On October 23rd, 2014, we updated our
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Teachers write and share their writing, processes and products, with their students.
They personally experience what they ask of student writers, from finding a topic through going public. Teachers do not require student writers to do anything they don’t do themselves as writers.
High teacher support – use mentor texts
Explicitly teach using focussed demonstration
Involves the teacher scripting the text while thinking aloud – create anchor charts
Teacher models problem-solving skills and strategies during writing
All students must SEE text as you WRITE
Teacher explains, thinks aloud and WRITES aloud
Shows that writers always write with an audience
Shows how good writers think and they craft their writing to make it effective
Shows value of risk-taking as part of writing
Quote from Donald Graves
What students have been missing for years is seeing their teacher write.
They need to see you wrestle with a piece you care about: delete and rethink and add details.
They want to hear your wish for a funny piece you are working on and then celebrate with you when you finally write a draft that shows what you mean.
Quote from Donald Graves
They want to understand what prewriting really is and what revision tools are useful.
They need to see you craft your writing so they can develop a vision for how to craft their own.
You are the only one who can show them. They’re counting on you .
Teachers works WITH the students to construct a piece of writing
Teacher controls the PEN
Students actively contribute their IDEAS
Enables teacher to support and scaffold writers
Lesson explicitly teaches a writing text form, strategy, etc.
Teacher explicitly teaches strategies/genres/formats and demonstrates the writing process while collaborating with students
Continue to think aloud while writing
Teacher responds to student suggestions, showing how they contribute to the writing
POWERFUL teaching tool in all curriculum areas
Benefits of Shared Writing
Authentic writing experience
Small-group or whole class – tailored to student needs
Explicitly teaches students
Motivates students to write more
Provides anchor charts for classroom for students can refer back to it
The teacher gathers together a small, temporary group of writers and provides them with explicit teaching based on their needs at a particular point in time.
Volume 6, Page 34
Teacher identifies a gap in students’ writing performance and decides on instructional focus
Guides students to apply techniques to their own writing as they move to independent practice
Teaches the writer’s craft, strategies, and skills
Guides, supports, and gives feedback to students in the group
Makes ongoing observations and assesses students’ progress
Benefits of Guided Writing
Teacher provides support to small groups/individual students before they write texts independently
Can be used with students at any achievement level
Helps students to hone specific strategies with guidance
(R)emember that students need to spend most of their time writing independently. If they are to become excellent writers they have to spend most of a writing lesson composing continuous text…
Students do the writing themselves, drawing on the knowledge/skills learned in modelled, shared and guided lessons + teacher feedback
30 minutes per day of sustained writing – frequently on topics of student’s choice
Teacher confers with students
suggests ideas for improvement, provides support as strategies are tried
explains, responds to needs, coaches, re-teaches, encourages, observes to plan future teaching
Benefits of Independent Writing
Helps writers become clearer, more focused, and more concise
Encourages enjoyment and confidence
Enables teacher to provide feedback
Allows students to try out new ways of writing
Text forms offer a general framework that enables readers and writers to create meaning and communicate their ideas.
They generally describe the function and structure of a text.
Drama Realistic fiction
Fantasy Science fiction
Humour Tall tales
Story Report Storyboards
Generally, genre refers to the style or literacy category of a text, and may be informational or imaginative. The differences between text forms and genres are not absolute, and there may be overlap between the categories.
Format can be thought of as the general organization and arrangement of text that accommodates the specific needs of an audience. There may be some overlap with text forms.
Text Formats (continued)
How do I manage…?
4 instructional approaches
4 assessment levels
4 categories of the Achievement Chart
5 steps of the writing process
6 +1 traits of writing
Text forms, genres, format
Effective Writing Program
4 instructional strategies
the writing process – writer’s workshop
understanding of traits of writing
Effective teachers use these key instructional approaches daily, selecting the best approach for the needs of the students at the time.
They may focus on one approach or use a combination, as appropriate.
The approaches are used to meet students’ needs , and are not necessarily used in a linear fashion.
Volume 6 – Page 36
Knowing WHEN to use modelling , WHEN to share writing responsibilities, WHEN to guide , and WHEN to let students work independently is what makes an effective teacher and ensures students’ success in writing.