David Shonnard Green Engineering

1,850 views

Published on

Published in: Technology, Business
0 Comments
1 Like
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Views
Total views
1,850
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
8
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
78
Comments
0
Likes
1
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide
  • David Shonnard Green Engineering

    1. 1. Green Engineering, Process Safety and Inherent Safety: A New Paradigm David R. Shonnard, Ph.D. Department of Chemical Engineering Michigan Technological University Hui Chen, Ph.D. Chemical and Materials Engineering Arizona State University SACHE Faculty Workshop Sheraton Hotel and ExxonMobil, Baton Rouge, LA USA September 28 – October 1, 2003
    2. 2. Presentation Outline <ul><li>Introduction to Green Engineering (GE) and Inherent Safety (IS) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>GE definition, concepts, principles, and tools </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>IS concepts and tools </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Similarities and differences between GE and IS </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Environmentally-Conscious Process Design Methodology </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A hierarchical approach with three “tiers” of impact assessment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A case study for maleic anhydride (MA) process design </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Early design methods and software tools </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Flowsheet synthesis, assessment, and software tools </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Flowsheet optimization - comparison of process improvement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Summary of environmentally-conscious design methods </li></ul></ul>
    3. 3. What is Green Engineering? <ul><li>Design, commercialization and use of processes and products that are feasible and economical while minimizing: </li></ul><ul><li>+ Risk to human health and the environment </li></ul><ul><li>+ Generation of pollution at the source </li></ul>US EPA, OPPT, Chemical Engineering Branch, Green Engineering Program
    4. 4. Why Chemical Processes (USA)? <ul><li>Positives </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1 million jobs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>$477.8 billion to the US economy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>5% of US GDP </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>+ trade balance (in the recent past) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>57% reduction in toxic releases (`88-`00) </li></ul></ul>• Chemical and Engineering News , Vol. 80, No. 25, pp. 42-82, June 24, 2002 • US EPA, Toxics Release Inventory (TRI) Public Data Release, 2000
    5. 5. Why Chemical Processes (USA)? <ul><li>Environmental Challenges </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Manufacturing industries in the US (SIC codes 20-39) 1/3 of all TRI releases </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Chemical/Petroleum industries about 10% of all TRI releases </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Increase of 148% of TRI wastes managed on-site (`91-`00) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Chemical products harm the environment during their use </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Energy Utilization – ~ 15% of US consumption </li></ul></ul>• US EPA, Toxics Release Inventory (TRI) Public Data Release, 2000 • US DOE, Annual Energy Review, 1997.
    6. 6. Energy Use: U.S. Industry Annual Energy Review 1997, U.S. DOE, Energy Information Administration, Washington, DC, DOE/EIA-0384(97) SIC Code 10 15 BTU/yr 29 Petroleum/Coal Products 6.34 28 Chemicals / Allied Products 5.33 26 Paper / Allied Products 2.67 33 Primary Metals Industries 2.46 20 Food / Kindred Products 1.19 32 Stone,Clay and Glass 0.94 24 Lumber / Wood Products 0.49 Numbers represent roughly the % of US annual energy consumption
    7. 7. Pollution Prevention (P2) vs. Pollution Control (PC) Chemical Process Raw Materials, Energy Products Wastes Pollution Control Modified Chemical Process Raw Materials, Energy Products Wastes Pollution Control Recycle Traditional Process Greener Process Higher income, Higher operating costs Lower PC costs
