INFS2005 Accounting Information Systems <ul><li>Lecture 10 </li></ul><ul><li>Enterprise Resource Planning Systems </li></ul>
Objectives for Lecture 10 <ul><li>Functionality and key elements of ERP systems </li></ul><ul><li>ERP configurations--serv...
Problems with Non-ERP Systems <ul><li>In-house design limits connectivity outside the company </li></ul><ul><li>Tendency t...
Traditional IS Model: Closed Database Architecture <ul><li>Similar in concept to flat-file approach </li></ul><ul><ul><li>...
Traditional IS Model: Closed Database Architecture …
Order Entry System Manufacturing and  Distribution System Procurement System Customer Sales Account Rec Production Schedul...
What is an ERP System? <ul><li>Multi-module application software that helps a company manage the important parts of its bu...
<ul><li>Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) Systems </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Groups of software applications integrated to for...
Goals and Methods of ERP Software and the REA Enterprise Ontology <ul><li>Database Orientation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Data ...
<ul><li>Semantic Orientation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Requires objects in the system’s conceptual model to correspond as clos...
<ul><li>Structuring Orientation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Demands the use of a pattern as a foundation for the enterprise syst...
<ul><li>Integration among systems of functional areas and divisions  within  the same enterprise </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Oft...
Electronic Commerce Solutions and  Inter-Enterprise System Design <ul><li>Business to Consumer (B2C) E-commerce </li></ul>...
<ul><li>Business to Business (B2B) E-commerce </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Shift has occurred that requires conceptual models to ...
<ul><li>Exchange of data between enterprises in a prescribed electronic format, usually through a VAN (value added network...
<ul><li>To accommodate shift in systems needs to an outward focus with e-commerce and inter-enterprise integration </li></...
E-Commerce and the REA Enterprise Ontology … <ul><li>Current efforts to envelope REA constructs in the information exchang...
Data Warehouse On-Line Analytical Processing (OLAP) Bolt-On Applications (Industry Specific Functions) Sales & Distributio...
Two Main ERP Applications <ul><li>(1) Core applications   </li></ul><ul><li>a.k.a.  On-line Transaction Processing (OLTP) ...
Two Main ERP Applications … <ul><li>(2) Business analysis applications   </li></ul><ul><li>a.k.a.  On-line Analytical Proc...
OLAP <ul><li>Supports management-critical tasks through analytical investigation of complex data associations captured in ...
ERP System Configurations: Client-Server Network Topology <ul><li>Two-tier </li></ul><ul><ul><li>common server handles bot...
Server Applications Database User Presentation Layer First Tier Second Tier Application and Database Layer Two-Tier Client...
ERP System Configurations: Client-Server Network Topology <ul><li>Three-tier </li></ul><ul><ul><li>client links to the app...
Three-Tier Client Server Applications Database First Tier Second Tier Third Tier User Presentation Layer Application Layer...
ERP with OLTP and OLAP Client Server using Data Warehouse OLTP  Server OLTP Applications Operations  Database Server Opera...
ERP System Configurations: Databases and Bolt-Ons <ul><li>Database Configuration </li></ul><ul><ul><li>selection of databa...
What is a Data Warehouse? <ul><li>A  multi-dimensional  database often using hundreds of gigabytes or even terabytes of me...
Data Warehouse Process <ul><li>The five stages of the data warehousing process:  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>modeling data for t...
Data Warehouse Process: Stage 1 <ul><li>Modeling data for the data warehouse </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Because of the vast siz...
Data Warehouse Process: Stage 2 <ul><li>Extracting data from operational databases </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The process of co...
Data Warehouse Process: Stage 3 <ul><li>Cleansing extracted data </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Involves filtering out or repairing...
Data Warehouse Process: Stage 4 <ul><li>Transforming data into the warehouse model </li></ul><ul><ul><li>To improve effici...
Data Warehouse Process: Stage 5 <ul><li>Loading data into the data warehouse database </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Data warehouse...
Current (this weeks) Detailed Sales  Data Sales Data Summarized  Quarterly Archived over Time Data Cleansing Process Opera...
Applications of Data Mining
Risks Associated with ERP Implementation <ul><li>Pace of implementation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>‘ Big Bang’--switch operatio...
