The Leisure And Tourism Environment

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The Leisure And Tourism Environment

  1. 1. LT1001N The Leisure and Tourism Environment Lecture 7 Arts, Culture and Heritage
  2. 2. Lecture Content <ul><li>The nature of art and culture </li></ul><ul><li>Elitism and populism </li></ul><ul><li>Culture or kitsch ? </li></ul><ul><li>Commodification and the cultural industries </li></ul><ul><li>Arts and the media </li></ul><ul><li>Heritage – preservation , interpretation and re-creation </li></ul>
  3. 3. Arts, Culture and Heritage <ul><li>A broad subject area </li></ul><ul><li>We treat these three elements together because they inter-relate and overlap </li></ul><ul><li>The classical arts </li></ul><ul><li>The popular arts </li></ul><ul><li>Culture in general </li></ul><ul><li>Heritage </li></ul>
  4. 4. The nature of art and culture <ul><li>What is art ? </li></ul><ul><li>“ As the Surrealists demonstrated, art is art </li></ul><ul><li> when somebody says it is ” </li></ul><ul><li>Lewis, J (1990) </li></ul><ul><li>Art, Culture and Enterprise </li></ul><ul><li>London: Routledge </li></ul>
  5. 5. Some definitions <ul><li>Raymond Williams </li></ul><ul><li>Culture and Society (1958) </li></ul><ul><li>Keywords (1983) </li></ul><ul><li>An art (orig.): A human attribute or skill </li></ul><ul><li>‘ Art’ : A particular group of skills , the imaginative or ‘creative arts’ </li></ul><ul><li>‘ Artist’ : a special kind of person , possessing these creative ‘artistic’ skills </li></ul>
  6. 6. ‘ The Arts’ <ul><li>Literature </li></ul><ul><li>Music </li></ul><ul><li>Drama / Theatre </li></ul><ul><li>Painting </li></ul><ul><li>Sculpture </li></ul><ul><li>Ceramics </li></ul><ul><li>Variously described as: </li></ul><ul><li>‘ Classical Art ’ </li></ul><ul><li>‘ Fine Art ’ </li></ul><ul><li>‘ High ’ Art </li></ul>
  7. 7. Some characteristics of classical arts <ul><li>BACKGROUND </li></ul><ul><li>Origins in classical Greek and Roman culture </li></ul><ul><li>There, the province of a privileged ruling Patrician class </li></ul><ul><li>Drawing, painting, sculpture, music, drama, literature </li></ul><ul><li>Inter-related genres </li></ul><ul><li>IMPLICATIONS </li></ul><ul><li>Minority interest </li></ul><ul><li>Understood only by highly educated minority </li></ul><ul><li>Social class implications </li></ul><ul><li>Not accessible to all </li></ul><ul><li>Elitist in nature </li></ul><ul><li>Confined to certain artistic forms </li></ul><ul><li>Distinct from entertainment </li></ul>
  8. 8. Elitism vs populism in the arts <ul><li>Often stated key concern </li></ul><ul><li>‘ Classical arts’ ( exclusive ) versus ‘popular arts’ ( inclusive ) </li></ul><ul><li>But many consider this dichotomy to be artificial (see Tusa , Walden ) </li></ul><ul><li>Three aspects : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>access to the arts - popularisation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>but to what kind of arts? (‘ democratisation ’ versus ‘ cultural democracy ’). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>funding implications – the remit of the Arts Council initially confined to ‘ classical arts ’. </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. The elitism / populism debate Optional reading for those interested <ul><li>Tusa, J., (2000) Art Matters : Reflecting on Culture . London: Methuen. Chap.6. ‘Populism Versus Elitism – Real Enemies or Bogus Opponents?’ </li></ul><ul><li>Walden, G. (2000) The New Elites. Making a career in the masses. London: Penguin Books. </li></ul><ul><li>Chap.5., ‘A Culture of Pretence’ </li></ul>
  10. 10. Democratising Culture vs. Cultural Democracy (Council of Europe) <ul><li>DEMOCRATISING CULTURE </li></ul><ul><li>Classical art is taken as the starting point </li></ul><ul><li>Emphasis on content, standards, quality, values – ‘fine art’ </li></ul><ul><li>People should learn to “appreciate” it </li></ul><ul><li>Requires certain educational level </li></ul><ul><li>Claimed by some to be elitist </li></ul><ul><li>CULTURAL DEMOCRACY </li></ul><ul><li>The starting point is people and the art that they create </li></ul><ul><li>Community -based – ‘community arts’ </li></ul><ul><li>People create it for themselves </li></ul><ul><li>Not rooted in classical arts </li></ul><ul><li>Populist </li></ul>
