelligent” services
        • Near you for faster access, more personalized, more localized
        • Scalable to deal with surges in demand as needed
    • Emerging Reference Architecture Path Provider (ISP Cloud) Path Provider (ISP Cloud) Path Provider (ISP Cloud) Path Provider (ISP Cloud) Path Provider (ISP Cloud) Server Center Provider Perf Measurement Service Service Placement Service SLAs Verify Path Broker Server Broker Server Registration Advertisement Registration Service Registration Service Redirection Distributed Application Pricing Service Constraint Specification Adapt Marshal Resources Based on Economic Constraints
    • A New Research Agenda
      • New Kind of “Quality of Service”
        • Perceived quality depends on services in the network
        • Manage caches, redistributors, latency
        • Cost/complexity of Service Management?
      • Bandwidth no longer an issue
        • Tier 1 ISP backbones rapidly moving towards OC 192 (9.6 gbs!)
        • Better interconnection: hops across ASs decreasing over time
        • Broadband access networks: cable, DSL, 3G wireless, ...
        • End-to-end latency/server load dominate performance
      • Supporting Old Services in the New Internet
        • Overlay services: IP Multicast, DNS, …
        • Rethinking the End-to-End Principle
        • Service/content-level peering, just like routing-level peering
        • Secure end-to-end connection compatible with service model?