Risks Associated with ERP Implementation … <ul><li>Choosing the wrong consultant </li></ul><ul><ul><li>common to use a thi...
Implications for Internal Control and Auditing <ul><li>Transaction authorization </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Controls are needed...
Implications for Internal Control and Auditing … <ul><li>Accounting records </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Corrupted data may be pa...
Implications for Internal Control and Auditing … <ul><li>Contingency planning </li></ul><ul><ul><li>keeping a business goi...
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  • Infs2005 Accounting Information Systems

    1. 1. INFS2005 Accounting Information Systems <ul><li>Lecture 10 </li></ul><ul><li>Enterprise Resource Planning Systems </li></ul>
    2. 2. Objectives for Lecture 10 <ul><li>Functionality and key elements of ERP systems </li></ul><ul><li>ERP configurations--servers, databases, and bolt-on software </li></ul><ul><li>Data warehousing as a strategic tool and issues related to the design, maintenance, and operation of a data warehouse </li></ul><ul><li>Risks associated with ERP implementation </li></ul><ul><li>Key considerations related to ERP implementation </li></ul><ul><li>Internal control and auditing implications of ERPs </li></ul><ul><li>Compare the goals of current enterprise resource planning (ERP) systems with those of the REA enterprise ontology </li></ul><ul><li>Discuss strengths and weaknesses of the REA enterprise ontology as a foundation for meeting intra-enterprise and inter-enterprise information integration needs </li></ul><ul><li>The leading ERP products and their distinguishing features </li></ul>
    3. 3. Problems with Non-ERP Systems <ul><li>In-house design limits connectivity outside the company </li></ul><ul><li>Tendency toward separate IS’s within firm </li></ul><ul><ul><li>lack of integration limits communication within the company </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Strategic decision-making not supported </li></ul><ul><li>Long-term maintenance costs high </li></ul><ul><li>Limits ability to engage in process reengineering </li></ul>
    4. 4. Traditional IS Model: Closed Database Architecture <ul><li>Similar in concept to flat-file approach </li></ul><ul><ul><li>data remains the property of the application </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>fragmentation limits communications </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Existence of numerous distinct and independent databases </li></ul><ul><ul><li>redundancy and anomaly problems </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Paper-based </li></ul><ul><ul><li>requires multiple entry of data </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>status of information unknown at key points </li></ul></ul>
    5. 5. Traditional IS Model: Closed Database Architecture …
    6. 6. Order Entry System Manufacturing and Distribution System Procurement System Customer Sales Account Rec Production Scheduling Shipping Vendor Accts Pay Inventory Customer Database Manufacturing Database Procurement Database Business Enterprise Customer Supplier Products Orders Purchases Materials Traditional Information System with Closed Database Architecture
    7. 7. What is an ERP System? <ul><li>Multi-module application software that helps a company manage the important parts of its business in an integrated fashion. </li></ul><ul><li>Key features include: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>smooth and seamless flow of information across organizational boundaries </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>standardized environment with shared database independent of applications and integrated applications </li></ul></ul>
    8. 8. <ul><li>Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) Systems </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Groups of software applications integrated to form enterprise-wide information systems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>SAP, Peoplesoft, and Oracle Applications are the top three ERP vendors </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Began as back-office applications </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Seen and used only by people within enterprises </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bolt-on applications have allowed expansion to front office use </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Bolt-on applications are software programs that can be added to existing ERP applications </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Front-office systems are seen and interacted with by external partners such as customers and suppliers </li></ul></ul></ul>Intra-Enterprise Systems: ERP and the REA Enterprise Ontology
    9. 9. Goals and Methods of ERP Software and the REA Enterprise Ontology <ul><li>Database Orientation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Data must be stored at their most primitive levels, at least for a defined time period </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Data must be stored only once, in a way that all authorized decision makers can access the data </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Data must be stored to allow retrieval in various formats as needed for different purposes </li></ul></ul><ul><li>REA mandates database orientation </li></ul><ul><li>Some ERP systems meet database orientation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Some store the same information multiple places and some do not include all links needed to retrieve information in all needed formats </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Single Source ERP are more likely than Best-of-Breed ERP systems to meet database orientation </li></ul></ul></ul>
    10. 10. <ul><li>Semantic Orientation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Requires objects in the system’s conceptual model to correspond as closely as possible to objects in the underlying reality </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Precludes use of artificial constructs such as debits, credits, and accounts as base objects in the enterprise system </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>REA mandates semantic orientation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ERP systems do not require semantic orientation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Evidenced by use of accounting artifacts as base objects </li></ul></ul></ul>Goals and Methods of ERP Software and the REA Enterprise Ontology …