    8. 8. Examples of Green Engineering <ul><li>Chemical reactions using environmentally-benign solvents </li></ul><ul><li>Improved catalysts </li></ul><ul><ul><li>that increase selectivity and reduce wastes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>that improve product quality and reduce environmental impacts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>that process wastes into valuable products </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Separations using supercritical CO 2 rather than R-Cl solvents </li></ul><ul><li>Separative reactors that boost yield and selectivity </li></ul><ul><li>Fuel cells in transportation and electricity generation </li></ul><ul><li>CO 2 sequestration </li></ul><ul><li>New designs that integrate mass and energy more efficiently </li></ul><ul><li>Process modifications that reduce emissions </li></ul><ul><li>Environmentally-conscious design methods and software tools. </li></ul>
    9. 9. Environmentally-Conscious Design <ul><li>Methods and tools to evaluate environmental consequences of chemical processes and products are needed. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>quantify multiple environmental impacts, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>guide process and product design activities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>improve environmental performance of chemical processes and products </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Environmental impacts </li></ul><ul><ul><li>energy consumption - raw materials consumption </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>impacts to air, water - solid wastes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>human health impacts - toxic effects to ecosystems </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Economic Performance </li></ul><ul><ul><li>costs, profitability </li></ul></ul>
    10. 10. Tools of Environmentally-Conscious Chemical Process Design and Analysis E-CD Environmental Fate Properties • databases • estimation Chemical Process Properties • thermodynamics • reactions • transport Chemical Process Models • simulation • waste generation and release Environmental Fate Models • single compartment • multi-media Environmental Impacts Models • midpoint vs endpoint • normalization • valuation Process Integration • mass integration • heat integration Process Optimization • multi-objective • mixed integer • non-linear Hierarchical Design
    11. 11. Principles of Green Engineering <ul><li>The Sandestin Declaration on </li></ul><ul><li>Green Engineering Principles </li></ul><ul><li>Green Engineering transforms existing engineering disciplines and practices to those that lead to sustainability. Green Engineering incorporates development and implementation of products, processes, and systems that meet technical and cost objectives while protecting human health and welfare and elevates the protection of the biosphere as a criterion in engineering solutions. </li></ul>Green Engineering: Defining the Principles, Engineering Conferences International, Sandestin, FL, USA, May 17-22, 2003.
    12. 12. Principles of Green Engineering <ul><li>The Sandestin GE Principles </li></ul><ul><li>Engineer processes and products holistically, use systems analysis, and integrate environmental impact assessment tools. </li></ul><ul><li>Conserve and improve natural ecosystems while protecting human health and well-being </li></ul><ul><li>Use life-cycle thinking in all engineering activities </li></ul><ul><li>Ensure that all material and energy inputs and outputs are as inherently safe and benign as possible </li></ul><ul><li>Minimize depletion of natural resources </li></ul><ul><li>Strive to prevent waste </li></ul><ul><li>Develop and apply engineering solutions, while being cognizant of local geography, aspirations, and cultures </li></ul><ul><li>Create engineering solutions beyond current or dominant technologies; improve, innovate and invent (technologies) to achieve sustainability </li></ul><ul><li>Actively engage communities and stakeholders in development of engineering solutions </li></ul>Green Engineering: Defining the Principles, Engineering Conferences International, Sandestin, FL, USA, May 17-22, 2003.
