Mobilizing Global Social Justice Responsibility-Taking Samples from our book-in-progress Michele Micheletti (Karlstad Univ...
Political Consumerism <ul><li>Use of the market as an arena for politics  </li></ul><ul><li>Three forms </li></ul><ul><li>...
Paper Highlights Focus: No-Sweat, Just Clothes, Anti-Sweatshop, Clean Clothes Movement <ul><li>Political Responsibility & ...
Examples Problems in global garment industry in Logo Sweatshops <ul><li>“ At the Hung Wah factory, young women work from 7...
Why Problems Here?   Globalization, Government,   Corporations & Consumers <ul><li>No Global Government   “Earth has no CE...
Anti-Sweatshop Focus on Corporations <ul><li>“ [G]lobalization has generated layers of transactions and institutional prac...
Anti-Sweatshop Focus on Consumers & Consumption Practices <ul><li>  “ Choose it, colour it, sign it, buy it” </li></ul><ul...
Who’s responsible for sweatshops? Cause & treatment responsibility Everyone involved with garment consumption “ The social...
Overview  Contemporary Anti-Sweatshop Political Consumerism <ul><li>Formative events for North American & European Branche...
Transnational Movement <ul><li>Teaming up of Old & New Civil Society </li></ul><ul><li>Church groups, student groups, thin...
Human Rights for Workers: The Crusade Against Global Sweatshops Diamond Cut Jeans Hong Kong Christian Industrial Committee...
No Sweat. The UK Campaign Against Sweatshops North-South Institute Nike Watch (Oxfam, AUS) Nike Wages Campaign National Mo...
Worldwide Responsible Apparel Production  World Development Movement Workers Rights Consortium (WRC) Women Working Worldwi...
Study of Key Anti-Sweatshop Movement Actors  <ul><li>From old & new “membership-based” civil society groups & associations...
Different Envisioned Role for Consumers to Play in Social Justice Responsibility-Taking Work-still-in-progress <ul><li>Sup...
Envisioned Role for Consumers Affects Movement Actors’ Campaign Strategies & Tactics   Work-still-in-progress <ul><li>Them...
Effectiveness of Episodal Campaigning and Anti-Sweatshop Activism Effectiveness Chain Model Some Preliminary Results How m...
Force of Political Consumerism Micheletti’s Thoughts <ul><li>Need to distinguish between light & thick political consumeri...
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Mobilizing Global Social Justice Responsibility Taking

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Mobilizing Global Social Justice Responsibility Taking

  1. 1. Mobilizing Global Social Justice Responsibility-Taking Samples from our book-in-progress Michele Micheletti (Karlstad University) Dietlind Stolle (Michele Micheletti) Project financed by the Swedish Council of Research
  2. 2. Political Consumerism <ul><li>Use of the market as an arena for politics </li></ul><ul><li>Three forms </li></ul><ul><li>Boycotts – don’t buy for political, ethical, environmental reasons </li></ul><ul><li>“ Buycotts” – do buy for these reasons </li></ul><ul><li>Discursive actions – opinion & value expression in communicative efforts </li></ul><ul><li>GOVERNMENT IS NOT PRIMARY TARGET FOR POLITICAL ACTION </li></ul>
  3. 3. Paper Highlights Focus: No-Sweat, Just Clothes, Anti-Sweatshop, Clean Clothes Movement <ul><li>Political Responsibility & Sweatshops: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Responsibility problems; responsbility models </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Short Overview of Anti-Sweatshop Movement </li></ul><ul><li>Envisioned role of consumers in the movement </li></ul><ul><li>What force has political consumerism? </li></ul>
  4. 4. Examples Problems in global garment industry in Logo Sweatshops <ul><li>“ At the Hung Wah factory, young women work from 7:30 a.m. to 10:30 p.m., seven days a week, sewing Nike clothing for an average wage of 22 cents an hour.” </li></ul><ul><li>“ Keds made in China by 16-year-old girls applying toxic glue with their bare hands, the only tool given them, a toothbrush.”  </li></ul><ul><li>“ Timberland shoes are made in China by 16 and 17-year-old girls forced to work 14 hours a day, seven days a week for 22 cents an hour, often in temperatures over 100 degrees Fahrenheit. The young women are threatened and coached to lie to any auditors visiting the factory.” - National Labor Council report 2004 </li></ul>
