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New Media Political Socialization
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New Media Political Socialization

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  • Transcript

    • 1.  
    • 2.
      • Information provided by the news media plays a key role in the construction of people’s perceptions about reality (McCombs & Shaw, 1972)
        • Why do we care about our perceptions about reality?
      • To understand this influence, we must understand at least two processes:
        • The social processes through which news content is created.
        • The psychological processes through which this content is digested.
    • 3.
      • Two useful theoretical frameworks help us to understand how news media influence our perceived social reality
        • Agenda-setting theory
        • Schema theory
    • 4.  
    • 5.
      • Events: discrete occurrences
      • e.g. Taiwan’s president proposes to join UN.
      • Issues: ongoing news coverage of a series of events that fit together in a broad category
      • e.g. China / US Relations
      • Gatekeepers: people that decide which events / issues to report
        • Newsworthiness: determined by the traditions, practices and values of media professionals
    • 6. Media Agenda Public Agenda Policy Agenda Three Components of Agenda Setting
    • 7.
      • Content Analysis (1968 presidential campaign coverage)
        • local and national newspapers and TV
        • identified prominent news stories
        • based on position and length
      • Survey
        • asked local Chapel Hill voters:
        • “ What are the key campaign issues?”
      • Results:
        • Strong Correlation between
        • Media Agenda and Public Agenda
    • 8. Media Agenda Public Agenda Policy Agenda
    • 9.
      • Correlation does not mean causation
      • Later studies measured opinions over time
      • Some evidence shows that media sets the agenda for the public
      • (e.g., Iyengar & Kinder experiments)
      • but . . .
    • 10.
      • Individual Differences
        • some people have a higher need for orientation
      • Multiple Agenda Setters
        • the media ‘gatekeepers’
        • politicians
        • public relations professionals
        • Interest groups
    • 11.
      • Framing
        • context
        • mood
        • selectivity
        • the media doesn’t report the news, they report news stories
    • 12.
      • Priming
        • a news story on a given issue sparks (or primes ) an individual’s memory of related issues
        • opinions are a result of both
          • the news story cues
          • the primed memories
        • e.g. Middle East & unstable political situation
    • 13. Media Agenda Public Agenda Policy Agenda Other Factors (e.g. Ind. Diff.)
    • 14.  
    • 15.
      • Recall from an earlier lecture:
        • We have a mental map of the world.
        • There are two separate approaches to mental representation.
          • Schematic representation (schema)
          • Associationistic representation
    • 16.
      • Ideas and concepts are organized in a logical and hierarchical (schematic) fashion.
        • Schemata are “cognitive structures of organized prior knowledge, abstracted from experience with specific instances; schemata guide the processing of new information and the retrieving of stored information” (Fiske & Linville, 1980, p. 543).
    • 17.
      • There are four types of schemata, including:
        • (a) person schemata (i.e., interpretations of individuals’ psychology),
        • (b) self-schemata (i.e., information about one’s psychology),
        • (c) role schemata (i.e., perceptions about inter-group relations and broad social categories).
          • e.g., what is a “chief executive”?
          • e.g., What does a “chief executive” do?
          • e.g., what is Taiwan? A country? A province?
        • (d) event schemata (i.e., information about sequences of events in social situations)
          • e.g., what should a government do when attacked by terrorists?
          • e.g., how is the chief executive of HKSAR elected?
    • 18.
      • Media can create new schemata
        • e.g., American’s perception of the world after 9/11.
        • e.g., Hong Kong’s government structure after handover
      • Media can strengthen existing schemata
        • e.g., social stereotypes about mainlanders
        • e.g., political beliefs
    • 19.  
    • 20.
      • political socialization – a developmental process by which young people acquire cognitions, attitudes and behaviors relating to their political environment.
      • adolescence is a time of particular importance for this process because it is a time of great change, including many developmental advances
      • Most people form a stable political view during adolescences and usually NEVER change.
    • 21.
      • During adolescence
        • critical thought is characterized by an increased capacity and speed of processing as compared to younger children
        • There is an increase in knowledge and an ability to integrate these knowledge.
        • In addition, there is a greater ability in adolescence, as compared to young children, for self-regulation and monitoring as more strict standards are applied by the adolescent.
    • 22.
      • However,
      • as this cognitive pattern is not yet consolidated, adolescents often also engage in hasty generalization and rush to premature judgments based on segmented pieces of information.
      • These skills, abilities, and tendencies may be especially relevant as adolescents consider political issues, situations, and decisions and as they integrate political knowledge gathered from various sources.
    • 23.
      • Sources of political knowledge
        • Parents
        • School
        • Peers
        • MEDIA
    • 24.
      • Media exposure has been identified as an important influence with regard to political socialization.
      • the media, and television in particular, play a significant role in the creation and reinforcement of political attitudes.
    • 25.
      • Empirical evidence suggests that exposure to television are related to
        • political orientation
        • attitudes about political parties
        • The electoral process,
        • issues of military conflict
        • gun control policies
        • Capital punishment
        • Abortion
        • etc.
    • 26.
      • In recent years, media researchers have begun to recognize the importance of cognition in the realm of political socialization.
        • We all have schemas about what politic is and how we should participate.
        • One important source from which we can learn these social scripts about political matters is the media.
    • 27.
        • However,
        • such scripts will be different based on the content to which the adolescents are exposed.
        • Heavy news exposure is likely to result in different schemata
    • 28.
      • War
      • Political party
      • Economy
      • Political involvement
    • 29.
      • Some questions to thinking about
        • Who’s watching?
        • Who’s watching what?
        • Who participates actively in politics? Elders? Youth? The rich? The poor?
        • Do political attitude translate to political action?
    • 30.  
    • 31.
      • Agenda-setting
        • Old media
          • agenda set by the industry based on professional training, political needs, and audience feedback
          • Slow/delayed feedback
          • Limited content
          • Delayed content
        • New media
          • Agenda may be set by the user, or other users. (e.g., Blogs , citizen journalism )
          • Instant /real-time feedback
          • User generated (unlimited content)
          • Real-time update
      • Schema formation
        • New media  Selective exposure  strengthen existing schemata
    • 32.
      • Does new media really increase more political participation?
        • Apparently not!
        • Individual differences becomes more important
          • Political views become more extreme
          • It is more difficult to present objective/unbiased information
          • Allows apathetic individuals to completely avoid politics
    • 33.
      • More sophisticated knowledge structure
      • Encouraging fact checking
        • Hyperlinks
        • Verification by multiple sources
      • More difficult for politicians and mass media to skew the issue
        • Diverse group of content providers
      • Encouraging civic participation
        • Easier to mobilize citizens (e.g., organizing a protest)
        • Stay focused on issues of interest