The Leisure And Tourism Environment
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The Leisure And Tourism Environment Presentation Transcript

  • 1. LT1001N The Leisure and Tourism Environment Lecture 7 Arts, Culture and Heritage
  • 2. Lecture Content
    • The nature of art and culture
    • Elitism and populism
    • Culture or kitsch ?
    • Commodification and the cultural industries
    • Arts and the media
    • Heritage – preservation , interpretation and re-creation
  • 3. Arts, Culture and Heritage
    • A broad subject area
    • We treat these three elements together because they inter-relate and overlap
    • The classical arts
    • The popular arts
    • Culture in general
    • Heritage
  • 4. The nature of art and culture
    • What is art ?
    • “ As the Surrealists demonstrated, art is art
    • when somebody says it is ”
    • Lewis, J (1990)
    • Art, Culture and Enterprise
    • London: Routledge
  • 5. Some definitions
    • Raymond Williams
    • Culture and Society (1958)
    • Keywords (1983)
    • An art (orig.): A human attribute or skill
    • ‘ Art’ : A particular group of skills , the imaginative or ‘creative arts’
    • ‘ Artist’ : a special kind of person , possessing these creative ‘artistic’ skills
  • 6. ‘ The Arts’
    • Literature
    • Music
    • Drama / Theatre
    • Painting
    • Sculpture
    • Ceramics
    • Variously described as:
    • ‘ Classical Art ’
    • ‘ Fine Art ’
    • ‘ High ’ Art
  • 7. Some characteristics of classical arts
    • BACKGROUND
    • Origins in classical Greek and Roman culture
    • There, the province of a privileged ruling Patrician class
    • Drawing, painting, sculpture, music, drama, literature
    • Inter-related genres
    • IMPLICATIONS
    • Minority interest
    • Understood only by highly educated minority
    • Social class implications
    • Not accessible to all
    • Elitist in nature
    • Confined to certain artistic forms
    • Distinct from entertainment
  • 8. Elitism vs populism in the arts
    • Often stated key concern
    • ‘ Classical arts’ ( exclusive ) versus ‘popular arts’ ( inclusive )
    • But many consider this dichotomy to be artificial (see Tusa , Walden )
    • Three aspects :
      • access to the arts - popularisation
      • but to what kind of arts? (‘ democratisation ’ versus ‘ cultural democracy ’).
      • funding implications – the remit of the Arts Council initially confined to ‘ classical arts ’.
  • 9. The elitism / populism debate Optional reading for those interested
    • Tusa, J., (2000) Art Matters : Reflecting on Culture . London: Methuen. Chap.6. ‘Populism Versus Elitism – Real Enemies or Bogus Opponents?’
    • Walden, G. (2000) The New Elites. Making a career in the masses. London: Penguin Books.
    • Chap.5., ‘A Culture of Pretence’
  • 10. Democratising Culture vs. Cultural Democracy (Council of Europe)
    • DEMOCRATISING CULTURE
    • Classical art is taken as the starting point
    • Emphasis on content, standards, quality, values – ‘fine art’
    • People should learn to “appreciate” it
    • Requires certain educational level
    • Claimed by some to be elitist
    • CULTURAL DEMOCRACY
    • The starting point is people and the art that they create
    • Community -based – ‘community arts’
    • People create it for themselves
    • Not rooted in classical arts
    • Populist
  • 11. Culture
    • Can take many forms , have many meanings
    • Serves as a medium through which people define themselves
    • Culture and identity
    • Classical or ‘ high ’ culture
    • Popular culture
    • Mass culture
    • Low culture
    • Commodification of culture - good or bad ?
    • Postmodern thinking
  • 12. Culture
    • “ Whenever I hear the word culture , I reach
    • for my gun”
    • Hermann Goering (1893-1946)
    • Why does the word ‘ culture ’ evoke such powerful emotions?