  11. 11. Culture <ul><li>Can take many forms , have many meanings </li></ul><ul><li>Serves as a medium through which people define themselves </li></ul><ul><li>Culture and identity </li></ul><ul><li>Classical or ‘ high ’ culture </li></ul><ul><li>Popular culture </li></ul><ul><li>Mass culture </li></ul><ul><li>Low culture </li></ul><ul><li>Commodification of culture - good or bad ? </li></ul><ul><li>Postmodern thinking </li></ul>
  12. 12. Culture <ul><li>“ Whenever I hear the word culture , I reach </li></ul><ul><li>for my gun” </li></ul><ul><li>Hermann Goering (1893-1946) </li></ul><ul><li>Why does the word ‘ culture ’ evoke such powerful emotions? </li></ul>
  13. 13. Culture - etymology <ul><li>A complex and value-laden word </li></ul><ul><li>Originally: meant much the same as ‘ cultivation ’, as in the growth of crops </li></ul><ul><li>Then developed a parallel meaning of improving one’s mind , through education and exposure to the fine arts , humanities and the principles of science </li></ul>
  14. 14. Culture and self-improvement <ul><li>Link therefore made between culture and self-improvement </li></ul><ul><li>Cultivation of the mind – culture / education link </li></ul><ul><li>Reflects Victorian beliefs – cf. ‘Royal Albert Hall of Arts and Sciences 1867-1871’ </li></ul><ul><li>Arts and science linked – discovery – reflection of modernity </li></ul><ul><li>cf. a much later debate, C.P. Snow, “ The Two Cultures ” (1959) </li></ul>
  15. 15. Narrow and broad views of culture <ul><li>Narrow view: familiarity with / involvement in the fine arts - painting, sculpture, literature, dance, drama - as a measure of societal advancement </li></ul><ul><li>Broad view: ( sociological ) – ‘ culture ’ is the totality of the customs , artistic achievements and general civilisation of a country or people </li></ul>
  16. 16. Material culture <ul><li>Term used by anthropologists , archaeologists and museum curators </li></ul><ul><li>Designates the physical (‘cultural’) objects associated with a particular people, whether they are useful or not </li></ul><ul><li>Artefacts as signifiers </li></ul>
  17. 17. Hostility to culture <ul><li>Began in 19 th Century </li></ul><ul><li>Complex links made between ‘higher’ culture and class distinctions </li></ul><ul><li>This caused many people to reject its implied claim of superior knowledge and refinement </li></ul>
  18. 18. Hostility to culture – international connotations and cultural identity <ul><li>1 st World War – jingoistic reaction to the use of culture in German propaganda </li></ul><ul><li>Similarly, in 30’s, in reference to Soviet Russia </li></ul><ul><li>Chinese ‘cultural revolution’ , 1966-1976 </li></ul><ul><li>UK ‘Department of Culture, Media and Sport’ (1997) almost has Orwellian or totalitarian overtones (cf. Soviet ‘Ministry of Culture’ ) </li></ul>
  19. 19. Extended meanings of culture: Culture and anti-culture <ul><li>‘ Culture’ is increasingly used to indicate any group of people linked by some common characteristic, activity, belief or circumstances, often in a pejorative sense: </li></ul><ul><li>Yob culture </li></ul><ul><li>Drink culture </li></ul><ul><li>Drug culture </li></ul><ul><li>Laddish culture </li></ul><ul><li>Gun culture </li></ul><ul><li>Cyber culture </li></ul><ul><li>Net culture </li></ul><ul><li>Rave culture </li></ul><ul><li>Punk culture </li></ul><ul><li>Queer culture </li></ul>
  20. 20. Arts and Entertainment Some descriptor words (after Hughes, 2000) transitory / ephemeral pleasurable cultured enlightenment commercial fun non-commercial expressive amusement self-indulgent inspirational creative delight passive emotional serious escapist frivolous purposeful / enduring learned (educational) excitement enjoyment fundamental refinement ENTERTAINMENT ARTS
  21. 21. Arts – characteristics of the genre <ul><li>Classical music, ballet, plays, opera, paintings, sculpture </li></ul><ul><li>Associated with ‘refinement’ and with something more than the ‘ordinary’ man or woman could either produce or appreciate without training, education and effort </li></ul><ul><li>The arts are regarded as the work of a few talented people and represent the highest levels of human creative ability </li></ul>
