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Major Theories
 

Major Theories

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    Major Theories Major Theories Presentation Transcript

    • Cultural Studies (2) Major Theories and Methodologies
      • Main issues
      • Major Theories and Methodologies
      • Key Concepts and Subject Positions
    • Starting Questions
      • What is, or are, cultural studies?
      • How possible conflicts it may have with literary studies?
      • What are the controversies re. to “popular” culture, literary canon,
      • How do we do close analysis, symptomatic reading and contextual reading?
    • Outline
      • History of Cultural Studies
      • Culturalism vs. Structuralism
      • Structuralism and Semiotics  culture as languages
      • Marxism  power relations  relative autonomy and ideology
      • Subjectivity
      • Text/Context, Discourse
      • Examples : Semiotics + Marxism + Foucault
    • Cultural Studies: History of Articulation (pp. 44-)
      • 50's socialist humanism; (or Marxism ) – W. Hoggart (), R. Williams, E. P. Thompson; New Left, commitment to Working Class culture
      •  60's -- Culturalist –culture as a whole way of life, as a process of lived experience.
      • 70‘s -- Structuralist marxism; Semiotics ;
        • -- e.g. Althusser; Roland Barthes
      • mid-70’s – Gramsci & Foucault; -- Derrida +Discourse theories of Foucault;   -- Althusser + Lacan
      • mid- 80's -- postmodern debate (postmodernism as US imperialism)
      • 90‘s – regional Cultural Studies and issues of Globalization (e.g. that in Taiwan, or inter-Asia Cultural Studies; Empire and biopolitics)
    • Structuralism vs. Culturalism
      • Structuralism e.g. Althusser – pays more attention to social structure and its control than individual resistance;
      • Culturalism e.g. Williams and E. P. Thompson -- working class cultures (specific cultures)
      • Gramsci (views on hegemony and organic intellectual) as a solution to this debate.
    • Structuralism: Major principles
      • 0. Langue vs. Parole (p. 9)
      • Language is an arbitrary system of relations; (no natural connections between signs and meanings.) 約定俗成的關係系統 (p. 7)
      • 2. Meaning is defined by differences between signs (or signifiers 意符 ).
      • 3. Language (Symbolic order for Lacan) does not reflect reality; it structures or constructs “reality.”  Different languages  different realities (world view and ways of thinking). (pp. 7-9)
      • Do you have examples to prove these concepts?
    • Language as System of Meaning: e.g.
      • “ Uncle” and “Aunt” for Taiwanese and Americans;
      • “ Patriotism” for Taiwanese, Americans and Palestinians;
      • “ Marriage” for different generations;
      • “ Killing animals” for some aborigines and environmentalists.
    • Sexism in Chinese: 女
      • 女--婦人也﹐象形。「象 雙手受縛屈跪 之形。」;
      • 姓﹐從女、生。( 先民接從母姓 );
      • 嫁、娶︰「嫁﹐ 女適人也 」;婚︰古人
      • 以 昏 時娶親﹐  婚
      • 外人、 賤內 ;弄璋、 弄瓦 ;
      • 妻﹐婦與己齊者;必有幾個女子陪嫁。 嬪、妃、妾、媛、婢、奴 。
    • 女— in binaries
      • Angel: 女為悅己者容︰ 嫵、媚、好、姣、嬌、婉、妙、婀娜、娉婷、婆娑
      • Whore: 娼、妒(婦妒夫也)﹐妨(害也)、妄(亂也)、佞、婞、婪、嬾(懶)、妓、媿(愧)、奸、婬、姦
      • 「唯女人與小子難養也。」
      • 三從四德、 七出 (不顧父母、無子、婬僻、嫉妒、惡疾、多口舌、竊盜)
    • Structuralism  Roland Barthes’ Semiotics: Major principles
      • All the cultural products and activities are different kinds of languages (read as process or results of signification .) No meaning is inherent or natural. (de Saussure p. 10)
      • Sign: Form ( 物質形式 p. 11) + Concept Signifier + Signified
      • There are more than one level of signification and thus meanings in any language.  denotation and connotation.  myth (distortion) (Barthes chap 10: 45; chap 11: 11-12)
    • Sign System: Selection and Combination
      • All social practices as sign-systems and thus are open to cultural interpretation (or de-mystification).
      • e.g. the “langue” of clothes (selection & combination)
          • sentence:
          • blouse + skirt + high heeled shoes X snickers
          • 2. blouse + jeans + snickers  X not for concert
      b. skirt, trousers System: a. blouse, shirt, T-shirt
    • Semiotic Interpretation: example 1
      • Ferdinand Marcos (pp. 14-15)
      • Hand waving –a sign of power
      • Imadel—worried and more submissive
    • Different levels of signification: primary signification & secondary signification A. primary signification: a (empty) signifier ([roz]) + signified ( Flower )= sign (full)--denotation B. Secondary signification Sign ( empty)/Form + content (Love)= sign --connotation (distortion or myth)
    • Levels of Signification: Denotation & Connotation
