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Digital Libraries

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  • Transcript

    • 1. Digital Libraries In a Nutshell The California Digital Library Roy Tennant
    • 2. Outline
      • The Vision
      • Definitions
      • Perspectives
        • Research
        • Production
          • Services
          • Collections
      • How to Keep Current
    • 3. The Vision
      • Anyone, anywhere, will be able to easily locate and use any image, text, database, or other type of digital resource — often in sophisticated ways or in association with other related objects
      • The only requirements:
        • access to the Internet
        • authorization or payment if required
    • 4. Definitions: Part I
      • “electronic”
        • information stored and accessed by electronic devices
      • “digital”
        • information stored and accessed by computers (an electronic device)
      • “virtual”
        • in essence rather than in actual fact
    • 5. Definitions: Part II
      • From the Association of Research Libraries - http://sunsite.berkeley.edu/ARL/definition.html
        • Not a single entity
        • Requires technology to link the resources of many
        • Linkages are transparent to the user
        • Collections are not limited to document surrogates, but include items that are exclusively digital
    • 6. Perspectives: Research
      • Research Perspective
        • Goal: to further knowledge
        • Participants: computer science/library/information science faculty, a few line librarians
        • Example:
          • U.S. Digital Library Initiatives (also called the National Science Foundation DL projects)
    • 7. Sample Research Issues
      • Advanced search techniques
        • e.g., query by image content
      • Federation of large, disparate, and distant collections
      • Complex digital object behaviors
        • GIS overlays, moving image navigation, etc.
    • 8. Perspectives: Production
      • Production Perspective
        • Goal: to create digital library collections and services
        • Participants: libraries (mainly larger research libraries, but not exclusively)
        • Examples:
          • Library of Congress American Memory (memory.loc.gov/)
          • eLib Programme (www.ukoln.ac.uk/services/elib/)
          • Digital Library Federation (www.clir.org/diglib/)
    • 9. Production Issues
      • Services
      • Collections
        • Selecting
        • Acquiring
        • Organizing
        • Providing Access
        • Preserving
    • 10. Services
      • The challenge: providing services when and where they are needed
      • Examples:
        • Guides to Internet resources
          • Librarians’ Index - lii.org/
          • KidsClick! - kidsclick.org/
        • Network-based reference
          • Reference 24x7 - 247ref.org/
    • 11. Selecting Digital Material
      • The process:
        • how do you discover what is available?
        • how can you evaluate the quality of resources?
        • how can cost effectiveness be determined? (books remain, databases frequently don’t)
      • Considerations:
        • Purchase or license agreement
        • funding source
        • infrastructure required
        • staff time to mount and maintain
    • 12. Selecting Material to Digitize
      • Focus on unique materials that are likely to have broad interest
      • Build on strengths (seek critical mass)
      • Consider infrastructure required
      • Consider technical limitations
    • 13. Acquiring: Digital Collections
      • The digital acquisition continuum:
      • New procedures and workflows are required
        • tape loading, scanning, format translation, etc.
      linking mirroring hosting archiving Amount of Responsibility LESS MORE
    • 14. Acquiring: Non-Digital Collections
      • Digitization methods:
        • scanner (flatbed, slide, handheld, etc.)
        • digital camera:
          • low-resolution - $US300-3,000+
          • high-resolution - $US25,000-35,000+
        • Kodak PhotoCD
      • Additional step for text conversion
        • Optical Character Recognition or Re-keying
    • 15. Acquiring: Image File Formats
      • Archival version: high-resolution TIFF
      • Online versions:
        • Preview: low-resolution GIF
        • Full: medium-resolution JPEG
        • High: med./high-resolution JPEG or TIFF
      • Up-and-coming: MrSID, Flashpix, PNG
    • 16. Acquiring: Text File Formats
      • Original:
        • MS Word, Adobe Pagemaker, etc.
      • Adobe Acrobat
      • Plain text
      • HTML
      • SGML or XML
    • 17. Organizing: Naming and Addressing
      • Object naming:
        • Objects should be named in a fashion that promotes longevity (e.g., stay away from any kind of implied meaning)
      • Object addressing:
        • URLs (www.w3.org)
        • DOI/Handles (www.cnri.reston.va.us)
        • PURLs (purl.org)
        • ARKs (www.ckm.ucsf.edu/people/jak/home/)
    • 18. Organizing: Metadata
      • Structured description of an object or collection of objects
      • Three basic types:
        • descriptive — e.g., title, creator, subject — used for discovery
        • administrative — e.g., resolution, bit depth — used for managing the collection
        • structural — e.g., table of contents page, page 34, etc. — used for navigation
    • 19. Organizing: Metadata
      • Appropriate standards or draft standards:
        • Collection Level:
          • Encoded Archival Description (EAD) -lcweb.loc.gov/ead/
        • Item Level:
          • MARC
          • Dublin Core - dublincore.org
          • METS - www.loc.gov/standards/mets/
    • 20. Providing Access
      • How can we make our resources easily available to a diversity of users with a multiplicity of purposes?
      • How can we integrate access to both print and digital resources?
      • How can we interoperate with other digital collections?
    • 21. Preserving
      • Accepted preservation methods:
        • Acid-free paper
        • microfilm
        • photographic reproduction
      • The digital preservation strategy :
        • Storing
        • Refreshing
        • Migrating
      • The single most important aspect: institutional commitment
    • 22. Interoperability
      • The capability of two or more different digital collections to be used as one in a transparent fashion
      • One example:
        • Open Archives Initiative: http://www.openarchives.org/
      • Requires standards (at minimum) or a common platform
    • 23. How to Keep Current
      • Electronic Discussions:
        • DIGLIB: www.ifla.org/II/lists/diglib.html
        • Web4Lib: sunsite.berkeley.edu/Web4Lib/
        • XML4Lib: sunsite.berkeley.edu/XML4Lib/
      • Publications:
        • “ Digital Libraries” column in LJ — libraryjournal.reviewsnews.com
        • D-Lib Magazine — www.dlib.org
        • Current Cites — sunsite.berkeley.edu/CurrentCites/
        • RLG DigiNews — www.rlg.org/preserv/diginews/

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