  22. 22. Arts – characteristics of the genre <ul><li>Works of art are created for their own sake as an expression of the creator’s vision , and are not created primarily with a view to making money </li></ul><ul><li>Similarly, performers have chosen to enter this field because of some inner impulse, natural talent, and intrinsic satisfactions , and not necessarily for financial reward </li></ul>
  23. 23. Arts – characteristics of the genre <ul><li>The ‘ culture ’ of a nation or society often refers to its commitment to these values </li></ul><ul><li>For some, the terms ‘ fine arts ’ and ‘ culture ’ are synonymous and interchangeable </li></ul><ul><li>People who understand and appreciate the arts as so defined are said to be ‘ cultured ’ </li></ul>
  24. 24. Entertainment – characteristics of the genre <ul><li>In contrast to the arts, entertainment has overtones of being light , pleasurable and undemanding </li></ul><ul><li>It requires little effort to appreciate </li></ul><ul><li>Entertainment is generally considered to be, in some way, inferior to , and less valuable and serious than , the arts </li></ul><ul><li>At its most extreme, people who seek only popular entertainment and have no interest in the arts are said to be ‘ uncultured ’ </li></ul>
  25. 25. Mainstream arts – origins CEMA and the Arts Council <ul><li>In 1940 the Council for Encouragement of Music and the Arts ( CEMA ) was set up to promote interest in the arts during wartime </li></ul><ul><li>It was highly successful and gave rise in 1945 to the Arts Council of Great Britain </li></ul>
  26. 26. The Arts Council – original remit <ul><li>&quot;To develop a greater knowledge, understanding and practice of the fine arts exclusively , and in particular to increase the accessibility of the fine arts to the public, to improve the standard of execution of the fine arts and to advise and co-operate with government departments , local authorities and other bodies on any matters concerned directly or indirectly with these objects&quot; </li></ul>
  27. 27. The Arts Council – current remit <ul><li>To develop and improve the knowledge, understanding and practice of the arts </li></ul><ul><li>To increase the accessibility of the arts to the public throughout the UK </li></ul><ul><li>To advise and co-operate with government departments , local authorities and other bodies on any matters concerned with these objectives </li></ul>
  28. 28. Arts providers <ul><li>National art galleries and museums ( Tate Modern, Tate Britain, National Gallery ) </li></ul><ul><li>Local art galleries and museums </li></ul><ul><li>Concert halls , theatres and arts centres ( South Bank Centre; Barbican; National Theatre ) </li></ul><ul><li>Private art collections ( Courtauld Institute ) </li></ul><ul><li>Commercial art galleries ( Connaught Brown; Saatchi gallery ) </li></ul>
  29. 29. Culture and the media <ul><li>The media have an important role in the promotion and dissemination of culture </li></ul><ul><li>Through popularising classical culture (e.g., television: ‘The South Bank Show’; BBC-2; Channel 4 ) </li></ul><ul><li>Through presenting new and experimental culture </li></ul><ul><li>Through creating new media-driven cultural forms </li></ul><ul><li>Through integrating cultural forms </li></ul><ul><li>Through developing new audiences for arts programmes </li></ul>
  30. 30. ‘ Popular’ culture The term ‘popular’ can have several meanings (Williams, 1976) <ul><li>Inferior kinds of work (‘ popular ’ tabloid press vs. ‘ quality ’ broadsheet press) </li></ul><ul><li>Setting out to win favour (‘ popular journalism ’, ‘ popular entertainment ’) </li></ul><ul><li>Well liked by many people (‘deservedly popular ’) </li></ul><ul><li>Originating from (made by), and identified with , the majority of people (‘ popular culture ’) </li></ul>
  31. 31. Popular culture <ul><li>Entertainment and many other activities including football , fashion , shopping , watching television , and visits to bars and clubs have been categorised as ‘ popular culture ’ </li></ul><ul><li>Popular culture is a broad culture with which most people can identify </li></ul><ul><li>Shapes their behaviour and their consumption patterns </li></ul><ul><li>Most of this ‘ cultural product ’ is commercially produced – by the ‘ cultural industries ’ ( commodification ) </li></ul>
