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Operant Conditioning A Reinforcer Follows An Action
 

Operant Conditioning A Reinforcer Follows An Action

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    Operant Conditioning A Reinforcer Follows An Action Operant Conditioning A Reinforcer Follows An Action Presentation Transcript

      • Chapters in book
        • XVI: History of Learning,
        • XVII Operant Conditioning
      • Ppts:
        • 1. Learnintrohistory, 3. Operant cond. .
    • Operant conditioning Operant conditioning a reinforcer follows an action and is based on a voluntary response. Which differs from classical conditioning which is based on an involuntary, reflexive response.
    • Operant conditioning=instrumental learning= goal-directed learning. Definitions
      • The consequence of behavior allowing one to be more efficient in future.
      • The ability to learn about the relationship between behaviors and consequences
    • Operant Conditioning
      • Learning that occurs when a response made by an animal is somehow reinforced
        • An animal must undertake some action or response in order for the conditioning process to produce learning
        • Punishment vs. Reinforcement
        • Law of effect and positive reinforcement.
    • Procedures of operant conditioning involve 3 things
      • 1. environmental context (situation dependent)
        • (Johnny behaves at school but not at home)
      • 2. behavior in that context
      • 3. event (consequence) that follows that behavior.
        • (He gets away with it at home).
    • Operant conditioning
      • An observed change in behavior after a behavior is followed by an event
      • Thales (640BC). The mule carrying salt slipped in river and load was lightened. So he did that on subsequent trips. (What to do? Thales put in sponges!= made the load heavier!)
    • Operant- a history of boxes!
      • Lubbock- 1882- problem boxes and mazes
      • Thorndike-problem boxes and mazes - how much time to escape. Later he made mazes
      • Skinner- the Skinner box
    • Thorndike
    • B.F. Skinner
        • Skinner Box
        • Cumulative recorder
        • Magazine training
        • Extinction
        • Spontaneous recovery
        • shaping
    • Skinner
      • Inter observer Bias is caused by each individuals unique perception and
      • view of situations and the lack of a specific definition of behaviors
      • being observed.
      • Magazine training will go on with your rats outside of the lab.
      • This training has consisted of clicking on the lever when the rat approaches the magazine and then placing the food in the magazine
      • immediatley following the click. Over time the rats will go to the magazine when they hear the click.
    • Law of Effect
      • Response followed by satisfaction more firmly connected with situation and more likely to recur.
      • Followed by discomfort, less likely to recur.
      • Motivation or Drive are important for operant conditioning to be effective. What are they?
    • Motivation
      • = a goal or an incentive. reinforcers are sources of incentive motivation (e.g. Money).
        • We adjust our behaviors when we receive feedback --for selecting the behavior that will achieve that goal.
        • (e.g. studying to get a good grade in class).
    • Drive – an inferred psychological process
      • arises from internal need
      • An intervening variable
    • An intervening variable-
      • links independent variable (internal state, need) and dependent variable (behavior).
      • IDV DV
      • IV
    • John eats 3 Big Macs. What is the Intervening variable?
      • A. thirst
      • B.* hunger
      • C. incentive value
      • D. reinforcer
    • Terms of operant conditioning
      • Reinforcer- changes rate of response
        • Positive
        • Negative
    • Reinforcement
      • Presentation of a stimulus in tempora l relation with a behavior.
      • A stimulus that produces a change in the strength of the behavior by virtue of its relationship to a CS (Pavlovian) or behavior (operant).
    • Reinforcer
      • An event that increases the rate or probability of occurrence of that behavior when that event is presented or removed.
      • To reinforce a behavior is to create an arrangement between that behavior and a reinforcer.
        • Is cheesecake always a reinforcer? Depends on person, and event.
    • Reinforcers
      • Primary- requires no experience.
        • Food, sex, light, going outside, looking at face
      • Secondary (conditioned)-due to Pavlovian conditioning
        • (oysters?, wine?)
        • Used to change desires smoking, sexual etc.