      • Denotation: ads –
      • “ absolutely classified”
      • Connotation :most wanted
      • -- “absolutely superior”;
      • -- Recognizable anywhere
      • by one with a good taste.
      • Myth : taste for liquor = recognition of the bottle;
        • e.g. Absolut
      • “ Arriving From the North. There is no purer vodka outlook. Chilled neat at 0.”
        • -- Denotation?
        • The Vodka bottle travels like air waves.
        • -- Connotation?
        • But it does not change its temperature.
        • -- Myth or Distortion?
        • It’s effect on our bodies is absolutely guaranteed.
        • e.g. Absolut
      • “ There is no purer vodka than absolut. Be logical. Drink it Neat at 0.”
        • Denotation?
        • Connotation?
        • Vodka as pure logic like that of computer.
        • Myth or Distortion?
        • Can we be logical after drinking?
    • Marxism
      • 經濟主義 economism (reflectionism) vs. relative autonomy (pp. 19-)
      • Ideology as false consciousness vs. I as systems of meanings (providing subject positions)
      • ISA (e.g. school, media) and material practice
    • Subjectivity
      • Althusser + Lacan;
          • We are “interpellated” as subjects;
          • Our unconscious is structured like language. We enter the symbolic as “split” speaking subject .
          • Examples: women’s positions 25
    • Contextualization and Discourse
      • The distinctions between text and context , representation and history are blurred—to be defined in different studies differently.
        • e.g. discourse on movie stars p. 31
    • Semiotics + Marxism + Foucault
      • Q 1: How do we do a semiotic reading of fashion?
      Source: 中國時報 穿出好樣東方味 920602
      • Constructions of femininity: “softness” “delicacy”
      • Silk + embroidery of flowers + curving edges,
      • the 旗 collar
      • Chest and Waist lines; loose pants
    • How do we do a semiotic reading?
      • Signs dragon;
      • Differences between the Oriental ( 夏姿 ) and the “Western” (Armani) use of signs.
    • How do we do a semiotic reading?
      • 長期以來仰慕東方文化的米蘭大師 Giorgio Armani ,季季都在 Oriental 的 意境裡做變化,無論是珠繡,緞質禮服或者是合身長褲,亞曼尼走來始終如一。
      • Armani 是 中國式的寬宏大度
      • Really? Yuppyish +sexiness
    • How do we do a semiotic reading?
      •   反觀 Cavalli. . . 完全向刺繡投降, 無論是連身長洋裝或短版 旗袍 ,從外套到鞋子到長褲,就算不是真刺繡,也要印上像 刺繡 的印花才甘心。 黃色和寶藍 是基本的調性,加上最愛 豹紋、切片寶石和正紅色的點綴 ,當仁不讓得到好萊塢女星最愛。
    • Context
      • 西方世界的服裝精神在於,把女人裝飾成 一朵胸大腰細的花。 20 世紀大師 Christian Dior 的「 New Look 」可視為個中經典。但 80 年代以降,來自日本的三傑: Issey Miyake , Comme des Garcons 和 Yohji Yamamoto 等人以 東方沉潛力量 征服西方之後,重視寫意的服裝傳統也漸漸糅合於西方服裝之中 。
      http:// lsm.crt.state.la.us/modern.htm
    • Q 2: How do we do a Marxist reading of Fashion trends?
      • re-contextualization. Capitalist production is a process of abstraction and alienation. e.g. Who are making the clothes? Who are producing the “ethnic colors”? Do wearing the Chinese robe makes Chinese culture better understood?
      • Paris, New York, Tokyo  Taiwan
      • super models and stars  boutiques  department stores  street vendors
    • Prescriptive language in fashion business on all levels
      • 以男生來說, 東方風 格的打扮 以細節最為重要 。就拿港星成龍來說吧!每回他出席國外重要場合,總是以寬大的袍裝為主,無論是烏干紗或是馬褂, 總是帶有一字領,或是梅花扣等細節,如此溫文儒雅的造型 ,也正好平衡了他給人的武生形象。
      •  若以女生而言,在剪裁上 可選擇上寬下窄的和服式線條,多些刺繡花鳥也無妨。在顏色上則可以用比較大膽的色彩,如正黃色,紅色或寶藍色都是首選, 港星楊紫瓊可說是 最佳代言人 。
    • Prescriptive language in fashion business ◎ 最炫的行頭 ~中國繡花鞋、斑馬紋背包 ◎ 讓自己穿得 粉「中國」風 ◎ 我是年輕人, 我要戴玉鐲子 ◎ 三寸金蓮沒有, 繡花鞋倒是挺多的! ◎ 中國風, 少了配件行頭可不行 1. http://cityguide.pchome.com.tw/news_play/890922play3.html
    • Hierarchy in fashion business
      • 肚兜題詩句,穿出中國風,盤釦、繡花全用上,旗袍領特別多,濃濃中國味濃厚
      http://www.cdnnews.com.tw/20030128/news/nxyzh/T90049002003012719505500.htm
    • Questions 3, 4, 5 . . .
      • How do we avoid being the reductionism of Marxism?
      • What does it mean to study to discourse of “the Chinese”? (e.g. 龍的傳人,旗袍?) How do we position ourselves in relation to all the dominant discourses?
      • Why is the line between text and context, history and representation blurred?
    • From Marxism to Cultural Studies
      • Base and Superstructure
      • Circuit of Culture
      • All the five actions actually happen on each level ;
      • Consumption is not “a tap on the knee
      • Bally 公主袖黑白洋裝 4 萬 4800 元, 金色手提包 3 萬 9800 元, 高跟鞋 1 萬 5500 元。(鄧博仁攝)   
      2007-12-26 中國時報 / 名人時尚 [E1 版 ]
      • 幫老婆買梵克雅寶的千萬珠寶之餘,麥特戴蒙也會替自己買產量稀少的梵克雅寶男錶。
      • 至於 2007 的全新版本錶殼直徑為 39 毫米,比原創 PA 49 更大, 呼應近年大錶面的風潮 ,設計有 3 個珍珠母貝的小錶盤 ,分別顯示動力儲存、第二第時間與日曆小圓盤,不同於多數錶廠將品牌 logo 設計在 12 點鐘位置, 梵克雅寶向來將 logo 放在 3 點鐘 ,也是這個頂級珠寶品牌的錶款特色。搭載瑞士積家 JLC939 自動上鏈機芯,錶款售價約新台幣 30 萬元。
      2007-12-26 中國時報 / 名人時尚 [E1 版 ]
    •