  32. 32. Popular culture <ul><li>It may be the outcome of a creative process , but whether it involves self-conscious expression or merely reproductions of the world is debatable </li></ul><ul><li>Sold to consumers to make money , rather than as a primary expression of human creativity </li></ul><ul><li>A commodified product </li></ul>
  33. 33. Mass culture <ul><li>One step further down the road to commercialisation </li></ul><ul><li>A standardised ‘cultural product’ produced for mass consumption </li></ul><ul><li>In the 21 st century, the cultural experiences of the majority of the population of the industrialised world are received through television, video, CDs, DVDs and computers - the electronic mass media </li></ul><ul><li>Consumers are persuaded to purchase through intensive marketing campaigns </li></ul>
  34. 34. Culture or kitsch ? <ul><li>Questions of value and artistic merit are inescapable, although difficult to arrive at </li></ul><ul><li>What gives something artistic merit ? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>It is arrived at by external judgment , not inherent in the object (Lewis, 1990) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It is therefore contentious and not universally agreed upon </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>But most would agree on what is worthless by any reasonable standard – described as ‘ kitsch ’ – crass, tasteless, vulgar, hideous, mass-produced ! </li></ul></ul>
  35. 35. Culture and the media The birth of ‘the cultural industries’ <ul><li>The media have been a driving force in the development of the ‘ cultural industries ’ </li></ul><ul><li>These promote and sell ‘ popular culture ’ and ‘ mass culture ’ </li></ul><ul><li>They may also popularise traditional culture </li></ul><ul><li>But may change its essence through commodification </li></ul>
  36. 36. Popularising ‘classical’ culture Some examples <ul><li>The Henry Wood Proms </li></ul><ul><li>‘ Proms in the Park’ </li></ul><ul><li>‘ Pavarotti in the Park’ </li></ul><ul><li>Nigel Kennedy; Evelyn Glennie; Julian Lloyd Webber </li></ul><ul><li>Andrew Lloyd Webber </li></ul><ul><li>‘ The Three Tenors’ (Carreras, Domingo, Pavarotti) </li></ul><ul><li>‘ Hooked on Classics’ </li></ul><ul><li>Raymond Gubbay organisation </li></ul><ul><li>Classic FM </li></ul>
  37. 37. Popularising ‘classical’ culture A paradox <ul><li>The Millennium Dome – an embodiment of ‘ popular culture ’, and an icon of New Labour’s cultural policy , has been a catastrophic failure , while: </li></ul><ul><li>Tate Modern and Tate Britain – both based on classical and contemporary art , have been highly successful with a mass public </li></ul><ul><li>Suggests that the supposed ‘elitist’ connotations of classical art are not borne out in practice </li></ul>
  38. 38. Audiences and access – some further myths <ul><li>Prevalent stereotype of classical arts audiences as being predominantly white, middle-class, wealthy, public-school educated </li></ul><ul><li>Not borne out at all by demographic analysis of attendance figures at classical arts events </li></ul><ul><li>See Tusa article (Readings 7), pp.15-16. </li></ul>
  39. 39. Department for Culture, Media and Sport (DCMS) <ul><li>One of the largest Government departments </li></ul><ul><li>Formerly the Department of National Heritage </li></ul><ul><li>Renamed by New Labour (1997) </li></ul><ul><li>Has policy responsibility for museums , galleries and libraries , the built heritage , the arts , sport , education , broadcasting and the media and tourism , as well as the creative industries , the Millennium Projects and the National Lottery . </li></ul><ul><li>Website: www.culture.gov.uk </li></ul>
  40. 40. Culture and the media – a paradox <ul><li>The media selects particular individuals and confers on them iconic status </li></ul><ul><li>They become media icons – elite figures </li></ul><ul><li>The public do not object to, or denigrate, elite celebrities (e.g., footballers) </li></ul><ul><li>So why is elitism acceptable in sport but frowned upon in the arts? </li></ul>
  41. 41. Culture in postmodernity (see Featherstone, 1991) <ul><li>Clear distinctions such as those previously made between art and entertainment are now increasingly seen as being unjustifiable </li></ul><ul><li>The arts-entertainment distinction is ultimately a matter of judgement </li></ul><ul><li>The definition of what is / is not art has been made by a small (until recently) body of well-educated people </li></ul>