    13. 13. Definition of Inherent Safety (IS) <ul><li>A chemical manufacturing process is described as inherently safer if it reduces or eliminates hazards associated with materials used and operations, and this reduction or elimination is a permanent and inseparable part of the process technology. (Kletz, 1991; Hendershot, 1997a, b) </li></ul>
    14. 14. IS Concepts <ul><li>Intensification - using less of a hazardous material </li></ul><ul><li>E xample : improved catalysts can reduce the size of equipment and minimize consequences of accidents . </li></ul><ul><li>Attenuation - using a hazardous material in a less hazardous form. E xample : larger size of particle for flammable dust or a diluted form of hazardous material like aqueous acid rather than anhydrous acid. </li></ul><ul><li>Substitution - using a safer material or production of a safer product. E xample : substituting water for a flammable solvent in latex paints compared to oil base paints. </li></ul>
    15. 15. IS Concepts (cont.) <ul><li>limitation - minimizing the effect of an incident. Example : smaller diameter of pipe for transport of toxic gases and liquids will minimize the dispersion of the material when an accident does occur </li></ul><ul><li>Simplification - reducing the opportunities for error and malfunction. Example: easier-to-understand instructions to operators. </li></ul>
    16. 16. Comparison between IS and (GE) √√√√ = Primary tenet/concepts √√√ = Strongly related tenet/concepts √√ = Some aspects addressed √ = Little relationship √√√ √√√ Offsite reuse, Advanced waste treatment, Plant location, Beneficial co-disposal Moderation (2) [Overall Plant] √√√ √√√√ Conversion conditions, Storage conditions, Dilution, Equipment overdesign Moderation (1) [Basic Process] √√√√ √√√√ Number of unit operations, DCS configuration, Raw material quality, Equipment design Simplification √√√√ √√√ Process Intensification, Recycle, Inventory reduction, Energy efficiency, Plant location Minimization √√√√ √√√√ Reaction chemistry, Feedstocks, Catalysts, Solvents, Fuel selection Substitution Green Engineering (GE) Inherent Safety (IS) Example Concepts Strategy/Tenet (Based on IS)
    17. 17. Similarities between (GE) and (IS) <ul><li>Benign and less hazardous materials. </li></ul><ul><li>Both focus on process changes . </li></ul><ul><li>Improving either one often results in improving the other . </li></ul><ul><li>Both use a life-cycle approach. </li></ul><ul><li>Both are best considered in the initial stages of the design. </li></ul>
    18. 18. Differences between GE & IS <ul><li>Focus on a different parts of the product life cycle. </li></ul><ul><li>Focus on different aspect of EHS ( e nvironmental, h ealth and s afety) field and may conflict in application. </li></ul><ul><li>Environmental impacts are more numerous than safety impacts. </li></ul>
    19. 19. Presentation Outline <ul><li>Introduction to Green Engineering (GE) and Inherent Safety (IS) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>GE definition, concepts, principles, and tools </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>IS concepts and tools </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Similarities and differences between GE and IS </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Environmentally-Conscious Process Design Methodology </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A hierarchical approach with three “tiers” of impact assessment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A case study for maleic anhydride (MA) process design </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Early design methods and software tools </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Flowsheet synthesis, assessment, and software tools </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Flowsheet optimization - comparison of process improvement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Summary of environmentally-conscious design (ECD) methods </li></ul></ul>
    20. 20. Scope of environmental impacts Pre-Chemical Manufacturing Stages • Extraction from the environment • Transportation of materials • Refining of raw materials • Storage and transportation • Loading and unloading Chemical Manufacturing Process • Chemical reactions • Separation operations • Material storage • Loading and unloading • Material conveyance • Waste treatment processes Post-Chemical Manufacturing Stages • Final product manufacture • Product usage in commerce • Reuse/recycle • Treatment/destruction • Disposal • Environmental release • A irborne releases wastewater releases • Solid/hazardous waste • Toxic chemical releases • Energy consumption • Resource depletion Environmental/Health Impacts • Global warming • Ozone layer depletion • Air quality – smog • Acidification • Ecotoxicity • Human health effects, carcinogenic and non carcinogenic • Resource depletion
    21. 21. Tools of Environmentally-Conscious Chemical Process Design and Analysis E-CD Environmental Fate Properties • databases • estimation Chemical Process Properties • thermodynamics • reactions • transport Chemical Process Models • simulation • waste generation and release Environmental Fate Models • single compartment • multi-media Environmental Impacts Models • midpoint vs endpoint • normalization • valuation Process Integration • mass integration • heat integration Process Optimization • multi-objective • mixed integer • non-linear Hierarchical Design
    22. 22. Hierarchical Approach to E-CD Environmental Assessments Simple (“tier 1”) toxicity potential, costs “ tier 2” – material/energy intensity, emissions, costs “ tier 3” – emissions, environmental fate, risk Level 1. Input Information  problem definition Level 2. Input-Output Structure  material selection  reaction pathways Levels 3 & 4.  recycle  separation system Levels 5 - 8.  energy integration  detailed evaluation  control  safety Process Design Stages Douglas, J.M., Ind. Eng. Chem. Res. , Vol. 41, No. 25, pp. 2522, 1992 Allen, D.T. and Shonnard, D.R. Green Engineering : Environmentally Conscious Design of Chemical Processes , Prentice Hall, pg. 552, 2002.