  5. 5. Why Problems Here? Globalization, Government, Corporations & Consumers <ul><li>No Global Government “Earth has no CEO. No Board of Directors. No management team…” – UN, World Bank, and World Resources Institute </li></ul><ul><li>Conventional Model of Political Responsibility Nation-state government model out of touch with global times </li></ul><ul><li>→ social justice responsibility vacuums </li></ul><ul><li>Global Garment Corporations Fiercely competitive buyer-driven corporations “race to the bottom” to price themselves in the market </li></ul><ul><li>Consumers Demanding good personalized “mass” fashion at “good” prices </li></ul><ul><li>→ mobile outsourced fashion manufacturing & sweatshops </li></ul>
  6. 6. Anti-Sweatshop Focus on Corporations <ul><li>“ [G]lobalization has generated layers of transactions and institutional practices that envelop and cut across the system of states.” </li></ul><ul><li>Globalization’s most visible manifestation </li></ul><ul><li>Ca. 70,000 transnational firms in operation </li></ul><ul><li>with ca 700,000 subsidiaries and millions of suppliers connected through distributed networks globally </li></ul><ul><li>They are like “elephants standing in the center of rooms…” </li></ul><ul><li>Speech by John G. Ruggie, Professor of International Affairs, Harvard University and Special Representative on the Issue of Human Rights and Transnational Corporations and Other Business Enterprises </li></ul><ul><li>October 2005 </li></ul>
  7. 7. Anti-Sweatshop Focus on Consumers & Consumption Practices <ul><li> “ Choose it, colour it, sign it, buy it” </li></ul><ul><li>“ Divided spring – real self, real style” </li></ul><ul><li>“ The best style is your very own” </li></ul><ul><li>“ Everyone is a star” </li></ul><ul><li> “ Clothing and accessories that enhance personal style” </li></ul>
  8. 8. Who’s responsible for sweatshops? Cause & treatment responsibility Everyone involved with garment consumption “ The social relations that connect us to others are not restricted to nation state borders. Our actions are conditioned by and contribute to institutions that affect distant others, and their actions contribute to the operation of institutions that affect us. Because our actions assume these others as condition for our own actions, …we have made practical moral commitments to them by virtue of our actions. That is, even when we are not conscious of or actively deny a moral relationship to these other people, to the extent that our actions depend on the assumption that distant others are doing certain things, we have obligations of justice in relation to them .” Iris Marion Young, “Responsibility and Global Justice: A Social Connection Model,” Philosophy and Social Policy (winter 2006)
  9. 9. Overview Contemporary Anti-Sweatshop Political Consumerism <ul><li>Formative events for North American & European Branches </li></ul><ul><li>European Branch : Lockout of women workers in Philipine factory making clothes for C & A for demanding legal minimum wage (1990) </li></ul><ul><li>North American Branch : Establishment of amalgamated Union of Needle, Industrial, and Technical Employees (UNITE!) & sweatshop raid in El Monte, California (1995) </li></ul><ul><li>STRUCK A NERVE IN CIVIL SOCIETY → MOBILIZATION → CONSOLIDATION OF ANTI-SWEATSHOP MOVEMENT </li></ul>
  10. 10. Transnational Movement <ul><li>Teaming up of Old & New Civil Society </li></ul><ul><li>Church groups, student groups, think tanks, policy institutes, foundations, consumer-oriented organizations, international organizations, local to global labor unions, labor-oriented groups, specific anti-sweatshop groups, no sweat businesses, business investors, and old & new international humanitarian networks and groups </li></ul><ul><li>Figure 1 – 106 main groups, networks & organizations (CSR-oriented groups not included) </li></ul><ul><li>All use “sweatshop” metaphor as their master frame </li></ul>