    • Differential reinforcement
      • Only behaviors that satisfy certain criteria are reinforced. (others are not).
      • Experience of opening a stuck door, using key in tricky lock, hitting golf balls, shooting baskets etc.
    • Operant
    • Premack -- all reinforcement involves the opportunity to do something.
      • Engaging in eating, not the food.
      • Study with Children- pinball (operators) or candy (eaters). Made availability dependent on less likely response (can’t play till eat etc).
        • Food served as a reinforcer only when consuming it occurred at a higher rate than the other activity.
        • Spillberger at UF rewarded students who had been performing badly with what they wanted. Basketball for the guys, fashion and makeup for the girls.
    • extinction
      • Discontinue the consequence.
      • Behavior ceases
      • If reintroduce at later time to situation behavior reoccurs = spontaneous recovery
    • Resistance to extinction
      • How long it takes to cease performing an action when consequence no longer occurs
    • Effects of extinction on behavior
      • Spontaneous recovery
      • a rapid reacquisition of extinguished behaviors
      • Resurgence (regression)- remove dominant behavior and go back to extinguished behavior. (smoking, eating etc)
      • Patterns of behavior are maintained during extinction (i.e. does not undo effects of prior positive reinforcement).
    • Shaping
      • Rewarding closer and closer approximations to the final behavior
        • method of successive approximations.
        • (get your rat to turn yellow!)
    • Chaining
      • Train the last action in a sequence first (backward chaining).
      • Rats climb a wire, climb onto platform, walk tightrope, exit and run down ramp
    •  
    • Schedules of partial reinforcement
      • Fixed ratio (FR)
      • Variable-Ratio (VR)
      • Fixed-Interval (FI)
      • Variable-Interval (VI)
    • Fixed ratio (FR)
      • Fixed # responses for reward
      • FR5=5 Responses for reward
      • Post-reinforcement pause (PRP)
      • Examples:
        • Walk up a flight of stairs
        • Work on commission. Must sell 5 TVs to get paid.
        • Perform a triple toe loop for applause
    • Variable-Ratio (VR)
      • Perform target behavior a certain number times but number varies around an average
      • Examples
        • Gambling
    • Fixed interval schedule (FI)
      • The first occurrence of the behavior after a specified interval of time.
      • Characterized by a PRP
        • followed by increasing rate of behavior (scallop) or
        • abrupt transition to terminal rate of behavior (break and run).
    • FI
      • Examples
        • Cramming for a test
          • Put it off and study the night before
        • Baking cookies,
          • can’t eat till 10 minutes is up, etc.
    • Variable-interval VI
      • Interval varies around an average.
      • Example, waiting for a call to go through.
    • Adjust to schedules of reinforcement
      • Depends on prior experience.
      • Important to know in workforce.
        • Might not get high rate of performance expecting.
    • Behavioral Persistence
      • Resistance to extinction
      • Amount of training and persistence
      • Discriminability and persistence
      • Magnitude of reinforcer
      • Extinction of avoidance conditioning (flooding, implosion therapy).
    • Interresponse times=IRTs
      • Time between successive actions
      • Short IRTs can be more efficient e.g., if blow up balloon, pump up tire, start a gas motor etc.
      • Long IRTs can also be useful. Can teach patience, slow down eating.
        • (species differences. Humans can be more patient than pigeons!)
    • Terms in operant conditioning
      • Operants -
        • behaviors affected by consequences.
        • Different behaviors can still be the same operant. (remove honey with finger, knife, shake jar etc.)
      • [Respondents-
        • Behaviors elicited by stimuli ( CC )]
      • Discriminative stimulus –
        • signals a behavior-consequence relationship
          • (for both operant and CC)
            • Red light, green light etc.