    11. 11. <ul><li>Structuring Orientation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Demands the use of a pattern as a foundation for the enterprise system </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>REA mandates use of pattern, with implementation compromises allowed to tailor the system to the business </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ERP software packages do not exhibit pattern-based design, but rather attempt to build industry “best-practices” into the software </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The business processes must conform to the software to avoid expensive customizations </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>What if industry “best-practices” are not the best for a specific enterprise? </li></ul></ul></ul>Goals and Methods of ERP Software and the REA Enterprise Ontology …
    12. 12. <ul><li>Integration among systems of functional areas and divisions within the same enterprise </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Often accomplished with </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>In-house developed software </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Software created specifically for an enterprise by its own programming staff or by a consultant </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Single source ERP </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Entire system uses one ERP software package </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Best-of-Breed ERP </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Modules from different ERP software packages are used for different functional areas </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>E.g. Peoplesoft for HR, SAP for manufacturing, and Oracle Apps for financials </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Enterprise application integration software or inhouse programming solutions may be used to connect the different packages </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>Intra-Enterprise Integration
    13. 13. Electronic Commerce Solutions and Inter-Enterprise System Design <ul><li>Business to Consumer (B2C) E-commerce </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Customers obtain information and purchase items from enterprises electronically, for example, via the enterprise’s website </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The primary differences between physical B2C commerce and electronic B2C commerce are the breaking down of time, place, and form barriers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Customers can access information 24 hours per day, 7 days per week, 52 weeks per year </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Customers do not need to physically transport themselves to seller’s location </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Small firms can look larger with impressive web storefronts </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>These differences do not result in different types of conceptual models from physical B2C commerce </li></ul></ul>
    14. 14. <ul><li>Business to Business (B2B) E-commerce </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Shift has occurred that requires conceptual models to change from those that result from typical physical B2B commerce. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Shift is away from traditional linear supply chain (value system) to value web </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Enterprises need information not just about their most direct external partners, but also about indirect external partners, e.g. their customers’ customers </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Foundations include </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Telecommunications infrastructure </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Electronic data interchange (EDI) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The Internet </li></ul></ul></ul>Electronic Commerce Solutions and Inter-Enterprise System Design …
    15. 15. <ul><li>Exchange of data between enterprises in a prescribed electronic format, usually through a VAN (value added network). </li></ul><ul><ul><li>VAN connections and software were proprietary and expensive </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Enabled more efficient and effective supply chain management </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Attempts are underway to standardize EDI to make EDI more consistent across industries </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>E.g. Open-EDI </li></ul></ul></ul>Electronic Data Interchange (EDI)
    16. 16. <ul><li>To accommodate shift in systems needs to an outward focus with e-commerce and inter-enterprise integration </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Connections between enterprises occur via resource exchanges </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Consider the possibility of connecting two enterprise systems at the value system level </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Enterprise Q sale = Enterprise R purchase </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Enterprise Q cash receipt = Enterprise R cash disbursement </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>How to merge these views? </li></ul></ul></ul>E-Commerce and the REA Enterprise Ontology
    17. 17. E-Commerce and the REA Enterprise Ontology … <ul><li>Current efforts to envelope REA constructs in the information exchange standards that will comprise the bridges between enterprise systems </li></ul><ul><ul><li>UN/CEFACT ebXML group – Bill McCarthy serves as an influential member </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>EbXML </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Electronic Business using eXtensible Markup Language </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>a set of specifications that provides a standard method by which enterprises may communicate </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Is transaction level interchange of data </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>XBRL </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>eXtensible Business Reporting Language </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Tagging system tailored to financial statement line items </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
