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The Fundamental Marcom Decisions

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  • 1.  2007 Thomson South-Western The Fundamental Marcom Decisions: Targeting, Positioning, Objective Setting, and Budgeting Chapter Four
  • 2. Chapter Four Objectives
    • Discuss the importance of targeting marketing communications to specific consumer groups and realize that the targeting decision is the initial and most fundamental of all marcom decisions.
    • Understand the role of behaviorgraphics in targeting consumer groups.
  • 3. Chapter Four Objectives
    • Describe the nature of psychographic targeting and the VALS system.
    • Appreciate major demographic developments such as changes in the age structure of the population and ethnic population growth.
  • 4. Chapter Four Objectives
    • Explain the meaning of geodemographics and understand the role for this form of targeting.
    • Recognize that any single characteristic of consumers—whether their age, ethnicity, or income level—likely is not a sufficient basis alone for sophisticated marcom targeting.
  • 5. Targeting Customers and Prospects
    • Targeting specific audiences can be considered the starting point for all marcom decisions.
    • Targeting allows marketing communicators to more precisely deliver their messages and prevent wasted coverage to people falling outside the targeted market.
  • 6. Consumer Characteristics
    • Characteristics that singularly or in combination influence what people consume and how they respond to marketing communications.
    Psychographics Demographics Geodemographics Behaviorgraphics
  • 7. Classification of Four General Targeting Characteristics
  • 8. Behaviorgraphic Targeting
    • Based on how people behave (with respect to a particular product category or class of related products) rather than in terms of their attitude and lifestyles, their age, income, or ethnicity, or where they live.
    • The best predictor of one’s future behavior is his or her past behavior.
  • 9. Online Behavioral Targeting
    • “ Audience Management Systems” track Internet users’ surfing behavior in order to target them with specific advertisements.
    Issues: Privacy Concerns
  • 10. Psychographic Targeting
    • Captures aspects of consumers’ psychological make-ups and lifestyles including their attitudes, values, and motivations as they relate to buying behavior in a particular product category.
  • 11. Illustrative Statements Used in a Banking-Related Psychographic Study
  • 12. Four Psychographic Segments of Banking Behaviors “ Worried Traditionalists” “ Bank Loyalists” “ Secured Investors” “ Thrifty Bankers”
  • 13. Yankelovich MindBase Segments: 8 general segments and 32 specific subsegments
  • 14. The VALS ™ Framework
  • 15. VALS ™
    • Innovators
    • Motivated by ideals, achievement, and self-expression
    • Possess both high income and self-esteem
    • Change leaders most receptive to new ideas and technologies.
    • Active consumers: buy upscale products and services.
  • 16. VALS ™
    • Thinkers
    • Motivated by Ideals
    • Mature, satisfied, comfortable, and reflective.
    • Well-educated and informed.
    • Moderate respect for the status quo, but will consider new ideas.
    • Practical consumers: look for durability, function, and value.
  • 17. VALS ™
    • Believers
    • Motivated by Ideals
    • Conservative, conventional people with concrete beliefs.
    • Deeply rooted moral codes.
    • Follow established routines organized around home and community.
    • Favor American products and are loyal customers.
  • 18. VALS ™
    • Achievers
    • Motivated by their desire for achievement
    • Goal-oriented lifestyles and deep commitment to career and family.
    • Live conventional lives, respect authority and the status quo.
    • Image is important and they value established, prestige products that demonstrate their success.
  • 19. VALS ™
    • Strivers
    • Motivated by achievement
    • Trendy and fun loving.
    • Concerned about the opinions of others.
    • Money defines success.
    • Active consumers who are as impulsive as their financial circumstances will allow.
  • 20. VALS ™
    • Experiencers
    • Motivated by self-expression
    • Young, enthusiastic, compulsive consumers
    • Seek variety, excitement, and new opportunities.
    • Avid consumers who spend a comparatively high proportion of their income on fashion, entertainment, and socializing.
  • 21. VALS ™
    • Makers
    • Motivated by self-expression
    • Express themselves and experience the world by working on it.
    • Practical people who have constructive skills and value self sufficiency.
    • Buy basic products and prefer value to luxury.
  • 22. VALS ™
    • Survivors
    • No strong primary motivation
    • Few resources
    • Primarily concerned with safety and security
    • Cautious consumers
    • Loyal to favorite brands, especially if they can purchase at a discount.
  • 23. Geodemographic Targeting
    • Based on the premise that consumers who reside within geographic clusters such as zip codes or neighborhoods also share demographic and lifestyle similarities.
  • 24. Geodemographic Targeting
    • Several companies delineate geographical areas into common groups including:
      • CACI(ACORN)
      • Donnelly Marketing (Cluster Plus)
      • National Decision Systems (Vision)
      • Experian (MOSAIC)
      • Claritas (PRIZM )
    NE
  • 25. Claritas PRIZM NE
    • PRIZM=Potential Rating Index by Zip Markets and NE=New Evolution of their original system.
    Bohemian Mix White Picket Fences Suburban Pioneers Big Fish, Small Pond
  • 26. Claritas PRIZM NE : a collection of young urbanites who represent the nation’s most liberal lifestyles. Blend of young singles and couples, students and professionals and many racial backgrounds. disproportionately quick to attend the latest movie, frequent the newest nightclub or adopt the latest laptop. White Picket Fences : represents those households at the middle of the U.S. socioeconomic ladder. Predominantly young, middle-class, and married with children. Suburban Pioneers : eclectic lifestyles, including a mix of young singles, recently divorced and single parents who have moved to older, inner-ring suburbs.
