“ Why should warlords, who were stationary bandits continuously stealing from a given group of victims, be preferred, by those victims, to roving bandits who soon departed?”
monopoly of theft > uncoordinated competitive theft
" the first blessing of the invisible hand: the rational, self-interested leader of a band of roving bandits is led, as though by an invisible hand, to settle down, wear a crown, and replace anarchy with government. The gigantic increase in output that normally arises from the provision of a peaceful order and other public goods gives the stationary bandit a far larger take than he could obtain without providing government.”
Nontargeted policies benefiting all citizens: secondary school enrollment, bureaucratic quality, the rule of law , and government ownership of newspapers
Targeted policies, benefiting discrete and identifiable groups of voters: public investment (where pork barrel projects reside) and the central government wage bill (which finances patronage jobs).
Corruption: standard measure of corruption
Do you agree with the proxies? Do you think the analysis supports his predictions?
Expected effects of control variables Nontargeted Goods Targeted Goods Rent Seeking More presidential Less Less Less More majoritarian Less More Less Greater social cleavages Less Less More More affected by conflict Less Less More Less citizen information Less Less More