    18. 18. Data Warehouse On-Line Analytical Processing (OLAP) Bolt-On Applications (Industry Specific Functions) Sales & Distribution Business Planning Shop Floor Control Logistics Customers Suppliers Operational Database Customers, Production, Vendor, Inventory, etc. Legacy Systems Core Functions [On-Line Transaction Processing (OLTP)] ERP System Business Enterprise ERP System
    19. 19. Two Main ERP Applications <ul><li>(1) Core applications </li></ul><ul><li>a.k.a. On-line Transaction Processing (OLTP) </li></ul><ul><li>transaction processing systems </li></ul><ul><li>support the day-to-day operational activities of the business </li></ul><ul><li>support mission-critical tasks through simple queries of operational databases </li></ul><ul><li>include sales and distribution, business planning, production planning, shop floor control, and logistics modules </li></ul>
    20. 20. Two Main ERP Applications … <ul><li>(2) Business analysis applications </li></ul><ul><li>a.k.a. On-line Analytical Processing (OLAP) </li></ul><ul><li>decision support tool for management-critical tasks through analytical investigation of complex data associations </li></ul><ul><li>supplies management with “real-time” information and permits timely decisions to improve performance and achieve competitive advantage </li></ul><ul><li>includes decision support, modeling, information retrieval, ad-hoc reporting/analysis, and what-if analysis </li></ul>
    21. 21. OLAP <ul><li>Supports management-critical tasks through analytical investigation of complex data associations captured in data warehouses: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Consolidation is the aggregation or roll-up of data. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Drill-down allows the user to see data in selective increasing levels of detail. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Slicing and Dicing enables the user to examine data from different viewpoints to uncover trends and patterns. </li></ul></ul>
    22. 22. ERP System Configurations: Client-Server Network Topology <ul><li>Two-tier </li></ul><ul><ul><li>common server handles both application and database duties </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>used especially in LANs </li></ul></ul>
    23. 23. Server Applications Database User Presentation Layer First Tier Second Tier Application and Database Layer Two-Tier Client Server Server
    24. 24. ERP System Configurations: Client-Server Network Topology <ul><li>Three-tier </li></ul><ul><ul><li>client links to the application server which then initiates a second connection to the database server </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>used especially in WANs </li></ul></ul>
    25. 25. Three-Tier Client Server Applications Database First Tier Second Tier Third Tier User Presentation Layer Application Layer Database Layer Application Server Database Server
    26. 26. ERP with OLTP and OLAP Client Server using Data Warehouse OLTP Server OLTP Applications Operations Database Server Operations Database First Tier Second Tier Third Tier User Presentation Layer Application Layer Database Layer OLAP Server OLAP Applications Data Warehouse Server Data Warehouse
    27. 27. ERP System Configurations: Databases and Bolt-Ons <ul><li>Database Configuration </li></ul><ul><ul><li>selection of database tables in the thousands </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>setting the switches in the system </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Bolt-on Software </li></ul><ul><ul><li>third-party vendors provide specialized functionality software </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Supply Chain Management (SCM) links vendors, carriers, logistics companies, and IS providers </li></ul></ul>
    28. 28. What is a Data Warehouse? <ul><li>A multi-dimensional database often using hundreds of gigabytes or even terabytes of memory </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Data are extracted periodically from operational databases or from public information services. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>A database constructed for quick searching, retrieval, ad-hoc queries, and ease of use </li></ul><ul><li>ERP systems can exist without data warehouses. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>However, most large ERP implementations include separate operational and data warehouse databases. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Otherwise, management data analysis may result in pulling system resources away from operational use. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Also, there are many sophisticated data-mining tools. </li></ul></ul>
    29. 29. Data Warehouse Process <ul><li>The five stages of the data warehousing process: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>modeling data for the data warehouse </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>extracting data from operational databases </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>cleansing extracted data </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>transforming data into the warehouse model </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>loading data into the data warehouse database </li></ul></ul>
    30. 30. Data Warehouse Process: Stage 1 <ul><li>Modeling data for the data warehouse </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Because of the vast size of a data warehouse, the warehouse database consists of de-normalized data. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Relational theory does not apply to a data warehousing system. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Normalized tables pertaining to selected events may be consolidated into de-normalized tables. </li></ul></ul></ul>
    31. 31. Data Warehouse Process: Stage 2 <ul><li>Extracting data from operational databases </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The process of collecting data from operational databases, flat-files, archives, and external data sources. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Snapshots vs. stabilized data </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A key feature of a data warehouse is that the data contained in it are in a non-volatile (stable) state. </li></ul></ul></ul>