  • 27. Demographic Targeting
    • Marcom practitioners are mainly concerned with:
      • the age structure of the population
      • the changing household composition of the U.S.
      • ethnic population developments
  • 28. World Population
    • Expected to grow to approximately 8 billion people by the year 2025 and 9 billion by 2050.
    • Both China and India’s populations dramatically exceed that of the United States.
  • 29. World’s 25 Largest Countries as of 2004
  • 30. Aspects of the U.S. Population
    • 293 million estimated population
    • Ancestral diversity, with just over 7% referring to themselves as “Americans,” up from 5% in 1990.
    • Relentless aging of the population
  • 31. Largest Ancestral Group of U.S. Residents
  • 32. The Changing Age Structure
    • The U.S. population is aging relentlessly.
    • Median Age:
    1970 1980 1990 2000 28 30 33 36
  • 33. Effects of the Baby Boom
    • The original baby boomers created a mini baby boom as they reached childbearing age.
    • Due to a low birthrate from the mid 1960s through the 1970s, there are now fewer young adults (ages 20 to 34) than in prior generations.
    • The number of middle-agers (35-54) has increased dramatically, totaling 85 million in 2005.
  • 34. Marketing to Children and Teenagers
    • Group of Americans aged 19 and under has fallen dramatically from 40 percent of the population in 1965 to 28 percent of the population in 2005.
    • 80 million occupants aged 19 and younger.
    • “ Kids” defined as ages 4 to 12.
    • Spending for this age group totals more than $24 billion per year.
  • 35. Preschoolers
    • Preschool age children, age 5 or younger
    • More babies were born in the U.S. in 1990 (4.2 million) than at any time since the baby boom of 1957.
    • Toys, furniture items, and other products and services appealing to the family have increased substantially in recent years.
  • 36. Demographic Targeting: Marketing to Preschoolers
  • 37. Elementary School Age Children
    • Ages 6 to 11
    • Children directly influence parents’ choice of clothing and toys, and even brands of toothpaste and food products.
  • 38. Tweens
    • Children between the ages of 8 and 12: a category defined as not quite kids and not yet teenagers.
    • Average annual income of $22.68, or $23 billion annually.
  • 39. Teenagers
    • Over 25 million 13 to 19-year olds in the United States
    • Generation Y 1982 to 1994: in 2005, 50 million Americans between 11 and 23.
    • Group spends over $150 billion annually.
    • Highly conformist, narcissistic, and fickle consumers.
    • It is said that teenagers don’t like being “marketed to.”
    • Use the Internet heavily.
  • 40. Demographic Targeting: Marketing to Teenagers
  • 41. Young Adults
    • 2005: over 50 million Americans in the age category from 24 to 40.
    • Generation X defined as people born between 1965 and 1981.
    • Group also referred to as baby busters and twentysomethings.
    • Often defined by clich é s like slackers, cynics, whiners, and hopeless.
  • 42. Young Adults Yup & Comers : The highest levels of education and income, focus on intangible rewards and confident about themselves Bystanders : Predominantly female African-Americans and Hispanics, disposable income is low but love fashion and shopping Playboys : “Pleasure before duty” lifestyle, self-absorbed, fun-loving and impulsive Drifters : Frustrated with their lives, the least educated, and choose brands that offer a sense of belonging and self-esteem Bystanders (37%) Playboys (19%) Drifters (16%) Yup & Comers (28%)
  • 43. Middle-Aged
    • Middle-Aged
    • 85 million Americans between the ages of 35 and 54
    • Baby Boomers: Born between 1946 and 1964: affluent category targeted for luxury goods and obsessed with youth.
    • Do not represent a monolithic group for marketing purposes.
  • 44. Demographic Targeting: Marketing to Middle Aged Consumers
  • 45. Mature Consumers (Seniors)
    • In 2005, approximately 66 million citizens aged 55 or older , representing about 23% of the U.S. population.
    • Wealthier and more willing to spend than ever before—control nearly 70% of the net worth of all U.S. households.
    • People aged 65 and older have the highest discretionary income of any age group.
    • Spend more time (700 minutes per month) online than any other demographic.
  • 46. Mature Lifestyle Groups 38% 34% 15% 13%
  • 47. The Ever-Changing American Household
    • The average American household is shrinking in size and changing in character.
    • Traditional married couple with children families represent less than one-fourth of all households
    • Singles are a viable market.
  • 48. Ethnic Population Developments % of population as of 2000
  • 49.  
  • 50. African-Americans
    • African Americans: 40.5 million as of 2010, or 13% of the U.S. population
    • African Americans are attractive consumers because:
      • The average age of black Americans is considerably younger than that for Whites
      • African-Americans are geographically concentrated, with ¾ of all blacks living in just 16 states
      • African-Americans tend to purchase prestige and name-brand products in greater proportion than do whites.
  • 51. Hispanic Americans (Latinos)
    • Grew from 4 million in 1950 to an expected population of nearly 48 million in 2010.
    • Hispanic Americans: 25% of the U.S. population by 2010, currently nearly 40 million U.S. residents.
    • A key in designing effective advertising for Hispanics is to advertise to them in their dominant language.
    • Interethnic differences in Cubans, Mexicans, and Puerto Ricans as well as differences within each grouping mean there is no one market.
  • 52. Asian-Americans
    • As of 2000, approximately 10.7 million Asians in the U.S. By 2010, the number will increase to 14 million and more than 33 million by 2050.
    • Asian-Americans on average are better educated, have higher incomes, and hold more prestigious jobs than any other segment of society.
    • No single market.
    • Some success with customizing marketing programs to Asian values.