    • Getting a good grade in a class is an example of:
      • A. a CS
      • B. a UCS
      • *C. a reinforcer
      • D. an operant
    • Procedures in operant conditioning
      • Appetitive- seek
      • Aversive- avoid
    • Four varieties of operant conditioning
      • Positive Reinforcement
      • Punishment by Application
      • Omission Training
      • Negative Reinforcement (punishment)
      • escape conditioning
      • avoidance conditioning
    • 4 types operant conditioning deliver / remove + - -- Negative reinforcement (removal of - consequence) -+ Punishment [deliver – (aversive) consequence] +- Omission training (removal of + consequence) negative punishment ++ Positive reinforcement [deliver + (positive) consequence]
    • operant conditioning situations -- Negative reinforcement (remove aversive consequence, remove dunce cap, remove from time-out, from jail). -+ Punishment (deliver aversive consequence, spanking; increase in taxes; audits, jail) +- Omission training (remove TV, games, pay) ++ Positive reinforcement (good grade for studying; bribery; lobbying)
    • Spanking (punishment) It is…
      • Expedient
      • Stops behavior right then
      • Doesn’t waste time with Verbal Communication
      • Parents can release anger and Frustration
      • Sense of Accomplishment
      • Prepares child for the “Tough World”
    • Studies that show Effects of Spanking
      • Spanking and Adult Depression
      • -Men punished by spanking had depressive symptoms, and they increased with the increase of spanking.
      • -Suicidal thoughts in adulthood were at an increase when spanking was used at the teenage years.
      • Spanking and Child Anti-Social Behavior
      • -Children spanked 3 times a week had higher levels of anti-social behavior 2-4 years later.
      • Spanking and Child IQ
      • -Children who are spanked tend to have lower IQ’s four years later.
      • ( The Family Research Laboratory of the University of New Hampshire)
    • Spanking linked with Adult Addictions and Psychiatric Problems.
      • Dr. Harriet McMillan of McMaster University in Canada
      16.7% 12.6% 7.5% More than one disorder * 13.2% 10.2% 5.8% Alcohol abuse or addiction 6.9% 4.8% 4.6% Major depression 21.3% 18.8% 16.3% Anxiety Sometimes/often spanked Rarely spanked Never spanked Adult disorder
    • childhood punishment
      • 88 studies suggested that future problems such as poorer moral internalization, relationship problems, aggression, and abuse of their own children were linked to childhood punishment.
      • One positive outcome of the studies examined was that children responded quickly and immediately when they were spanked.
      Dr. Elizabeth Gershoff of Columbia University
    • Problems with Spanking
      • Does not Increase long lasting positive behaviors
      • Does not Allow bad behavior to be remembered
      • Teaches children how to deal with future problems in a violent way
      • Causes trauma which could lead to Psychopathology
      • Nurturing Role of Parents is at risk
      • Leads to increased risk of Criminal acts within children
      • Children may forget the trauma, but not the acts of violence
      • Children learn that they can misbehave as long as their parents are not around
      • Never learn how to deal with problems the correct way
    • Other Methods
      • Ignore bad behaviors and give attention to the positive ones.
      • Take away privileges such as going outside.
      • Step between two children who may be arguing to separate them.
      • Use time out as a cooling off period for you and the child.
    • allow children to suffer natural consequences.
      • Use a visual aid for good behaviors such as a chart.
      • If you ignore bad behavior the child will get tired of performing the behavior.
      Dr. Steven Parker
    • Yoking
      • The behavior of one of the individuals determines the delivery of the reinforcer to both of them. Promotes team work
        • (Huskies; Dolphins who communicated across a visual barrier).
    • Differences between Pavlovian and operant conditioning
      • Pavlovian (CC)
      • UCS evokes UCR + soon
      • CS evokes CR
      • It is the relationship between these events
      • Operant –
      • a spontaneous behavior that produces an effect
      • It is the relationship between the behavior and the consequence
    • Contrast effects
      • Incentive contrast- overshooting.
        • Increase salary, reduce salary
      • Behavioral contrast- different rewards for different behaviors
        • e.g. behavior for one increases or decreases, behavior for other does opposite .
          • Want friend to say positive things, reward positive and ignore negative.
          • In pain clinics: talk about weather etc. not about the pain.