    23. 23. Early vs Detailed Design Tasks Early Design Detailed Design Chen, H., Rogers, T.N., Barna, B.A., Shonnard, D.R.,, Environmental Progress , in press April, 2003.
    24. 24. Hierarchical Approach to E-CD Environmental Assessments Simple (“tier 1”) toxicity potential, costs “ tier 2” – material/energy intensity, emissions, costs “ tier 3” – emissions, environmental fate, risk Level 1. Input Information  problem definition Level 2. Input-Output Structure  material selection  reaction pathways Levels 3 & 4.  recycle  separation system Levels 5 - 8.  energy integration  detailed evaluation  control  safety Process Design Stages Douglas, J.M., Ind. Eng. Chem. Res. , Vol. 41, No. 25, pp. 2522, 1992 Allen, D.T. and Shonnard, D.R. Green Engineering : Environmentally Conscious Design of Chemical Processes , Prentice Hall, pg. 552, 2002.
    25. 25. Case Study: Maleic Anhydride (MA) Production n-Butane Process Benzene Process V 2 O 5 -MoO 3 VPO n-butane conversion, 85% MA Yield, 60% Air/n-butane, ~ 62 (moles) Temperature, 400 ° C Pressure, 150 kPa Benzene conversion, 95% MA Yield, 70% Air/Benzene, ~ 66 (moles) Temperature, 375 ° C Pressure, 150 kPa Level 1. Input / Output Information
    26. 26. MA Production: Early Design Costs n-Butane Process Benzene Process Level 1. Input / Output Information “ Tier 1” Economic analysis ( raw materials costs only ) (1 mole/0.70 mole)  (78 g/mole)  (0.00028 $/g) = 0.0312 $/mole of MA (1mole/0.60 mole)  (58 g/mole)  (0.00021 $/g) = 0.0203 $/mole of MA MA Yield Bz MW Benzene cost MA Yield nC4 MW nC4 cost Assumption: raw material costs dominate total cost of the process N-butane process has lower cost
    27. 27. MA Production: Environmental Impacts <ul><li>Based on Products and Byproducts from the Reactor </li></ul><ul><li>Alternative “tier 1” assessment approaches </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Toxicity and stoichiometry </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Toxicity, other impact potentials, and stoichiometry </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Toxicity, other impact potentials, stoichiometry, and environmental fate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Toxicity, other impact potentials, stoichiometry, environmental fate, and pollution control . </li></ul></ul>Level 1. Input / Output Information “ Tier 1” Environmental Impact Analysis
    28. 28. MA Production: IO Assumptions Level 1. Input / Output Information “ Tier 1” Environmental Impact Analysis Benzene or n-butane Air MA, CO, CO 2 , H 2 O air CO, CO 2 , H 2 O, air, MA MA 50x10 6 lb/yr Unreacted Benzene or n-butane CO 2 , H 2 O, air, traces of CO, MA benzene, n-butane 99% control 99% MA recovery Reactor Product Recovery Pollution Control
    29. 29. Emission Estimation <ul><li>Emissions to Air </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Emission factors from US EPA </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Reactors, separation devices </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Air ClearingHouse for Inventories and Emission Factors </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Air CHIEF http://www. epa . gov / ttn /chief/index.html </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>CO, CO 2 generation from the reactor </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Benzene process </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Benzene: 0.07 moles benzene / mole MA </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>CO + CO 2 : 4.1 moles / mole MA </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>n-butane process </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>n-butane: 0.25 moles benzene / mole MA </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>CO + CO 2 : 1.7 moles / mole MA </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>Level 1. Input / Output Information “ Tier 1” Environmental Impact Analysis Conversions, Yields
