Uploaded on

 

More in: Education , Technology
  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
    Be the first to comment
    Be the first to like this
No Downloads

Views

Total Views
305
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
0

Actions

Shares
Downloads
11
Comments
0
Likes
0

Embeds 0

No embeds

Report content

Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
    No notes for slide

Transcript

  • 1. Digital Libraries In a Nutshell The California Digital Library Roy Tennant
  • 2. Outline
    • The Vision
    • Definitions
    • Perspectives
      • Research
      • Production
        • Services
        • Collections
    • How to Keep Current
  • 3. The Vision
    • Anyone, anywhere, will be able to easily locate and use any image, text, database, or other type of digital resource — often in sophisticated ways or in association with other related objects
    • The only requirements:
      • access to the Internet
      • authorization or payment if required
  • 4. Definitions: Part I
    • “electronic”
      • information stored and accessed by electronic devices
    • “digital”
      • information stored and accessed by computers (an electronic device)
    • “virtual”
      • in essence rather than in actual fact
  • 5. Definitions: Part II
    • From the Association of Research Libraries - http://sunsite.berkeley.edu/ARL/definition.html
      • Not a single entity
      • Requires technology to link the resources of many
      • Linkages are transparent to the user
      • Collections are not limited to document surrogates, but include items that are exclusively digital
  • 6. Perspectives: Research
    • Research Perspective
      • Goal: to further knowledge
      • Participants: computer science/library/information science faculty, a few line librarians
      • Example:
        • U.S. Digital Library Initiatives (also called the National Science Foundation DL projects)
  • 7. Sample Research Issues
    • Advanced search techniques
      • e.g., query by image content
    • Federation of large, disparate, and distant collections
    • Complex digital object behaviors
      • GIS overlays, moving image navigation, etc.
  • 8. Perspectives: Production
    • Production Perspective
      • Goal: to create digital library collections and services
      • Participants: libraries (mainly larger research libraries, but not exclusively)
      • Examples:
        • Library of Congress American Memory (memory.loc.gov/)
        • eLib Programme (www.ukoln.ac.uk/services/elib/)
        • Digital Library Federation (www.clir.org/diglib/)
  • 9. Production Issues
    • Services
    • Collections
      • Selecting
      • Acquiring
      • Organizing
      • Providing Access
      • Preserving
  • 10. Services
    • The challenge: providing services when and where they are needed
    • Examples:
      • Guides to Internet resources
        • Librarians’ Index - lii.org/
        • KidsClick! - kidsclick.org/
      • Network-based reference
        • Reference 24x7 - 247ref.org/
  • 11. Selecting Digital Material
    • The process:
      • how do you discover what is available?
      • how can you evaluate the quality of resources?
      • how can cost effectiveness be determined? (books remain, databases frequently don’t)
    • Considerations:
      • Purchase or license agreement
      • funding source
      • infrastructure required
      • staff time to mount and maintain
  • 12. Selecting Material to Digitize
    • Focus on unique materials that are likely to have broad interest
    • Build on strengths (seek critical mass)
    • Consider infrastructure required
    • Consider technical limitations
  • 13. Acquiring: Digital Collections
    • The digital acquisition continuum:
    • New procedures and workflows are required
      • tape loading, scanning, format translation, etc.
    linking mirroring hosting archiving Amount of Responsibility LESS MORE
  • 14. Acquiring: Non-Digital Collections
    • Digitization methods:
      • scanner (flatbed, slide, handheld, etc.)
      • digital camera:
        • low-resolution - $US300-3,000+
        • high-resolution - $US25,000-35,000+
      • Kodak PhotoCD
    • Additional step for text conversion
      • Optical Character Recognition or Re-keying
  • 15. Acquiring: Image File Formats
    • Archival version: high-resolution TIFF
    • Online versions:
      • Preview: low-resolution GIF
      • Full: medium-resolution JPEG
      • High: med./high-resolution JPEG or TIFF
    • Up-and-coming: MrSID, Flashpix, PNG
  • 16. Acquiring: Text File Formats
    • Original:
      • MS Word, Adobe Pagemaker, etc.
    • Adobe Acrobat
    • Plain text
    • HTML
    • SGML or XML
  • 17. Organizing: Naming and Addressing
    • Object naming:
      • Objects should be named in a fashion that promotes longevity (e.g., stay away from any kind of implied meaning)
    • Object addressing:
      • URLs (www.w3.org)
      • DOI/Handles (www.cnri.reston.va.us)
      • PURLs (purl.org)
      • ARKs (www.ckm.ucsf.edu/people/jak/home/)
  • 18. Organizing: Metadata
    • Structured description of an object or collection of objects
    • Three basic types:
      • descriptive — e.g., title, creator, subject — used for discovery
      • administrative — e.g., resolution, bit depth — used for managing the collection
      • structural — e.g., table of contents page, page 34, etc. — used for navigation
  • 19. Organizing: Metadata
    • Appropriate standards or draft standards:
      • Collection Level:
        • Encoded Archival Description (EAD) -lcweb.loc.gov/ead/
      • Item Level:
        • MARC
        • Dublin Core - dublincore.org
        • METS - www.loc.gov/standards/mets/
  • 20. Providing Access
    • How can we make our resources easily available to a diversity of users with a multiplicity of purposes?
    • How can we integrate access to both print and digital resources?
    • How can we interoperate with other digital collections?
  • 21. Preserving
    • Accepted preservation methods:
      • Acid-free paper
      • microfilm
      • photographic reproduction
    • The digital preservation strategy :
      • Storing
      • Refreshing
      • Migrating
    • The single most important aspect: institutional commitment
  • 22. Interoperability
    • The capability of two or more different digital collections to be used as one in a transparent fashion
    • One example:
      • Open Archives Initiative: http://www.openarchives.org/
    • Requires standards (at minimum) or a common platform
  • 23. How to Keep Current
    • Electronic Discussions:
      • DIGLIB: www.ifla.org/II/lists/diglib.html
      • Web4Lib: sunsite.berkeley.edu/Web4Lib/
      • XML4Lib: sunsite.berkeley.edu/XML4Lib/
    • Publications:
      • “ Digital Libraries” column in LJ — libraryjournal.reviewsnews.com
      • D-Lib Magazine — www.dlib.org
      • Current Cites — sunsite.berkeley.edu/CurrentCites/
      • RLG DigiNews — www.rlg.org/preserv/diginews/