    32. 32. Data Warehouse Process: Stage 3 <ul><li>Cleansing extracted data </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Involves filtering out or repairing invalid data prior to being stored in the warehouse </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Operational data are “dirty” for many reasons: clerical, data entry, computer program errors, misspelled names and blank fields. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Also involves transforming data into standard business terms with standard data values </li></ul></ul>
    33. 33. Data Warehouse Process: Stage 4 <ul><li>Transforming data into the warehouse model </li></ul><ul><ul><li>To improve efficiency, data are transformed into summary views before being loaded. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Unlike operational views, which are virtual in nature with underlying base tables, data warehouse views are physical tables. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>OLAP permits users to construct virtual views. </li></ul></ul></ul>
    34. 34. Data Warehouse Process: Stage 5 <ul><li>Loading data into the data warehouse database </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Data warehouses must be created & maintained separately from the operational databases. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>internal efficiency </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>integration of legacy systems </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>consolidation of global data </li></ul></ul></ul>
    35. 35. Current (this weeks) Detailed Sales Data Sales Data Summarized Quarterly Archived over Time Data Cleansing Process Operations Database VSAM Files Hierarchical DB Network DB Data Warehouse System The Data Warehouse Sales Data Summarized Annually Previous Years Previous Quarters Previous Weeks Purchases System Order Entry System ERP System Legacy Systems
    36. 36. Applications of Data Mining
    37. 37. Risks Associated with ERP Implementation <ul><li>Pace of implementation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>‘ Big Bang’--switch operations from legacy systems to ERP in a single event </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>‘ Phased-In’--independent ERP units installed over time, assimilated, and integrated </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Opposition to change </li></ul><ul><ul><li>user reluctance and inertia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>need of upper management support </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Choosing the wrong ERP </li></ul><ul><ul><li>goodness of fit: no one ERP product is best for all industries </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>scalability: system’s ability to grow </li></ul></ul>
    38. 38. Risks Associated with ERP Implementation … <ul><li>Choosing the wrong consultant </li></ul><ul><ul><li>common to use a third-party (the Big Four) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>thoroughly interview potential consultants </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>establish explicit expectations </li></ul></ul><ul><li>High cost and cost overruns </li></ul><ul><ul><li>common areas with high costs: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>training </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>testing and integration </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>database conversion </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Disruptions to operations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>ERP implementations usually involve business process reengineering (BPR) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>expect major changes in business processes </li></ul></ul></ul>
    39. 39. Implications for Internal Control and Auditing <ul><li>Transaction authorization </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Controls are needed to validate transactions before they are accepted by other modules. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ERPs are more dependent on programmed controls than on human intervention. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Segregation of duties </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Manual processes that normally require segregation of duties are often eliminated. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>User role: predefined user roles limit a user’s access to certain functions and data. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Supervision </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Supervisors need to acquire a technical and operational understanding of the new system. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Employee-empowered philosophy should not eliminate supervision. </li></ul></ul>
    40. 40. Implications for Internal Control and Auditing … <ul><li>Accounting records </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Corrupted data may be passed from external sources and from legacy systems. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>loss of paper audit trail </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Access controls </li></ul><ul><ul><li>critical concern with confidentiality of information </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Who should have access to what? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Access to data warehouse </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Data warehouses often involve sharing information with suppliers and customers. </li></ul></ul>
    41. 41. Implications for Internal Control and Auditing … <ul><li>Contingency planning </li></ul><ul><ul><li>keeping a business going in case of disaster </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>key role of servers requires backup plans: redundant servers or shared servers </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Independent verification </li></ul><ul><ul><li>traditional verifications are meaningless </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>need to shift from transaction level to overall performance level </li></ul></ul>
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