Digital Libraries


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  • Digital Libraries

    1. 1. Digital Libraries In a Nutshell The California Digital Library Roy Tennant
    2. 2. Outline <ul><li>The Vision </li></ul><ul><li>Definitions </li></ul><ul><li>Perspectives </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Research </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Production </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Services </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Collections </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>How to Keep Current </li></ul>
    3. 3. The Vision <ul><li>Anyone, anywhere, will be able to easily locate and use any image, text, database, or other type of digital resource — often in sophisticated ways or in association with other related objects </li></ul><ul><li>The only requirements: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>access to the Internet </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>authorization or payment if required </li></ul></ul>
    4. 4. Definitions: Part I <ul><li>“electronic” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>information stored and accessed by electronic devices </li></ul></ul><ul><li>“digital” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>information stored and accessed by computers (an electronic device) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>“virtual” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>in essence rather than in actual fact </li></ul></ul>
    5. 5. Definitions: Part II <ul><li>From the Association of Research Libraries - </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Not a single entity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Requires technology to link the resources of many </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Linkages are transparent to the user </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Collections are not limited to document surrogates, but include items that are exclusively digital </li></ul></ul>
    6. 6. Perspectives: Research <ul><li>Research Perspective </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Goal: to further knowledge </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Participants: computer science/library/information science faculty, a few line librarians </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Example: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>U.S. Digital Library Initiatives (also called the National Science Foundation DL projects) </li></ul></ul></ul>
    7. 7. Sample Research Issues <ul><li>Advanced search techniques </li></ul><ul><ul><li>e.g., query by image content </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Federation of large, disparate, and distant collections </li></ul><ul><li>Complex digital object behaviors </li></ul><ul><ul><li>GIS overlays, moving image navigation, etc. </li></ul></ul>
    8. 8. Perspectives: Production <ul><li>Production Perspective </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Goal: to create digital library collections and services </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Participants: libraries (mainly larger research libraries, but not exclusively) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Examples: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Library of Congress American Memory ( </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>eLib Programme ( </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Digital Library Federation ( </li></ul></ul></ul>
    9. 9. Production Issues <ul><li>Services </li></ul><ul><li>Collections </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Selecting </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Acquiring </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Organizing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Providing Access </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Preserving </li></ul></ul>
    10. 10. Services <ul><li>The challenge: providing services when and where they are needed </li></ul><ul><li>Examples: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Guides to Internet resources </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Librarians’ Index - </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>KidsClick! - </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Network-based reference </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Reference 24x7 - </li></ul></ul></ul>
    11. 11. Selecting Digital Material <ul><li>The process: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>how do you discover what is available? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>how can you evaluate the quality of resources? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>how can cost effectiveness be determined? (books remain, databases frequently don’t) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Considerations: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Purchase or license agreement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>funding source </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>infrastructure required </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>staff time to mount and maintain </li></ul></ul>
    12. 12. Selecting Material to Digitize <ul><li>Focus on unique materials that are likely to have broad interest </li></ul><ul><li>Build on strengths (seek critical mass) </li></ul><ul><li>Consider infrastructure required </li></ul><ul><li>Consider technical limitations </li></ul>
    13. 13. Acquiring: Digital Collections <ul><li>The digital acquisition continuum: </li></ul><ul><li>New procedures and workflows are required </li></ul><ul><ul><li>tape loading, scanning, format translation, etc. </li></ul></ul>linking mirroring hosting archiving Amount of Responsibility LESS MORE
    14. 14. Acquiring: Non-Digital Collections <ul><li>Digitization methods: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>scanner (flatbed, slide, handheld, etc.) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>digital camera: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>low-resolution - $US300-3,000+ </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>high-resolution - $US25,000-35,000+ </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Kodak PhotoCD </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Additional step for text conversion </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Optical Character Recognition or Re-keying </li></ul></ul>
    15. 15. Acquiring: Image File Formats <ul><li>Archival version: high-resolution TIFF </li></ul><ul><li>Online versions: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Preview: low-resolution GIF </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Full: medium-resolution JPEG </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>High: med./high-resolution JPEG or TIFF </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Up-and-coming: MrSID, Flashpix, PNG </li></ul>
    16. 16. Acquiring: Text File Formats <ul><li>Original: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>MS Word, Adobe Pagemaker, etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Adobe Acrobat </li></ul><ul><li>Plain text </li></ul><ul><li>HTML </li></ul><ul><li>SGML or XML </li></ul>
    17. 17. Organizing: Naming and Addressing <ul><li>Object naming: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Objects should be named in a fashion that promotes longevity (e.g., stay away from any kind of implied meaning) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Object addressing: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>URLs ( </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>DOI/Handles ( </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>PURLs ( </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ARKs ( </li></ul></ul>
    18. 18. Organizing: Metadata <ul><li>Structured description of an object or collection of objects </li></ul><ul><li>Three basic types: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>descriptive — e.g., title, creator, subject — used for discovery </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>administrative — e.g., resolution, bit depth — used for managing the collection </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>structural — e.g., table of contents page, page 34, etc. — used for navigation </li></ul></ul>
    19. 19. Organizing: Metadata <ul><li>Appropriate standards or draft standards: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Collection Level: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Encoded Archival Description (EAD) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Item Level: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>MARC </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Dublin Core - </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>METS - </li></ul></ul></ul>
    20. 20. Providing Access <ul><li>How can we make our resources easily available to a diversity of users with a multiplicity of purposes? </li></ul><ul><li>How can we integrate access to both print and digital resources? </li></ul><ul><li>How can we interoperate with other digital collections? </li></ul>
    21. 21. Preserving <ul><li>Accepted preservation methods: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Acid-free paper </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>microfilm </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>photographic reproduction </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The digital preservation strategy : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Storing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Refreshing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Migrating </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The single most important aspect: institutional commitment </li></ul>
    22. 22. Interoperability <ul><li>The capability of two or more different digital collections to be used as one in a transparent fashion </li></ul><ul><li>One example: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Open Archives Initiative: </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Requires standards (at minimum) or a common platform </li></ul>
    23. 23. How to Keep Current <ul><li>Electronic Discussions: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>DIGLIB: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Web4Lib: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>XML4Lib: </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Publications: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Digital Libraries” column in LJ — </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>D-Lib Magazine — </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Current Cites — </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>RLG DigiNews — </li></ul></ul>
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