  • 13. Culture - etymology
    • A complex and value-laden word
    • Originally: meant much the same as ‘ cultivation ’, as in the growth of crops
    • Then developed a parallel meaning of improving one’s mind , through education and exposure to the fine arts , humanities and the principles of science
  • 14. Culture and self-improvement
    • Link therefore made between culture and self-improvement
    • Cultivation of the mind – culture / education link
    • Reflects Victorian beliefs – cf. ‘Royal Albert Hall of Arts and Sciences 1867-1871’
    • Arts and science linked – discovery – reflection of modernity
    • cf. a much later debate, C.P. Snow, “ The Two Cultures ” (1959)
  • 15. Narrow and broad views of culture
    • Narrow view: familiarity with / involvement in the fine arts - painting, sculpture, literature, dance, drama - as a measure of societal advancement
    • Broad view: ( sociological ) – ‘ culture ’ is the totality of the customs , artistic achievements and general civilisation of a country or people
  • 16. Material culture
    • Term used by anthropologists , archaeologists and museum curators
    • Designates the physical (‘cultural’) objects associated with a particular people, whether they are useful or not
    • Artefacts as signifiers
  • 17. Hostility to culture
    • Began in 19 th Century
    • Complex links made between ‘higher’ culture and class distinctions
    • This caused many people to reject its implied claim of superior knowledge and refinement
  • 18. Hostility to culture – international connotations and cultural identity
    • 1 st World War – jingoistic reaction to the use of culture in German propaganda
    • Similarly, in 30’s, in reference to Soviet Russia
    • Chinese ‘cultural revolution’ , 1966-1976
    • UK ‘Department of Culture, Media and Sport’ (1997) almost has Orwellian or totalitarian overtones (cf. Soviet ‘Ministry of Culture’ )
  • 19. Extended meanings of culture: Culture and anti-culture
    • ‘ Culture’ is increasingly used to indicate any group of people linked by some common characteristic, activity, belief or circumstances, often in a pejorative sense:
    • Yob culture
    • Drink culture
    • Drug culture
    • Laddish culture
    • Gun culture
    • Cyber culture
    • Net culture
    • Rave culture
    • Punk culture
    • Queer culture
  • 20. Arts and Entertainment Some descriptor words (after Hughes, 2000) transitory / ephemeral pleasurable cultured enlightenment commercial fun non-commercial expressive amusement self-indulgent inspirational creative delight passive emotional serious escapist frivolous purposeful / enduring learned (educational) excitement enjoyment fundamental refinement ENTERTAINMENT ARTS
  • 21. Arts – characteristics of the genre
    • Classical music, ballet, plays, opera, paintings, sculpture
    • Associated with ‘refinement’ and with something more than the ‘ordinary’ man or woman could either produce or appreciate without training, education and effort
    • The arts are regarded as the work of a few talented people and represent the highest levels of human creative ability
  • 22. Arts – characteristics of the genre
    • Works of art are created for their own sake as an expression of the creator’s vision , and are not created primarily with a view to making money
    • Similarly, performers have chosen to enter this field because of some inner impulse, natural talent, and intrinsic satisfactions , and not necessarily for financial reward
  • 23. Arts – characteristics of the genre
    • The ‘ culture ’ of a nation or society often refers to its commitment to these values
    • For some, the terms ‘ fine arts ’ and ‘ culture ’ are synonymous and interchangeable
    • People who understand and appreciate the arts as so defined are said to be ‘ cultured ’
  • 24. Entertainment – characteristics of the genre
    • In contrast to the arts, entertainment has overtones of being light , pleasurable and undemanding
    • It requires little effort to appreciate
    • Entertainment is generally considered to be, in some way, inferior to , and less valuable and serious than , the arts
    • At its most extreme, people who seek only popular entertainment and have no interest in the arts are said to be ‘ uncultured ’
  • 25. Mainstream arts – origins CEMA and the Arts Council
    • In 1940 the Council for Encouragement of Music and the Arts ( CEMA ) was set up to promote interest in the arts during wartime
    • It was highly successful and gave rise in 1945 to the Arts Council of Great Britain
  • 26. The Arts Council – original remit
    • "To develop a greater knowledge, understanding and practice of the fine arts exclusively , and in particular to increase the accessibility of the fine arts to the public, to improve the standard of execution of the fine arts and to advise and co-operate with government departments , local authorities and other bodies on any matters concerned directly or indirectly with these objects"