    30. 30. Environmental / Toxicity Properties <ul><li>Environmental/Toxicological Properties </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Estimation Software </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>EPI (Estimation Program Interface) Suite </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>http://www. epa . gov / oppt /exposure/docs/ episuite . htm </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Henry‘s constant, partitioning, degradation, toxicity </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Online Database </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Environmental Fate Database </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>http:// es . epa . gov / ssds .html </li></ul></ul></ul>Level 1. Input / Output Information “ Tier 1” Environmental Impact Analysis Compilation in: Appendix F. Allen, D.T. and Shonnard, D.R., Green Engineering : Environmentally- Conscious Design of Chemical Processes , Prentice Hall, pg. 552, 2002
    31. 31. Environmental Fate Calculations Model Domain Parameters • surface area - 10 4 -10 5 km 2 • 90% land area, 10% water • height of atmosphere - 1 km • soil depth - 10 cm • depth of sediment layer - 1 cm • multiphase compartments Multimedia compartment model Processes modeled • emission inputs, E • advection in and out, D A • intercompartment mass transfer, D i,j • reaction loss, D R Mackay, D. 1991, ”Multimedia Environmental Models&quot;, 1 st edition,, Lewis Publishers, Chelsea, MI Level 1. Input / Output Information “ Tier 1” Environmental Impact Analysis
    32. 32. Impact Indicator Calculation <ul><li>Carcinogenic Risk Example (inhalation route) </li></ul>Level 1. Input / Output Information “ Tier 1” Environmental Impact Analysis Multimedia compartment model concentration in air Carcinogenic Slope Factor, SF (toxicological property) Exposure Factors
    33. 33. Indicators for the Ambient Environment Level 1. Input / Output Information “ Tier 1” Environmental Impact Analysis Compilation impact parameters in: Appendix D. Allen, D.T. and Shonnard, D.R., Green Engineering : Environmentally- Conscious Design of Chemical Processes , Prentice Hall, pg. 552, 2002 The TRACI method and software contains a comprehensive listing of impact categories and indicators.
    34. 34. Indicators of Toxicity Level 1. Input / Output Information “ Tier 1” Environmental Impact Analysis The TRACI method and software contains a comprehensive listing of impact categories and indicators.
    35. 35. Indicators for MA Production Level 1. Input / Output Information “ Tier 1” Environmental Impact Analysis n-butane process has lower environ- mental impacts 0.00 0.00 I AR “ 4.55x10 -6 3.04x10 -5 I SF “ 1.17x10 -1 2.01x10 -1 I GW “ 0.00 0.00 I OD “ 0.00 1.43x10 -4 I CINH “ 0.00 1.43x10 -4 I CING “ 3.93x10 -2 8.88x10 -2 I INH “ 3.11x10 -3 3.32x10 -3 I ING “ 2.19x10 -6 5.39x10 -6 I FT (kg/mole MA) n-butane Benzene Chemical
    36. 36. Hierarchical Approach to E-CD Environmental Assessments Simple (“tier 1”) toxicity potential, costs “ tier 2” – material/energy intensity, emissions, costs “ tier 3” – emissions, environmental fate, risk Level 1. Input Information  problem definition Level 2. Input-Output Structure  material selection  reaction pathways Levels 3 & 4.  recycle  separation system Levels 5 - 8.  energy integration  detailed evaluation  control  safety Process Design Stages Douglas, J.M., Ind. Eng. Chem. Res. , Vol. 41, No. 25, pp. 2522, 1992 Allen, D.T. and Shonnard, D.R. Green Engineering : Environmentally Conscious Design of Chemical Processes , Prentice Hall, pg. 552, 2002.