  11. 11. Human Rights for Workers: The Crusade Against Global Sweatshops Diamond Cut Jeans Hong Kong Christian Industrial Committee Development and Peace HomeNet CorpWatch Global Unions Co-op America Global Solidarity Dialogue Community Aid Abroad “Just Stop It” Global Solidarity, Irish Congress of Trade Unions (UCTU) Clean Clothes Campaign Globalise Resistance Christian Aid Global Exchange China Labor Bulletin Global Alliance for Workers and Communities Child Labor Coalition Get Ethical Catholic Institute for International Relations Garment Worker Center Carnegie Council on Ethics and International Gapsucks.org Campaign for Labor Rights FLO-International (Fair trade Labelling Organization International) Campaign for the Abolition of Sweatshops & Child Labor Fair Wear Boycott Nike Fair Trade Center Behind The Label (UNITE) Fairtrade Foundation Attac European Fair Trade Association Fair Labor Association Asian Network for the Rights of Occupational Accident Victims European Association of National Organisation of Textile Retailers Asia Monitor Resource Center (AMRC) Ethical Trading Initiative (ETI) American Apparel Ethical Threads American Center for International Labor Solidarity Ethicalshopper.net Alberta Nike Campaign Ethical Consumer Adbusters Educating for Justice Academic Consortium on International Trade
  12. 12. No Sweat. The UK Campaign Against Sweatshops North-South Institute Nike Watch (Oxfam, AUS) Nike Wages Campaign National Mobilization Against Sweatshops (NMASS) National Labor Committee for Worker & Human Rights National Interfaith Committee for Worker Justice Multinational Resource Center Maquila Solidarity Network (MSN) Maquiladora Health & Safety Support Network Maison Internationaa huis (MINTH) LINK-label LINK Etc. Labour Behind the Label Just Shoppers’ Guide to Sport Shoes Just Do It! Boycott Nike! Just Act: Youth ACTion for Global JUSTice International Labor Rights Fund International Labor Organization (ILO) International Federation for Alternative Trade International Confederation of Free Trade Unions International Committee for Trade Union Rights Human Rights First Transnationale Organization Transnational Information Exchange- Asia (TIE-Asia) Thai Labor Campaign TCFU Austrialia SweatX, Union cut and sew shop Sweatshop Watch Sweatshop Journal Students Against Sweatshops (SAS-C) Canada Stichting Onderzoek Multinationale Ondernemingen (SOMO, Centre for research on multinational corporations) Smithsonian Sweatshop Exhibition Scholars Against Sweatshop Labor (SASL) SA 8000 (Social Accountability International) Resource Center of the Americas Responsible Shopper, Co-Op America Press for Change Play Fair at the Olympics People’s Global Action (PGA)/ People-Centered Development Forum (PCDF) Peace Through Interamerican Community Action (PICA) Oxfam’s campaign “Make Trade Fair”, involved in Fair Play at the Olympics Olympic Living Wage Project Starving for the Swoosh (2001) No Sweat Shop Labeling Campaign
  13. 13. Worldwide Responsible Apparel Production World Development Movement Workers Rights Consortium (WRC) Women Working Worldwide Women in Informal Employment Globalizing and Organizing (WIEGO) Witness for Peace Vietnam Labor Watch Verite, independent, non-profit social auditing US/Labor Education in the Americas Project (US Leap) United Students Against Sweatshops (USAS) Unite! Union of Needletrades, Industrial and Textile Employees Union Wear Union Mall Union Label and Service Trades (part of AFL-CIO)
  14. 14. Study of Key Anti-Sweatshop Movement Actors <ul><li>From old & new “membership-based” civil society groups & associations </li></ul><ul><li>Unions (UNITE, Gobal Unions) </li></ul><ul><li>International Humanitarian (Oxfam, Global Exchange) </li></ul><ul><li>Specific “no-sweat” groups (United Students Against Sweatshops, Clean Clothes Campaign) </li></ul><ul><li>Internet Spin Doctors (Adbusters) </li></ul><ul><li>Sources: Interviews, documents and other materials from key actors, secondary sources </li></ul>