  • 27. The Arts Council – current remit
    • To develop and improve the knowledge, understanding and practice of the arts
    • To increase the accessibility of the arts to the public throughout the UK
    • To advise and co-operate with government departments , local authorities and other bodies on any matters concerned with these objectives
  • 28. Arts providers
    • National art galleries and museums ( Tate Modern, Tate Britain, National Gallery )
    • Local art galleries and museums
    • Concert halls , theatres and arts centres ( South Bank Centre; Barbican; National Theatre )
    • Private art collections ( Courtauld Institute )
    • Commercial art galleries ( Connaught Brown; Saatchi gallery )
  • 29. Culture and the media
    • The media have an important role in the promotion and dissemination of culture
    • Through popularising classical culture (e.g., television: ‘The South Bank Show’; BBC-2; Channel 4 )
    • Through presenting new and experimental culture
    • Through creating new media-driven cultural forms
    • Through integrating cultural forms
    • Through developing new audiences for arts programmes
  • 30. ‘ Popular’ culture The term ‘popular’ can have several meanings (Williams, 1976)
    • Inferior kinds of work (‘ popular ’ tabloid press vs. ‘ quality ’ broadsheet press)
    • Setting out to win favour (‘ popular journalism ’, ‘ popular entertainment ’)
    • Well liked by many people (‘deservedly popular ’)
    • Originating from (made by), and identified with , the majority of people (‘ popular culture ’)
  • 31. Popular culture
    • Entertainment and many other activities including football , fashion , shopping , watching television , and visits to bars and clubs have been categorised as ‘ popular culture ’
    • Popular culture is a broad culture with which most people can identify
    • Shapes their behaviour and their consumption patterns
    • Most of this ‘ cultural product ’ is commercially produced – by the ‘ cultural industries ’ ( commodification )
  • 32. Popular culture
    • It may be the outcome of a creative process , but whether it involves self-conscious expression or merely reproductions of the world is debatable
    • Sold to consumers to make money , rather than as a primary expression of human creativity
    • A commodified product
  • 33. Mass culture
    • One step further down the road to commercialisation
    • A standardised ‘cultural product’ produced for mass consumption
    • In the 21 st century, the cultural experiences of the majority of the population of the industrialised world are received through television, video, CDs, DVDs and computers - the electronic mass media
    • Consumers are persuaded to purchase through intensive marketing campaigns
  • 34. Culture or kitsch ?
    • Questions of value and artistic merit are inescapable, although difficult to arrive at
    • What gives something artistic merit ?
      • It is arrived at by external judgment , not inherent in the object (Lewis, 1990)
      • It is therefore contentious and not universally agreed upon
      • But most would agree on what is worthless by any reasonable standard – described as ‘ kitsch ’ – crass, tasteless, vulgar, hideous, mass-produced !
  • 35. Culture and the media The birth of ‘the cultural industries’
    • The media have been a driving force in the development of the ‘ cultural industries ’
    • These promote and sell ‘ popular culture ’ and ‘ mass culture ’
    • They may also popularise traditional culture
    • But may change its essence through commodification
  • 36. Popularising ‘classical’ culture Some examples
    • The Henry Wood Proms
    • ‘ Proms in the Park’
    • ‘ Pavarotti in the Park’
    • Nigel Kennedy; Evelyn Glennie; Julian Lloyd Webber
    • Andrew Lloyd Webber
    • ‘ The Three Tenors’ (Carreras, Domingo, Pavarotti)
    • ‘ Hooked on Classics’
    • Raymond Gubbay organisation
    • Classic FM
  • 37. Popularising ‘classical’ culture A paradox
    • The Millennium Dome – an embodiment of ‘ popular culture ’, and an icon of New Labour’s cultural policy , has been a catastrophic failure , while:
    • Tate Modern and Tate Britain – both based on classical and contemporary art , have been highly successful with a mass public
    • Suggests that the supposed ‘elitist’ connotations of classical art are not borne out in practice
  • 38. Audiences and access – some further myths
    • Prevalent stereotype of classical arts audiences as being predominantly white, middle-class, wealthy, public-school educated
    • Not borne out at all by demographic analysis of attendance figures at classical arts events
    • See Tusa article (Readings 7), pp.15-16.