    37. 37. Case Study: MA Production <ul><li>Based on an initial process flowsheet created using “traditional“ economic-based design heuristics . </li></ul><ul><li>“ tier 3” assessment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Emissions estimation from units and fugitive sources </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Environmental fate and transport calculation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Toxicity, other impact potentials, environmental fate and transport, and pollution control. </li></ul></ul>Level 3-8. Flowsheet Synthesis and Evaluation “ Tier 3” Environmental Impact Analysis
    38. 38. Integrated Process Simulation and Assessment Method and Software HYSYS – a commercial chemical process simulator software, EFRAT – a software for calculating environmental impacts, DORT - a software to estimate equipment costs and operating costs, AHP (Analytic Hierarchy Process) – multi-objective decision analysis, PDS – Process Diagnostic Summary Tables, SGA – Scaled Gradient Analysis
    39. 39. Initial Flowsheet for MA from n-C4 Air n-Butane Reactors Absorber Distillation column Compressor MA Vaporizer Off-gas Off-gas Solvent Pump
    40. 40. Process Diagnostic Summary Tables: Energy Input/Output for nC4 Process
    41. 41. Process Diagnostic Summary Tables: Manufacturing Profit and Loss, nC4
    42. 42. Process Diagnostic Summary Tables: Environmental Impacts, nC4 Process Index National Index Normalization Process composite index Weighting Factors global warming 2.5 ozone depletion 100 smog formation 2.5 acid rain 10 carcinogenic 5 noncarcinogenic 5 ecotoxicity 10 Source: Eco-Indicator 95 framework for life cycle assessment, Pre Consultants, http://www.pre.nl
    43. 43. Flowsheet for MA Production from n-C4: with Heat Integration. Air n-Butane Reactors Absorber Distillation column Compressor MA Vaporizer Off-gas Off-gas Solvent Pump
    44. 44. Scaled Gradient Analysis Flowsheet Optimization: Scaled Gradient Analysis (SGA): Rank Order Parameter , r j i = i-th unit operation j = j-th design variable Proximity Parameter , p j i = i-th unit operation j = j-th design variable Douglas, J. M . , “Conceptual Design of Chemical Process,” McGraw-Hill, New York (1988).
    45. 45. SGA: variable changes and scale factors Flowsheet Optimization: Scaled Gradient Analysis (SGA):
    46. 46. Optimization using the Genetic Algorithm Flowsheet Optimization: Genetic Algorithm Population Size, 100 Mutation Probability, 0.04 Generations, 100 Chen, H., Rogers, T.N., Barna, B.A., Shonnard, D.R.,, Environmental Progress , in press April, 2003.
    47. 47. Optimization Results: n-butane Process AHP Ranking is the Objective Function
    48. 48. Optimization Results: n-butane Process NPV is the Objective Function
    49. 49. Optimization Results: n-butane Process I PC is the Objective Function
    50. 50. Optimization Results: Benzene Process AHP Ranking is the Objective Function
    51. 51. Optimization Results: Benzene Process NPV is the Objective Function
    52. 52. Optimization Results: Benzene Process I PC is the Objective Function
    53. 53. Continuous Improvement of Design Performance n-butane process design benzene process design
    54. 54. Summary / Conclusions <ul><li>A systematic and hierarchical approach for EC-D of chemical processes is shown. </li></ul><ul><li>The EC-D approach is applied to a case study design for MA production from either benzene or n-butane. </li></ul><ul><li>A number of computer-aided tools are available to facilitate EC-D. </li></ul><ul><li>This approach yields a continuous improvement in both economic and environmental performance through the designs process. </li></ul><ul><li>Early design assessment methods are validated using detailed design and optimization results. </li></ul>
    55. 55. Acknowledgements <ul><li>EPA Contract 3W-0500-NATA – OPPT, Green Engineering Program </li></ul><ul><li>NSF/Lucent Technologies Industrial Ecology Research Fellowship (BES-9814504) </li></ul><ul><li>National Center for Clean Industrial and Treatment Technologies (CenCITT) </li></ul>

    ×