  42. 42. Culture in postmodernity (see Featherstone, 1991) <ul><li>Postmodernity involves the breakdown of established structures , and the blurring of traditional boundaries </li></ul><ul><li>Known as ‘ dedifferentiation ’ </li></ul><ul><li>There are no certainties and everything has its own validity </li></ul><ul><li>There are no clear rules for interpreting the world </li></ul><ul><li>Each individual can give and derive meaning from objects and activities precisely as they wish </li></ul>
  43. 43. Heritage: a definition <ul><li>“ The representation of the past for popular </li></ul><ul><li>contemporary consumption ” </li></ul><ul><li>Fiona Terry-Chandler (2000) </li></ul><ul><li>Heritage is about preservation , interpretation and re-creation </li></ul><ul><li>But it is clearly also about commercialisation , commodification , and consumption </li></ul><ul><li>The ‘ heritage industry’ is a significant part of the broader ‘ cultural industries ’ </li></ul>
  44. 44. Heritage types <ul><li>Can distinguish between: </li></ul><ul><li>Cultural heritage - languages and customs </li></ul><ul><li>Built heritage - historic buildings and sites </li></ul><ul><li>Natural heritage - fauna and flora </li></ul>
  45. 45. The heritage industry <ul><li>Hewison ( The Heritage Industry , 1987) is critical of much of this, in a UK context: </li></ul><ul><li>“ While the real economy crumbles, a new force is taking over: the Heritage Industry, a movement dedicated to turning the British Isles into one vast open-air museum” </li></ul><ul><li>How much is authentic , and how much pastiche ? </li></ul>
  46. 46. Museums Changing roles – the growth of ‘edutainment’ <ul><li>Traditionally , the role of museums is one of: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Collection </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Conservation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Display </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Education </li></ul></ul><ul><li>But this role is changing to embrace </li></ul><ul><li>elements of: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Entertainment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Interaction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Interpretation </li></ul></ul>
  47. 47. The postmodern museum <ul><li>Characterised by: </li></ul><ul><li>Widening of range of exhibits , reflecting pluralisation and contemporarisation of history </li></ul><ul><li>Direct participation by visitors / greater interactivity – elimination of ‘the glass case’ (Hooper-Greenhill, 1988) </li></ul><ul><li>Great attempts to communicate with, and interpret for, visitors (through audio-guides, videos, websites, etc). </li></ul>
  48. 48. Set Readings (Readings Seven) <ul><li>Paper 1: Tusa, J. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The former broadcaster discusses the nature of art and why it is important in society </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Papers 2: Urry, Foley & McPherson </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Introduction to heritage concepts and the postmodern museum </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Papers 3: Deuchar, Terry-Chandler </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Presenting and representing heritage – ‘Titanic’ (exhibition and film) </li></ul></ul>
  49. 49. Recommended further reading <ul><li>Du Gay, P. (ed.) (1997) </li></ul><ul><li>Production of culture / cultures of production . London: Sage / Open University. </li></ul><ul><li>An interesting introduction to the </li></ul><ul><li>‘ cultural industries’ </li></ul>
  50. 50. LT1001N - Keeping ahead ! WHAT YOU SHOULD HAVE DONE BY NOW (Week 7) <ul><li>Downloaded Lectures 1- 7 from the website </li></ul><ul><li>Revised these lectures and made your own supplementary notes </li></ul><ul><li>Prepared Readings Six (Elvin; Holt & Mason; Whannel papers) for this week’s seminar </li></ul><ul><li>Completed and written up your Portfolio Section Three </li></ul><ul><li>(‘The Sport and Recreation Domain’) </li></ul><ul><li>Beginning Portfolio Section Four </li></ul><ul><li>(‘The Arts, Culture and Heritage Domain’) </li></ul>
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