  15. 15. Different Envisioned Role for Consumers to Play in Social Justice Responsibility-Taking Work-still-in-progress <ul><li>Support group for other causes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>unions: consumers are “broad, ideologically benign community” to mobilize “to make the struggle for justice for workers more palatable to the public in an antilabor climate” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Critical shopping mass </li></ul><ul><li>- USAS & international humanitarian organizations: consumers can “use their purchasing power to tilt the balance, however slightly, in favour of the poor;” “Organizing communities of consumers can make sweatfree purchases dynamic and effective” </li></ul><ul><li>Spearhead force hitting corporations where it hurts most </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Clean Clothes Campaign: uses opportunities opened up by buyer-driven corporate vulnerability: “Brand name companies compete intensely for consumer loyalty, and therefore consumers can influence how these companies operate.” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Ontological agent of societal change </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Adbusters Media Foundation: “the world can change if consumers change their relationship to consumption” </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Envisioned Role for Consumers Affects Movement Actors’ Campaign Strategies & Tactics Work-still-in-progress <ul><li>Thematic campaigning penetrates underlying mechanisms leading to social justice responsibility vacuums; goal is change in predispositions, worldview, consumer outlook on role of consumption in their lives </li></ul><ul><li>Episodic campaigning focuses on particular issues, actors, puts responsibility claims on specific wrong-doers (Nike, Walmart, H & M…) </li></ul><ul><li>Preliminary Findings: (1) Support group, critical mass, spearhead force; more focus on episodic campaigning; (2) Most movement actors focus on episodic campaigning; event & actor focus (exceptions: Adbusters; UNITE’s Behind the Label Campaign) </li></ul><ul><li>(See Shanto Iyengar “Framing Responsibility for Political Issues” Annals, AAPSS 1999 for initial discussion on these frames) </li></ul>
  17. 17. Effectiveness of Episodal Campaigning and Anti-Sweatshop Activism Effectiveness Chain Model Some Preliminary Results How measure activist effects on market share and stock prices? Builds on classical studies of power & influence, Keck & Sikknik’s work on transnational advocacy networks; mainstream political science analysis of public policy processes Yes. In certain cases. No more small child labor. Is anti-sweatshop improving garment workers’ lives? Problem-solving outcomes Mixed findings. Are and how well are codes of conduct implemented in practice? P olicy implementation YES after much struggle. CSR reporting, establishment of Codes of Conduct and improvements in them. Influence how corporations formulate their policies Policy-making YES. Corporations address it. Pushing corporations to put sweatshop on their policy agenda Agenda-setting YES. Sweatshop well-known problem frame; 2.7 million Google hits; newspaper reports, others’ acknowledgement Movement’s ability to convince relevant targets (consumers, civil society, politicians, corporations, media) about sweatshops as problem Problem recognition by others YES. 106 groups. Sweatshop metaphor. NO. Solutions Actors’ ability to create movement with common master frame Problem formulation Effectiveness Definition Links
  18. 18. Force of Political Consumerism Micheletti’s Thoughts <ul><li>Need to distinguish between light & thick political consumerism? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Thin version : better buying, supporting unions when triggered episodically by mobilizing campaigns </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Problems of price-sensitivity; fickliness; incongruencies between saying and doing </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Implication: harnessing consumer power is never-ending-task </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Thick/deep version : changing our consumption predispositions and deep values about role of consumption as social marker; long-term goal of ontological movement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>- New “non-price-sensitive” relationship to consumption with staying power </li></ul></ul></ul>

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