    • Jim worked for United and really liked his job until he was forced to take a pay cut. This is an example of:
      • A.* incentive contrast
      • B. behavioral contrast
      • C. hill-climbing
      • D. secondary conditioning
    • Jim is trying to earn tenure. He notices others only get it by research productivity rather than by teaching. Therefore Jim concentrates on his research. This is an example of:
      • A. *behavioral contrast
      • B. Incentive motivation
      • C. Backward conditioning
      • D. Lack of drive
    • Feedback
      • Critical.
      • Give performance evaluations immediately
      • It alone can serve as a reinforcer
    • Sue and Bob are bosses but Sue seems to get better performance from her employees. This may be because.
      • *Sue gives constant feedback
      • Sue gives an annual evaluation
      • Sue has little control over raises
      • Sue is a good at delegating and leaves people on their own
    • Hill-climbing
      • A method for adjusting behavior based on successive comparisons of one’s current situation.
        • E.g. Pick-up line doesn’t seem to be working.
      • An adaptive mechanism.
      • Orientation mechanism called kinesis (movements comparing current position).
        • E.g. rolling rock up a hill, trying to open a door, getting stuck package out of a vending machine.
    • How can you increase likelihood a child will try eating novel foods?
      • A. only praise when try new foods
      • B. modeling behavior
      • C. wait until they are really hungry and offer only strange food then
      • D. shock them when they eat familiar foods
      • E.* all of above
    • Usefulness of operant conditioning: Settings in which token economy has been useful
      • Psychiatric Hospitals
      • Prisons
      • Industry
      • Residential facilities
      • Homes
      • Classrooms
    • Advantages of a token economy
      • Easy to set up
      • Highly structured –good for ADHD, autism etc.
      • Tokens can be used for many things
      • Tokens are easily portable
      • Learn “earning and saving” skills.
    • Guidelines for token economy
      • Target behavior must be identified
      • What item will be the token?
      • Schedule of reinforcement : FI, FR are common.
      • Exchange rate must be determined
      • Backup reinforcers must be identified (food, toys etc. See next slide for examples)
    • Possible classroom rewards
      • Access to hand held video games
      • Free time in class
      • Computer time
      • Small toys
      • Field trips
      • Working on a bulletin board
      • Being in charge of sharing time
      • Passing out books
      • Acting as a line leader
      • Leading the morning pledge to the flag
      • Leading songs
      • Being captain of a team
      • Helping in the cafeteria
      • Assisting the custodian
      • Helping the librarian
      • Snacks
      • Extra recess time
      • Playing games
      • Legos
      • Art projects
      • Access to science area
      • Helping correct work of others
      • Erasing the chalkboard
      • Running the copy machine
      • Stapling papers together
      • Feeding the fish or animals
      • Raising or lowering flag
      • Emptying wastebaskets
      • Operating a projector
      • Correcting papers
      • Giving message over the intercom
      • Going to the library
      • Using a typewriter
    • Staff training for token economy
      • give clear instructions,
      • identify target behavior,
      • immediacy of token distribution
      • use verbal praise with presentation of tokens.
      • Immediacy of response costs ( taking away a token for undesirable behavior)
      • fade to “natural contingencies”.
    • Disadvantages
      • Time and effort organizing
      • Training staff
      • Managing the economy
      • Cost of purchasing backup reinforcer
    •  
    • Questions…
      • Spanking has NOT been linked with which of the following Disorders?
      • Anxiety
      • B. Major Depression
      • Schizophrenia
      • Alcohol Abuse or Addiction
      • Instead of Spanking, you can…
      • Ignore the Behavior
      • Use time out
      • Allow for Natural Consequences
      • All of the Above
    • Questions…
      • Spanking has NOT been linked with which of the following Disorders?
      • Anxiety
      • B. Major Depression
      • Schizophrenia
      • Alcohol Abuse or Addiction
      • Instead of Spanking, you can…
      • Ignore the Behavior
      • Use time out
      • Allow for Natural Consequences
      • All of the Above
    • Three Types of Differential Reinforcement:
      • Differential Reinforcement of Alternative Behavior (DRA)
      • Differential Reinforcement of Other Behavior (DRO)
      • Differential Reinforcement of Low Rates of Responding (DRL)
      • Miltenberger, Raymond G.. Behavior Modification: Principles and Procedures . Wadsworth 2004.