  • 39. Department for Culture, Media and Sport (DCMS)
    • One of the largest Government departments
    • Formerly the Department of National Heritage
    • Renamed by New Labour (1997)
    • Has policy responsibility for museums , galleries and libraries , the built heritage , the arts , sport , education , broadcasting and the media and tourism , as well as the creative industries , the Millennium Projects and the National Lottery .
    • Website: www.culture.gov.uk
  • 40. Culture and the media – a paradox
    • The media selects particular individuals and confers on them iconic status
    • They become media icons – elite figures
    • The public do not object to, or denigrate, elite celebrities (e.g., footballers)
    • So why is elitism acceptable in sport but frowned upon in the arts?
  • 41. Culture in postmodernity (see Featherstone, 1991)
    • Clear distinctions such as those previously made between art and entertainment are now increasingly seen as being unjustifiable
    • The arts-entertainment distinction is ultimately a matter of judgement
    • The definition of what is / is not art has been made by a small (until recently) body of well-educated people
  • 42. Culture in postmodernity (see Featherstone, 1991)
    • Postmodernity involves the breakdown of established structures , and the blurring of traditional boundaries
    • Known as ‘ dedifferentiation ’
    • There are no certainties and everything has its own validity
    • There are no clear rules for interpreting the world
    • Each individual can give and derive meaning from objects and activities precisely as they wish
  • 43. Heritage: a definition
    • “ The representation of the past for popular
    • contemporary consumption ”
    • Fiona Terry-Chandler (2000)
    • Heritage is about preservation , interpretation and re-creation
    • But it is clearly also about commercialisation , commodification , and consumption
    • The ‘ heritage industry’ is a significant part of the broader ‘ cultural industries ’
  • 44. Heritage types
    • Can distinguish between:
    • Cultural heritage - languages and customs
    • Built heritage - historic buildings and sites
    • Natural heritage - fauna and flora
  • 45. The heritage industry
    • Hewison ( The Heritage Industry , 1987) is critical of much of this, in a UK context:
    • “ While the real economy crumbles, a new force is taking over: the Heritage Industry, a movement dedicated to turning the British Isles into one vast open-air museum”
    • How much is authentic , and how much pastiche ?
  • 46. Museums Changing roles – the growth of ‘edutainment’
    • Traditionally , the role of museums is one of:
      • Collection
      • Conservation
      • Display
      • Education
    • But this role is changing to embrace
    • elements of:
      • Entertainment
      • Interaction
      • Interpretation
  • 47. The postmodern museum
    • Characterised by:
    • Widening of range of exhibits , reflecting pluralisation and contemporarisation of history
    • Direct participation by visitors / greater interactivity – elimination of ‘the glass case’ (Hooper-Greenhill, 1988)
    • Great attempts to communicate with, and interpret for, visitors (through audio-guides, videos, websites, etc).
  • 48. Set Readings (Readings Seven)
    • Paper 1: Tusa, J.
      • The former broadcaster discusses the nature of art and why it is important in society
    • Papers 2: Urry, Foley & McPherson
      • Introduction to heritage concepts and the postmodern museum
    • Papers 3: Deuchar, Terry-Chandler
      • Presenting and representing heritage – ‘Titanic’ (exhibition and film)
  • 49. Recommended further reading
    • Du Gay, P. (ed.) (1997)
    • Production of culture / cultures of production . London: Sage / Open University.
    • An interesting introduction to the
    • ‘ cultural industries’
  • 50. LT1001N - Keeping ahead ! WHAT YOU SHOULD HAVE DONE BY NOW (Week 7)
    • Downloaded Lectures 1- 7 from the website
    • Revised these lectures and made your own supplementary notes
    • Prepared Readings Six (Elvin; Holt & Mason; Whannel papers) for this week’s seminar
    • Completed and written up your Portfolio Section Three
    • (‘The Sport and Recreation Domain’)
    • Beginning Portfolio Section Four
    • (‘The Arts, Culture and Heritage Domain’)