    • Differential Reinforcement of Alternative Behavior (DRA):
      • “DRA is used to increase the frequency of desirable behavior, and decrease the frequency of undesirable behavior”
        • Reinforce the behaviors that you want to increase
        • Place undesirable behaviors on Extinction
    • DRA in Action
      • Old woman in Nursing home:
      • Used to say positive things about people and have pleasant conversations
      • As time went by she complained more and more, it got so bad the nurses called for the help of a behavior analyst
      • The nurses were instructed to give their full attention and smile at the woman while she would say something positive
      • If the woman said something negative they were to leave the room or ignore her
      • Within a few weeks the woman was saying many more positive than negative things
    • Why?
      • The woman noticed that when she would complain she would receive more attention from the nurses
      • Therefore her negativity was reinforced, and increased in frequency
    • Differential Reinforcement of Other Behavior (DRO)
      • “ The reinforcement is contingent on the absence of the problem behavior”
        • Reinforcement is only given after a certain amount of time in which the target problem behavior does not occur
        • After success for each amount of time, the interval is increased
        • The problem behavior does not occur for longer and longer periods of time
    • DRO in Action
      • Stories at bedtime
      • The problem behavior is thumb sucking
      • Having a story read to them was reinforcing to the child
      • To reduce the behavior thumb sucking the child would only have a story read to them when they were not sucking their thumb
      • After the child would not suck their thumb consistently for a certain interval of time, the interval would be increased
      • Eventually the thumb sucking behavior did not occur during bedtime at all
    • Differential Reinforcement of Low Rates of Responding (DRL)
      • “Reinforcement is given when the rate of the problem behavior is decreased to a criterion level”
      • Used for behaviors that are okay at low rates
      • The goal is not to eliminate the behavior altogether, but to reduce it to an acceptable level
    • DRL in Action
      • There is a student that is a “know it all”
      • She raises her hand about 30 times per class period, and none of the other students get a chance to answer questions
      • The goal is to have the student only raise her hand 4 times per class
      • The teacher tells the student if she only raises her hand 4 times per class, she will be allowed to erase the blackboard (a known reinforcer for the student)
      • If the student raises her hand more than 4 times, she will not be allowed to erase the board
      • The student lowers the rate of raising her hand to 4 times per class
    • Multiple Choice Questions
      • Nancy Nursinghome is complaining more and being friendly less. What type of differential reinforcement should they use to increase her friendly behavior and decrease her complaining?
      • A. DRA*
      • B. DRO
      • C. DRL
      • D. DRPeper
    • Three Types of Differential Reinforcement:
      • Differential Reinforcement of Alternative Behavior (DRA)
      • Differential Reinforcement of Other Behavior (DRO)
      • Differential Reinforcement of Low Rates of Responding (DRL)
      • Miltenberger, Raymond G.. Behavior Modification: Principles and Procedures . Wadsworth 2004.
    • Differential Reinforcement of Alternative Behavior (DRA):
      • “DRA is used to increase the frequency of desirable behavior, and decrease the frequency of undesirable behavior”
        • Reinforce the behaviors that you want to increase
        • Place undesirable behaviors on Extinction
    • DRA in Action
      • Old woman in Nursing home:
      • Used to say positive things about people and have pleasant conversations
      • As time went by she complained more and more, it got so bad the nurses called for the help of a behavior analyst
      • The nurses were instructed to give their full attention and smile at the woman while she would say something positive
      • If the woman said something negative they were to leave the room or ignore her
      • Within a few weeks the woman was saying many more positive than negative things
    • Why?
      • The woman noticed that when she would complain she would receive more attention from the nurses
      • Therefore her negativity was reinforced, and increased in frequency
    • Differential Reinforcement of Other Behavior (DRO)
      • “ The reinforcement is contingent on the absence of the problem behavior”
        • Reinforcement is only given after a certain amount of time in which the target problem behavior does not occur
        • After success for each amount of time, the interval is increased
        • The problem behavior does not occur for longer and longer periods of time
    • DRO in Action
      • Stories at bedtime
      • The problem behavior is thumb sucking
      • Having a story read to them was reinforcing to the child
      • To reduce the behavior thumb sucking the child would only have a story read to them when they were not sucking their thumb
      • After the child would not suck their thumb consistently for a certain interval of time, the interval would be increased
      • Eventually the thumb sucking behavior did not occur during bedtime at all
    • Differential Reinforcement of Low Rates of Responding (DRL)
      • “Reinforcement is given when the rate of the problem behavior is decreased to a criterion level”
      • Used for behaviors that are okay at low rates
      • The goal is not to eliminate the behavior altogether, but to reduce it to an acceptable level
    • DRL in Action
      • There is a student that is a “know it all”
      • She raises her hand about 30 times per class period, and none of the other students get a chance to answer questions
      • The goal is to have the student only raise her hand 4 times per class
      • The teacher tells the student if she only raises her hand 4 times per class, she will be allowed to erase the blackboard (a known reinforcer for the student)
      • If the student raises her hand more than 4 times, she will not be allowed to erase the board
      • The student lowers the rate of raising her hand to 4 times per class
    • Multiple Choice Questions
      • Nancy Nursinghome is complaining more and being friendly less. What type of differential reinforcement should they use to increase her friendly behavior and decrease her complaining?
      • A. DRA*
      • B. DRO
      • C. DRL
      • D. DRPeper
    • Questions continued..
      • Sammy Thumbsucker sucks his thumb during nap time. Using a reinforcer such as story telling to reinforce the time when he is NOT sucking his thumb would be using what type of differential reinforcement?
      • DRA
      • DRO*
      • DRL
      • DRPhil
    • Applied Behavior Analysis manipulating external events
    • Definition
      • Applied Behavior Analysis is the design, implementation, and evaluation of environmental modifications to produce socially significant improvement in human behavior.
      • Generally, it is the belief that the caregivers of people with learning disabilities should focus on external events that can be manipulated, rather than internal events that are beyond our control.
      • Applied behavior analysis is the process of systematically applying these interventions based upon the principles of learning theory to improve socially significant behaviors to a meaningful degree, and to demonstrate that the interventions employed are responsible for the improvement in behavior.
    • Applied Behavior Analysis is
      • An objective discipline that facilitates research and improvement
      • Uses operational definitions so that vague terms (i.e. aggression) can be quantified.
      • Uses relevant settings to evaluate effectiveness
    • Socially Significant Behaviors
      • Reading
      • Simple Arithmetic
      • Basic Social Skills
      • Communication
      • Adaptive Living Skills
    • Adaptive Skills For Autism
      • Idea
      • ˚ Increase Behavior frequency
      • ˚ Teach New Skills
      • ˚ Maintain Behaviors
      • ˚ Transfer Behaviors
      • ˚ Restrict Negative Environments
      • ˚ Restrict Negative Internal Behaviors
      • Method
      • ˚ Reinforce on – task behavior immediately
      • ˚ Systematic Instruction
      • ˚ Teaching self monitoring procedures
      • ˚ From completing supervised assignments to completing real world tasks
      • ˚ Restricting access to certain places
      • ˚ Reducing self injury
    • Keys to Effectiveness
      • Early and intensive use of these behavioral techniques while the developing brain is malleable
      • Consistent reinforcement is shown to be more important for the learning disabled
      • Patience and empathy from caregivers
      • Use of discrete trials
    • Discrete Trials
      • A discrete trial is a single cycle of a behaviorally-based instruction routine. A particular trial may be repeated several times in succession, several times a day, over several days until the skill is mastered.
      • Shaping and Chaining are techniques used to facilitate the completion of each skill.
      • Have a great weekend